Dr. Stanback’s Bible Lessons: New Testament from I Corinthians to Hebrews

New American Standard Bible
1 Corinthians
Appeal to Unity

1 Cor 1:1 Paul, called as an apostle (Specially applied to the twelve disciples whom Christ selected, out of the multitude of his adherents, to be his constant companions and the heralds to proclaim to men the kingdom of God; With these apostles Paul claimed equality, because through a heavenly intervention he had been appointed by the ascended Christ himself to preach the gospel among the Gentiles, and owed his knowledge of the way of salvation not to man’s instruction but to direct revelation from Christ himself, and moreover had evinced his apostolic qualifications by many signal proofs.) of Jesus Christ by the will ([i. e. the abstract act of willing, the subjective] will, choice) of God, and Sosthenes our brother, 2 To the church of God (NASB: Used only by Paul and only in Acts 20:28, here and 2 Cor 1:1. Its OT counterpart is the expression “assembly [or community] of the LORD [YHVH]” [see Deut 23:1; see also Num 16:3; 20:4; 1 Chr 28:8].]) which is at Corinth, to those who have been sanctified (to purify internally by reformation of soul: John 17:17, 19 [through knowledge of the truth, cf. John 8:32]. NASB: Set apart for the Lord. It can also mean “made holy,” which is done by (1) being declared holy through faith in Christ’s atoning death on the cross [sometimes called positional sanctification], and (2) being made holy by the work of the Holy Spirit in the lives of Christians [sometimes called progressive sanctification]. In spite of the fact that Paul found much in the Corinthian Christian to criticize, he still called them “sanctified”-not because of their conduct, but because of their relationship to Christ [positional sanctification].); 1 Thessalonians 5:23; 1 Corinthians 1:2 [ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ in the fellowship of Christ, the Holy One]; Romans 15:16 [ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ imbued with the Holy Spirit, the divine source of holiness]) in Christ Jesus, saints (sacred, holy) by calling (“invited (by God in the proclamation of the gospel) to obtain eternal salvation in the kingdom of God through Christ”; invited, i.e. appointed, or (specially), a saint — called.), with all who in every place call on the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours: 3 Grace (The apostles and N. T. writers at the beginning and end of their Epistles crave for their readers the favor (`grace’) of God or of Christ, to which all blessings, especially spiritual, are due) to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
4I thank my God always concerning you for the grace of God which was given you in Christ Jesus, 5that in everything you were enriched (passive, to be richly furnished) in Him, in all speech (a kind [or style] of speaking, utterance) and all knowledge (the general knowledge of the Christian religion [both gifts of the Holy Spirit. See 12:8; also 2 Cor 8:7]), 6even as the testimony concerning Christ was confirmed (to make firm, establish, confirm, make sure. NASB: Paul’s preaching about Christ had been accepted by the Corinthians, and they had proved it to be true.) in you, 7so that you are not lacking in any gift (in the technical Pauline sense χαρίσματα, denote “extraordinary powers, distinguishing certain Christians and enabling them to serve the church of Christ, the reception of which is due to the power of divine grace operating in their souls by the Holy Spirit.” NASB: A spiritual gift is a manifestation of the Holy Spirit enabling one to minister to the needs of Christ’s body, the church [see 12:7-11; 14:3, 12, 17]. The Greek word used here stresses that it is a gift of grace.), awaiting eagerly the revelation (used of events by which things or states or persons hitherto withdrawn from view are made visible to all, manifestation, appearance, of the glory clothed with which he will return from heaven) of our Lord Jesus Christ, 8who will also confirm (to make firm, establish, secure, make sure: of men made steadfast and constant in soul) you to the end (the end of all things [i. e. of the present order of things]), blameless (that cannot be called to account, unreprovable, unaccused) in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ. 9God is faithful (NASB: He may be trusted to do what He has promised [1 Thess 5:24], namely, to “confirm you to the end” [v. 8].), through whom you were called (to invite one, to something i. e. to participate in it, enjoy it; used thus in the Epistles of Paul and Peter of God as inviting men by the preaching of the gospel to the blessings of the heavenly kingdom) into fellowship (to obtain fellowship in the dignity and blessings of the Son of God) with His Son, Jesus Christ our Lord.
10Now I exhort (to admonish) you, brethren (NASB: In Christ believers have a unity similar to that of blood brothers and sisters. Paul is referring to both men and women [see 16:20, Rom 16:3; 6-7, 12-13, 15]), by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you all agree and that there be no divisions among you, but that you be made complete (to strengthen, perfect, complete, make one what he ought to be) in the same mind (a particular mode of thinking and judging: equivalent to thoughts, feelings, purposes) and in the same judgment (view, opinion). 11For I have been informed concerning you, my brethren, by Chloe’s people, that there are quarrels among you. 12Now I mean this, that each one of you is saying, “I am of Paul,” and “I of Apollos,” and “I of Cephas,” and “I of Christ.” 13Has Christ been divided (see 12:12-13)? Paul was not crucified for you, was he? Or were you baptized in the name of Paul? 14I thank God that I baptized none of you except Crispus and Gaius (NASB: Paul is not minimizing baptism; rather, he asserting that his God-given task was primarily to preach, Jesus [John 4:2] and Peter [Acts 10:48] also had others baptize for them), 15so that no one would say you were baptized in my name (i. e. by one’s command and authority, acting on his behalf, promoting his cause). 16Now I did baptize also the household of Stephanas; beyond that, I do not know whether I baptized any other. 17For Christ did not send me to baptize, but to preach the gospel, not in cleverness of speech (the wisdom which shows itself in speaking [wisdom of words.], the art of the rhetorician. NASB: Lit “wisdom of speech.” Paul’s mission was not to couch the gospel in the language of the trained orator, who had studied the techniques of influencing people by persuasive arguments.), so that the cross of Christ would not be made void (to make void i. e. deprive of force, render vain, useless, of no effect).

The Wisdom of God

18For the word of the cross (the doctrine concerning the saving power of the death on the cross endured by Christ) is foolishness to those who are perishing (they to whom it belongs to partake of salvation, and those to whom it belongs to perish or to be consigned to eternal misery, are contrasted by Paul), but to us who are being (notice the “ing” ending) saved (to save in the technical biblical sense; — negatively, to deliver from the penalties of the Messianic judgment [Joel 2:32 And it will come about that whoever calls on the name of the LORD Will be delivered; For on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem There will be those who escape, As the LORD has said, Even among the survivors whom the LORD calls.]; to save from the evils which obstruct the reception of the Messianic deliverance; to save, i.e. deliver or protect — heal, preserve, do well, save (self), be [make] whole.) it is the power ((miraculous) power, might, strength, things or persons in which God’s saving power shows its efficacy are called δυνάμεις Θεοῦ: dýnamis [from /dýnamai, “able, having ability”] – properly, “ability to perform”; for the believer, power to achieve by applying the Lord’s inherent abilities. “Power through God’s ability” [/dýnamis] is needed in every scene of life to really grow in sanctification and prepare for heaven [glorification]. [dýnamis] is a very important term, used 120 times in the NT.) of God.
19For it is written, “I WILL DESTROY THE WISDOM OF THE WISE,
AND THE CLEVERNESS OF THE CLEVER I WILL SET ASIDE.”
20Where is the wise man? Where is the scribe (in the Bible, a man learned in the Mosaic law and in the sacred writings, an interpreter, teacher)? Where is the debater of this age? Has not God made foolish the wisdom (the ability to discourse eloquently of this wisdom; opposed to this wisdom is — the empty conceit of wisdom which men make a parade of, a knowledge more specious than real of lofty and hidden subjects: such as the theosophy of certain Jewish Christians; the philosophy of the Greeks) of the world (an “ordered system” (like the universe, creation); the world. [The English term “cosmetic” is derived from /kósmos, i.e. the order (“ensemble”) used of treating the face as a whole.])? 21For since in the wisdom of God the world through its wisdom did not come to know (the nature and will of God, in contrast with the false wisdom of both Jews and Gentiles [see John 17:3 “This is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent.]. NASB: God ‘s intention that worldly wisdom should not be the means of knowing Him.) God, God was well-pleased (to think well of, it seems good to one, is one’s good pleasure; to think it good, choose, determine, decide) through the foolishness (folly; literally, dull [lacking sharpness], folly, absurdity) of the message preached to save (to make one a partaker of the salvation by Christ. Since salvation begins in this life [in deliverance from error and corrupt notions, in moral purity, in pardon of sin, and in the blessed peace of a soul reconciled to God], but on the visible return of Christ from heaven will he perfected in the consummate blessings of ὁ αἰών ὁ μέλλων [an age (era, “time-span”), characterized by a specific quality (type of existence)], we can understand why τό σῴζεσθαι [deliver out of danger and into safety; used principally of God rescuing believers from the penalty and power of sin – and into His provisions [safety]. (sṓzō) is the root of: /sōtḗr (“Savior”), /sōtēría (“salvation”) and the adjectival form, /sōtḗrion (what is “saved/rescued from destruction and brought into divine safety”).]] is spoken of in some passages as a present possession, in others as a good yet future: — as a blessing beginning [or begun] on earth) those who believe (is used emphatically, of those who acknowledge Jesus as the saviour and devote themselves to him). 22For indeed Jews ask for signs (of miracles and wonders by which God authenticates the men sent by him, or by which men prove that the cause they are pleading is God’s) and Greeks search for wisdom (clarity, skill; sophía is the root of the English terms, “sophistication” and “philosophy” – literally [respectively], “the art of using wisdom,” “affection for wisdom.”); 23but we preach Christ crucified, to Jews a stumbling block (“any person or thing by which one is [`entrapped’] drawn into error or sin”: a snare, stumbling-block, cause for error because his ignominious death on the cross roused the opposition of the Jews. NASB: They expected a triumphant, political Messiah [Acts 1:6], not a crucified one.) and to Gentiles foolishness (folly; literally, dull [lacking sharpness]. NASB: Greeks and Romans were sure that no reputable person would be crucified, so it was unthinkable that a crucified criminal could be the Savior.), 24but to those who are the called (notice the use of “the called”: the elect) (κλητοις kletos klay-tos invited, i.e. appointed, or [specially], a saint — called; “invited [by God in the proclamation of the gospel] to obtain eternal salvation in the kingdom of God through Christ”), both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. 25Because the foolishness (an act or appointment of God deemed foolish by men) of God is wiser (wise in a philosophic sense, forming the best plans and using the best means for their execution) than men, and the weakness (the act of God in which weakness seems to appear, viz. that the suffering of the cross should be borne by the Messiah,) of God is stronger (mighty) than men.
(NASB: vv. 1:26-31: The Corinthians themselves were living proof that salvation does not depend on anything in man, so that when someone is saved, he must boast in the Lord [v. 31].)
26For consider your calling (ἀξιουν τινα κλήσεως is used of one whom God declares worthy of the calling which he has commanded to be given him, and therefore fit to obtain the blessings promised in the call, 2 Thessalonians 1:11; with the genitive of the object, ὑμῶν, which ye have shared in, Ephesians 4:4; 2 Peter 1:10; what its characteristics have been in your case, as having no regard to learning, riches, station, etc. 1 Corinthians 1:26; used somewhat peculiarly, of the condition in which the calling finds one, whether circumcised or uncircumcised, slave or freeman, 1 Corinthians 7:20.), brethren, that there were not many wise according to the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble (of noble race); 27but God has chosen the foolish things of the world to shame (disappointed, to put to shame, to disgrace) the wise, and God has chosen the weak things of the world to shame the things which are strong (of those who wield great influence among men by their rank, authority, riches, etc.), 28and the base (ignoble, low born, of no family, a man of base birth, a man of no name or reputation; often used by secular writers, also in the secondary sense ignoble, cowardly, mean, base. In the N. T. only in 1 Corinthians 1:28, τά ἀγενῆ τοῦ κόσμου i. e. those who among men are held of no account; on the use of a neuter adjective in reference to persons.) things of the world and the despised (to make of no account, to despise utterly; to despise, treat with contempt; contemptible, despise, least esteemed, set at nought.) God has chosen (Especially is God said ἐκλέξασθαι those whom he has judged fit to receive his favors and separated from the rest of mankind to be peculiarly his own and to be attended continually by his gracious oversight: thus of the Israelites, Acts 13:17 (Deuteronomy 14:2 (cf. Deuteronomy 4:37); of Christians, as those whom he has set apart from among the irreligious multitude as dear unto himself, and whom he has rendered, through faith in Christ, citizens in the Messianic kingdom: Mark 13:20; 1 Corinthians 1:27f; with two accusatives, one of the object, the other of the predicate, James 2:5; τινα ἐν Χριστῷ, so that the ground of the choice lies in Christ and his merits, followed by the accusative with an infinitive denoting the end, Ephesians 1:4. In Luke 9:35 (L marginal reading T Tr WH) Jesus is called a Son, as being dear to God beyond all others and exalted by him to the preeminent dignity of Messiah. eklégomai (from /ek, “out of” and /légō, “speaking to a conclusion”) – properly, to select (choose) out of, by a highly deliberate choice (i.e. real heart-preference) with a definite outcome (as with the destination of divine selection for salvation), the things that are not, so that He may nullify (to render idle, unemployed, inactive, inoperative: to deprive of its strength, make barren; to cause a person or a thing to have no further efficiency; to deprive of force, influence, power [bring to nought, make of none effect]) the things that are, 29so that no man may boast (ὑπέρ with the genitive of person, to one’s advantage, to the praise of one [on one’s behalf]: as though standing in his presence) before God. 30But by His (YHWH) doing you are in Christ Jesus (NASB: It is God who has called you to union and communion with Christ.), who became to us wisdom from God, and righteousness (denotes “the state acceptable to God which becomes a sinner’s possession through that faith by which he embraces the grace of God offered him in the expiatory death of Jesus Christ.) and sanctification (the effect of consecration: sanctification of heart and life, [Christ is he to whom we are indebted for sanctification]), and redemption (everywhere in the N. T. deliverance effected through the death of Christ from the retributive wrath of a holy God and the merited penalty of sin: ἡμέρα ἀπολυτρώσεως, the last day, when consummate liberation is experienced from the sin still lingering even in the regenerate, and from all the ills and troubles of this life, Ephesians 4:30; in the same sense the word is apparently to be taken in 1 Corinthians 1:30 (where Christ himself is said to be redemption, i. e. the author of redemption, the one without whom we could have none), and is to be taken in the phrase ἀπολύτρωσιν τῆς περιποιήσεως: [release effected by payment of ransom; redemption, deliverance], Ephesians 1:14, the redemption which will come to his possession, or to the men who are God’s own through Christ [the act] ransom in full, i.e. [specially] Christian salvation — deliverance) [Note: and is to be taken in the phrase ἀπολύτρωσιν τῆς περιποιήσεως, Ephesians 1:14, the redemption which will come to his possession, or to the men who are God’s own through Christ. NASB: It is by faith in Christ that we are justified; see Rom 5:19.], 31so that, just as it is written, “LET HIM WHO BOASTS, BOAST IN THE LORD.”

 
New American Standard Bible
Paul’s Reliance upon the Spirit

1 Cor 2:1And when I came to you, brethren, I did not come with superiority of speech or of wisdom, proclaiming to you the testimony of God. 2For I determined to know nothing among you except Jesus Christ, and Him crucified. 3I was with you in weakness and in fear and in much trembling, 4and my message and my preaching were not in persuasive words of wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power, 5so that your faith would not rest on the wisdom of men, but on the power of God.
6Yet we do speak wisdom among those who are mature (absolutely, οἱ τέλειοι, the perfect, i. e. the more intelligent, ready to apprehend divine things, [R. V. marginal reading full-grown.) 7but we speak God’s wisdom in a mystery (of God: μυστήρια Θεοῦ, the secret counsels which govern God in dealing with the righteous, which are hidden from ungodly and wicked men but plain to the godly, God’s plan of providing salvation for men through Christ, which was once hidden but now is revealed), the hidden wisdom (In Paul’s Epistles: a knowledge of the divine plan, previously hidden, of providing salvation for men by the expiatory death of Christ, 1 Corinthians 1:30; 1 Corinthians 2:6; Ephesians 1:8; hence, all the treasures of wisdom are said to be hidden in Christ, Colossians 2:3) which God predestined (προορίζω: 1 aorist προορισα; 1 aorist passive participle προορισθεντες; to predetermine, decide beforehand, (R. V. to foreordain): in the N. T. of God decreeing from eternity.) before the ages to our glory; 8the wisdom which none of the rulers of this age has understood; for if they had understood it they would not have crucified the Lord of glory (the absolutely perfect inward or personal excellence of Christ; in which he excels by virtue of his nature; of which majesty he gave tokens in the miracles he performed).
9but just as it is written, “THINGS WHICH EYE HAS NOT SEEN AND EAR HAS NOT HEARD,
AND which HAVE NOT ENTERED THE HEART OF MAN,
ALL THAT GOD HAS PREPARED FOR THOSE WHO LOVE HIM.”
10For to us God revealed (is used of God revealing to men things unknown) them through the Spirit; for the Spirit searches all things, even the depths of God. 11For who among men knows the thoughts of a man except the spirit of the man which is in him? Even so the thoughts of God no one knows except the Spirit of God. 12Now we have received, not the spirit of the world (order, the world; he that is operative in the world [also of the devil]), but the Spirit who is from God, so that we may know the things freely given to us by God, 13which things we also speak, not in words taught by human wisdom, but in those taught by the Spirit, combining spiritual thoughts with spiritual words.
14But a natural (“governed by the ψυχή i. e. the sensuous nature with its subjection to appetite and passion [as though made up of nothing but ψυχή]) man does not accept the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; and he cannot understand them, because they are spiritually appraised. 15But he who is spiritual appraises (universally, to judge of, estimate, determine [the excellence or defects of any person or thing]) all things, yet he himself is appraised by no one. 16For WHO HAS KNOWN THE MIND OF THE LORD, THAT HE WILL INSTRUCT HIM? But we have the mind of Christ.
1 Corinthians by Dr. Essex at The Master’s Seminary, Lecture 20, approximately 22:25 min: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_M-e7lr5wYs&index=20&list=PLONbXoi-gaxCghCfwqDjCBs3KRnxOa-vC

 
New American Standard Bible
Foundations for Living

1 Cor 3:1And I, brethren, could not speak to you as to spiritual men, but as to men of flesh (of the flesh; wholly given up to the flesh, rooted in the flesh as it were.), as to infants in Christ. 2I gave you milk to drink, not solid food; for you were not yet able to receive it. Indeed, even now you are not yet able, 3for you are still fleshly. For since there is jealousy and strife among you, are you not fleshly (governed by mere human nature not by the Spirit of God.), and are you not walking like mere men? 4For when one says, “I am of Paul,” and another, “I am of Apollos,” are you not mere men?
5What then is Apollos? And what is Paul? Servants through whom you believed, even as the Lord gave opportunity to each one. 6I planted, Apollos watered, but God was causing the growth. 7So then neither the one who plants nor the one who waters is anything, but God who causes the growth. 8Now he who plants and he who waters are one; but each will receive his own reward according to his own labor. 9For we are God’s fellow workers; you are God’s field, God’s building.
10According to the grace of God which was given to me, like a wise master builder I laid a foundation, and another is building on it. But each man must be careful how he builds on it. 11For no man can lay a foundation other than the one which is laid, which is Jesus Christ. 12Now if any man builds on the foundation with gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, straw, 13each man’s work will become evident; for the day will show it because it is to be revealed with fire, and the fire itself will test the quality of each man’s work. 14If any man’s work which he has built on it remains, he will receive a reward. 15If any man’s work is burned up, he will suffer loss; but he himself will be saved, yet so as through fire (Believers’ judgment at the “Judgment Seat of Christ”; judgment for believers only).
16Do you not know that you are a temple (metaphorically, of a company of Christians, a Christian church, as dwelt in by the Spirit of God:) of God and that the Spirit of God dwells in you? 17If any man destroys the temple of God, God will destroy him, for the temple of God is holy, and that is what you are.
18Let no man deceive himself. If any man among you thinks that he is wise in this age, he must become foolish, so that he may become wise. 19For the wisdom of this world is foolishness before God. For it is written, “He is THE ONE WHO CATCHES THE WISE IN THEIR CRAFTINESS”; 20and again, “THE LORD KNOWS THE REASONINGS of the wise, THAT THEY ARE USELESS.” 21So then let no one boast in men. For all things belong to you, 22whether Paul or Apollos or Cephas or the world or life or death or things present or things to come; all things belong to you, 23and you belong to Christ; and Christ belongs to God.
1 Corinthians by Dr. Essex at The Master’s Seminary, Lecture 20, approximately 22:25 min: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_M-e7lr5wYs&index=20&list=PLONbXoi-gaxCghCfwqDjCBs3KRnxOa-vC

 
New American Standard Bible
Servants of Christ

1 Cor 4: 1Let a man regard us in this manner, as servants of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God. 2In this case, moreover, it is required of stewards that one be found trustworthy (trusty, faithful; of persons who show themselves faithful in the transaction of business, the execution of commands, or the discharge of official duties). 3But to me it is a very small thing that I may be examined (universally, to judge of, estimate, determine [the excellence or defects of any person or thing]) by you, or by any human court; in fact, I do not even examine myself. 4For I am conscious of nothing against myself, yet I am not by this acquitted; but the one who examines me is the Lord. 5Therefore do not go on passing judgment before the time, but wait until the Lord comes who will both bring to light the things hidden in the darkness and disclose the motives (counsel, purpose) of men’s hearts; and then each man’s praise will come to him from God.
6Now these things, brethren, I have figuratively applied to myself and Apollos for your sakes, so that in us you may learn not to exceed (beyond) what is written, so that no one of you will become arrogant (to inflate, blow up, blow out, to cause to swell up; tropically, to puff up, make proud; passive, to be puffed up, to bear oneself loftily, be proud) in behalf of one against the other. 7For who regards you as superior? (used emphatically, to distinguish or separate a person or thing from the rest, in effect equivalent to to prefer, yield to him the preference or honor) What do you have that you did not receive? And if you did receive it, why do you boast as if you had not received it?
8You are already filled (every wish is satisfied in the enjoyment of the consummate Messianic blessedness), you have already become rich, you have become kings without us; and indeed, I wish that you had become kings so that we also might reign with you. 9For, I think, God has exhibited us apostles last of all, as men condemned to death; because we have become a spectacle ([figuratively] the public display of putting someone “on exhibit” to be mocked at as a spectacle) to the world, both to angels and to men. 10We are fools (equivalent to without learning or erudition; dull, stupid, foolish [irony]) for Christ’s sake, but you are prudent (intelligent, practically wise, sensible) in Christ; we are weak (without strength, weak [irony]), but you are strong (mighty); you are distinguished (illustrious, honorable, esteemed [irony]), but we are without honor (unhonored, dishonored). 11To this present hour we are both hungry and thirsty, and are poorly clothed, and are roughly treated, and are homeless; 12and we toil, working with our own hands; when we are reviled, we bless; when we are persecuted, we endure; 13when we are slandered, we try to conciliate; we have become as the scum of the world, the dregs of all things, even until now.
14I do not write these things to shame you, but to admonish you as my beloved children. 15For if you were to have countless tutors in Christ, yet you would not have many fathers, for in Christ Jesus I became your father through the gospel. 16Therefore I exhort you, be imitators of me. 17For this reason I have sent to you Timothy, who is my beloved and faithful child in the Lord, and he will remind you of my ways which are in Christ, just as I teach everywhere in every church. 18Now some have become arrogant, as though I were not coming to you. 19But I will come to you soon, if the Lord wills (to be resolved or determined, to purpose, wish), and I shall find out, not the words of those who are arrogant but their power (moral power and excellence of soul; NAS δυναμιν [miraculous] power, might, strength; force; specially, miraculous power [usually by implication, a miracle itself]). 20For the kingdom of God does not consist in words but in power (universally, “inherent power, power residing in a thing by virtue of its nature, or which a person or thing exerts and puts forth”). 21What do you desire (to will, wish)? Shall I come to you with a rod, or with love and a spirit of gentleness?

 

 

New American Standard Bible
Immorality Rebuked

1 Cor 5:1It is actually reported that there is immorality (fornication, used properly, of illicit sexual intercourse in general) among you, and immorality of such a kind as does not exist even among the Gentiles (foreign nations not worshipping the true God, pagans, Gentiles, and very often; in plain contradistinction to the Jews; a race, a nation, pl. the nations [as distinct from Israel]), that someone has his father’s wife. 2You have become arrogant and have not mourned instead, so that the one who had done this deed would be removed from your midst.
3For I, on my part, though absent in body but present in spirit, have already judged him who has so committed this, as though I were present. 4In the name of our Lord Jesus, when you are assembled, and I with you in spirit, with the power of our Lord Jesus (NASB The Corinthians are to pass judgment on the man by the authority of the Lord Jesus. Jesus’ power is present through His word and His Holy Spirit.), 5I have decided to deliver (Metaphorically, expressions: to deliver one into the power of Satan to be harassed and tormented with evils (the phrase seems to have originated from the Jewish formulas of excommunication because a person banished from the theocratic assembly was regarded as deprived of the protection of God and delivered up to the power of the devil.) such a one to Satan for the destruction of his flesh, so that his spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord Jesus.
6Your boasting (a glorying) is not good. Do you not know that a little leaven leavens the whole lump of dough? (is used variously, according to the various things to which it is applied, viz. a single sin corrupts a whole church) 7Clean out (to purge) the old leaven so that you may be a new lump, just as you are in fact unleavened (devoid of the leaven of iniquity, free from faults). For Christ our Passover also has been sacrificed. 8Therefore let us celebrate the feast (symbolizes living the Christian life in holy dedication to God and not getting involved in such sins as malice and wickedness and incestuous relations [NASB]), not with old leaven, nor with the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity (purity, sincerity, ingenuousness) and truth ((subjectively) “truth as a personal excellence; that candor of mind which is free from affectation, pretence, simulation, falsehood, deceit”: sincerity of mind and integrity of character, or a mode of life in harmony with divine truth).
9I wrote you in my letter not to associate with immoral people; 10I did not at all mean with the immoral people of this world, or with the covetous and swindlers, or with idolaters, for then you would have to go out of the world. 11But actually, I wrote to you not to associate with any so-called brother (passive to be named, i. e. bear the name of; NASB, immoral persons in the church who claimed to be Christian brothers) if he is an immoral person, or covetous, or an idolater, or a reviler, or a drunkard, or a swindler—not even to eat with such a one. 12For what have I to do with judging outsiders? Do you not judge those who are within the church? 13But those who are outside, God judges. REMOVE THE WICKED MAN FROM AMONG YOURSELVES.

 
New American Standard Bible
Lawsuits Discouraged

1 Cor 6:1Does any one of you, when he has a case against his neighbor, dare to go to law before the unrighteous (of one who breaks God’s laws, unrighteous, sinful, the Gentiles) and not before the saints? (Just as the Israelites claimed for themselves the title οἱ ἅγιοι, because God selected them from the other nations to lead a life acceptable to him and rejoice in his favor and protection (Daniel 7:18, 22), so this appellation is very often in the N. T. transferred to Christians, as those whom God has selected ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου (John 17:14, 16), that under the influence of the Holy Spirit they may be rendered, through holiness, partakers of salvation in the kingdom of God) 2Or do you not know that the saints will judge the world? If the world is judged by you, are you not competent to constitute the smallest law courts? 3Do you not know that we will judge angels? How much more matters of this life? 4So if you have law courts dealing with matters of this life, do you appoint them as judges who are of no account in the church? 5I say this to your shame. Is it so, that there is not among you one wise man who will be able to decide between his brethren, 6but brother goes to law with brother, and that before unbelievers?
7Actually, then, it is already a defeat (loss, namely, as respects salvation, NASB, most likely by greed, retaliation and hatred, instead of practicing unselfishness, forgiveness, and love-even willingness to suffer lost.) for you, that you have lawsuits with one another. Why not rather be wronged? (to suffer oneself to be wronged, take wrong) Why not rather be defrauded? 8On the contrary, you yourselves wrong and defraud (to allow oneself to be defrauded). You do this even to your brethren.
9Or do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived; neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate (metaphorically, and in a bad sense: effeminate, of a catamite [a boy kept by a pederast (a man who desires or engages in sexual activity with a boy)], a male who submits his body to unnatural lewdness), nor homosexuals, 10nor thieves, nor the covetous (greedy of gain, covetous), nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor swindlers (a robber, an extortioner), will inherit the kingdom of God. 11Such were some of you; but you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God.

The Body Is the Lord’s

12All things are lawful (it is permitted) for me, but not all things are profitable. All things are lawful for me, but I will not be mastered (to be brought under the power of anyone) by anything. 13Food is for the stomach and the stomach is for food, but God will do away with both of them. Yet the body is not for immorality (πορνεία, πορνείας, ἡ (πορνεύω), the Sept. for תַּזְנוּת, זְנוּת, זְנוּנִים, fornication (used a. properly, of illicit sexual intercourse in general (that this meaning must be adopted in these passages will surprise no one who has learned how leniently converts from among the heathen regarded this vice and how lightly they indulged in it; accordingly, all other interpretations of the term, such as of marriages within the prohibited degrees and the like, are to be rejected), but for the Lord, and the Lord is for the body. 14Now God has not only raised (to arouse from the sleep of death, to recall the dead to life; from the company of the dead) the Lord, but will also raise us up through His power. 15Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ? Shall I then take away the members of Christ and make them members of a prostitute? May it never be! 16Or do you not know that the one who joins himself to a prostitute is one body with her? For He says, “THE TWO SHALL BECOME ONE FLESH.” 17But the one who joins himself to the Lord is one spirit with Him. 18Flee immorality. Every other sin that a man commits is outside the body, but the immoral man sins against his own body. 19Or do you not know that your body is a temple (metaphorically, of a company of Christians, a Christian church, as dwelt in by the Spirit of God; for the same reason, of the bodies of Christians) of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and that you are not your own? 20For you have been bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body.

 
New American Standard Bible
Teaching on Marriage

1 Cor 7: 1Now concerning the things about which you wrote, it is good for a man not to touch a woman. 2But because of immoralities, each man is to have his own wife, and each woman is to have her own husband. 3The husband must fulfill his duty (specifically, of conjugal duty) to his wife, and likewise also the wife to her husband. 4The wife does not have authority over her own body, but the husband does; and likewise also the husband does not have authority over his own body, but the wife does. 5Stop depriving (to withhold themselves from one another, of those who mutually deny themselves cohabitation) one another, except by agreement for a time, so that you may devote yourselves to prayer, and come together again so that Satan will not tempt you because of your lack of self-control (want of self-control, incontinence, intemperance). 6But this I say by way of concession (by way of concession or permission, not by way of command), not of command. 7Yet I wish that all men were even as I myself am. However, each man has his own gift (used of the natural gift of continence (a holding back), due to the grace of God as creator) from God, one in this manner, and another in that.
8But I say to the unmarried and to widows that it is good for them if they remain even as I. 9But if they do not have self-control, let them marry; for it is better to marry than to burn with passion.
10But to the married I give instructions, not I, but the Lord, that the wife should not leave her husband 11(but if she does leave, she must remain unmarried, or else be reconciled to her husband), and that the husband should not divorce his wife.
12But to the rest I say, not the Lord, that if any brother has a wife who is an unbeliever, and she consents to live with him, he must not divorce her. 13And a woman who has an unbelieving husband, and he consents to live with her, she must not send her husband away. 14For the unbelieving husband is sanctified (ἁγιάζεσθαι is used in a peculiar sense of those who, although not Christians themselves, are yet, by marriage with a Christian, withdrawn from the contamination of heathen impiety and brought under the saving influence of the Holy Spirit displaying itself among Christians) through his wife, and the unbelieving wife is sanctified through her believing husband; for otherwise your children are unclean, but now they are holy (NASB, they at least have the advantage of being under the sanctifying influence of one Christian parent and so may be called holy). 15Yet if the unbelieving one leaves, let him leave; the brother or the sister is not under bondage in such cases, but God has called us to peace (peace between individuals, i. e. harmony, concord). 16For how do you know, O wife, whether you will save your husband? Or how do you know, O husband, whether you will save your wife?
17Only, as the Lord has assigned ([/merízō can be used positively meaning “distribute as properly needed”) to each one, as God has called each (metaphorically: used thus in the Epistles of Paul and Peter of God as inviting men by the preaching of the gospel (διά τοῦ εὐαγγελίου [2 Thessalonians 2:14 It was for this He called you through our gospel, that you may gain the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ.] to the blessings of the heavenly kingdom, NASB: Each Christian is to live contentedly for the Lord in whatever economic, social and religious station in life God has placed him.), in this manner let him walk. And so I direct in all the churches. 18Was any man called when he was already circumcised? He is not to become uncircumcised. Has anyone been called in uncircumcision? He is not to be circumcised. 19Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing, but what matters is the keeping of the commandments of God. 20Each man must remain in that condition in which he was called.
21Were you called while a slave? Do not worry about it; but if you are able also to become free, rather do that. 22For he who was called in the Lord while a slave, is the Lord’s freedman; likewise he who was called while free, is Christ’s slave. 23You were bought with a price; do not become slaves of men. 24Brethren, each one is to remain with God in that condition in which he was called.
25Now concerning virgins I have no command of the Lord, but I give an opinion as one who by the mercy of the Lord is trustworthy. 26I think then that this is good in view of the present distress, that it is good for a man to remain as he is. 27Are you bound to a wife? Do not seek to be released. Are you released from a wife? Do not seek a wife. 28But if you marry, you have not sinned; and if a virgin marries, she has not sinned. Yet such will have trouble in this life, and I am trying to spare you. 29But this I say, brethren, the time has been shortened (NASB: Probably a reference to the pressures of the Christian life in an immoral and particularly hostile environment (cf. vv. 2, 28; 5:1; 2 Tim3:12). Paul’s recommendation here does not apply to all times and all situations.), so that from now on those who have wives should be as though they had none; 30and those who weep, as though they did not weep; and those who rejoice, as though they did not rejoice; and those who buy, as though they did not possess; 31and those who use the world, as though they did not make full use of it; for the form of this world is passing away.
32But I want you to be free from concern. One who is unmarried is concerned about the things of the Lord, how he may please the Lord; 33but one who is married is concerned about the things of the world, how he may please his wife, 34and his interests are divided. The woman who is unmarried, and the virgin, is concerned about the things of the Lord, that she may be holy both in body and spirit; but one who is married is concerned about the things of the world, how she may please her husband. 35This I say for your own benefit; not to put a restraint upon you, but to promote what is appropriate (of morals: to promote decorum) and to secure undistracted devotion to the Lord.
36But if any man thinks that he is acting unbecomingly toward his virgin daughter, if she is past her youth, and if it must be so, let him do what he wishes, he does not sin; let her marry. 37But he who stands (who does not hesitate, does not waver) firm (of those who are fixed in purpose) in his heart, being under no constraint (I have [am compelled by] necessity), but has authority over his own will, and has decided this in his own heart, to keep his own virgin daughter, he will do well. 38So then both he who gives his own virgin daughter in marriage does well, and he who does not give her in marriage will do better.
39A wife is bound as long as her husband lives; but if her husband is dead, she is free to be married to whom she wishes, only in the Lord. 40But in my opinion she is happier if she remains as she is; and I think that I also have the Spirit of God.

 
New American Standard Bible
Take Care with Your Liberty

1 Cor 8:1Now concerning things sacrificed to idols, we know that we all have knowledge (the deeper, more perfect and enlarged knowledge of this religion, such as belongs to the more advanced, especially of things lawful and unlawful for Christians). Knowledge makes arrogant (to inflate, blow up, blow out, to cause to swell up; tropically, to puff up, make proud), but love edifies (to promote growth in Christian wisdom, affection, grace, virtue, holiness, blessedness). 2If anyone supposes that he knows anything, he has not yet known as he ought to know; 3but if anyone loves God, he is known by Him.
4Therefore concerning the eating of things sacrificed to idols, we know that there is no such thing as an idol in the world, and that there is no God but one. 5For even if there are so-called gods whether in heaven or on earth, as indeed there are many gods and many lords, 6yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things and we exist for Him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we exist through Him.
7However not all men have this knowledge; but some, being accustomed to the idol until now, eat food as if it were sacrificed to an idol; and their conscience (“the soul as distinguishing between what is morally good and bad, prompting to do the former and shun the latter, commending the one, condemning the other; conscience”: with a genitive of the subjunctive) being weak is defiled (of a conscience reproached (defiled) by sin). 8But food will not commend us to God; we are neither the worse if we do not eat, nor the better if we do eat. 9But take care that this liberty of yours does not somehow become a stumbling block to the weak (to be doubtful about things lawful and unlawful to a Christian). 10For if someone sees you, who have knowledge, dining in an idol’s temple, will not his conscience, if he is weak, be strengthened to eat things sacrificed to idols? 11For through your knowledge he who is weak is ruined, the brother for whose sake Christ died. 12And so, by sinning against the brethren and wounding (metaphorically, i. e. to wound, disquiet) their conscience when it is weak, you sin against Christ. 13Therefore, if food causes my brother to stumble (to entice to sin), I will never eat meat again, so that I will not cause my brother to stumble.

 

 

New American Standard Bible
Paul’s Use of Liberty

1 Cor 9:1Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Have I not seen Jesus our Lord? Are you not my work in the Lord? 2If to others I am not an apostle, at least I am to you; for you are the seal (that by which anything is confirmed, proved, authenticated, as by a seal [a token or proof]) of my apostleship in the Lord.
3My defense to those who examine me is this: 4Do we not have a right to eat and drink? 5Do we not have a right to take along a believing wife, even as the rest of the apostles and the brothers of the Lord and Cephas? 6Or do only Barnabas and I not have a right to refrain from working? 7Who at any time serves as a soldier at his own expense? Who plants a vineyard and does not eat the fruit of it? Or who tends a flock and does not use the milk of the flock? (Comments from NASB: v 4 Paul and Barnabas, as God’s workers, have a right to have their food and other physical need supplied at the church’s expense [cf. vv 6, 13-14]. V 5 Paul asserts his right to be married, if he wishes. This does not mean that he was married…. V 11 Paul sets for the principle that Christian workers should be paid for their labor. V 12 the point of Paul’s discussion in chapter 9 is as follows, he had numerous rights that he did not claim because of his love for the Corinthians. Thus chapter 9 is an extended personal illustration of the practice advocated in chapter 8. Because of love for others, believers should be ready to surrender their rights. V 13 the Corinthian believers would understand this illustration not only from their knowledge of the OT [cf. Lev 7:28-36; Num 18:8-20] but also from the practice in pagan temples in Greece and Rome.)
8I am not speaking these things according to human judgment, am I? Or does not the Law also say these things? 9For it is written in the Law of Moses, “YOU SHALL NOT MUZZLE THE OX WHILE HE IS THRESHING.” God is not concerned about oxen, is He? 10Or is He speaking altogether for our sake? Yes, for our sake it was written, because the plowman ought to plow in hope, and the thresher to thresh in hope of sharing the crops. 11If we sowed spiritual things in you, is it too much if we reap material things from you? 12If others share the right over you, do we not more? Nevertheless, we did not use this right, but we endure all things so that we will cause no hindrance to the gospel of Christ. 13Do you not know that those who perform sacred services eat the food of the temple, and those who attend regularly to the altar have their share from the altar? 14So also the Lord directed those who proclaim the gospel to get their living from the gospel.
15But I have used none of these things. And I am not writing these things so that it will be done so in my case; for it would be better for me to die than have any man make my boast (that of which one glories or can glory, matter or ground of glorying) an empty (to make void i. e. cause a thing to be seen to be empty, hollow, false) one. 16For if I preach the gospel, I have nothing to boast of, for I am under compulsion (necessity is laid upon me); for woe is me if I do not preach the gospel. 17For if I do this voluntarily, I have a reward; but if against my will (“willing, in voluntary accord”) – properly, unwilling, needing to be compelled ), I have a stewardship entrusted to me. 18What then is my reward? That, when I preach the gospel, I may offer the gospel without charge, so as not to make full use of my right in the gospel. (Comments from NASB: v 16 the Lord laid on Paul the necessity of preaching the gospel [Acts 9:1-16; 26:16-18; see also Jer 20:9 and notes. V18 Paul’s reward in preaching is not material things but the boasting that he has preached to the Corinthians without charge and has not taken advantage of the rights he deserved: food, drink, shelter and pay [vv 3-12]))
19For though I am free from all men, I have made myself a slave to all, so that I may win more. 20To the Jews I became as a Jew, so that I might win Jews; to those who are under the Law, as under the Law though not being myself under the Law, so that I might win those who are under the Law; 21to those who are without law, as without law, though not being without the law of God but under the law of Christ, so that I might win those who are without law. 22To the weak I became weak, that I might win the weak; I have become all things to all men, so that I may by all means save (to make one a partaker of the salvation by Christ; to save, i.e. deliver or protect) some. 23I do all things for the sake of the gospel, so that I may become a fellow partaker (participant with others in [anything], joint partner. NASB: Of the blessings of realizing that he has been faithful to Christ in preaching, of hearing the Lord’s “well done” [Matt 25:21; Luke 19:17] and of seeing others come to Christ.) of it.
24Do you not know that those who run in a race all run, but only one receives the prize? Run in such a way that you may win. 25Everyone who competes in the games exercises self-control in all things. They then do it to receive a perishable wreath, but we an imperishable. 26Therefore I run in such a way, as not without aim; I box in such a way, as not beating the air; 27but I discipline my body and make it my slave, so that, after I have preached to others, I myself will not be disqualified (not standing the test, rejected; unapproved, i.e. rejected; by implication, worthless [literally or morally]. NASB: Paul uses the figure of boxing to represent the Christian life. He does not aimlessly beat the air, but he severely disciplines his own body in serving Christ. Paul realizes that he must with rigor serve the Lord and battle against sin. If he fails in this, he may be excluded from the reward [see 3:10-15).

 
New American Standard Bible
Avoid Israel’s Mistakes

1 Cor 10: 1For I do not want you to be unaware (to be ignorant, not to know), brethren, that our fathers were all under the cloud and all passed through the sea; 2and all were baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; 3and all ate the same spiritual (θυσίαι, tropically, the acts of a life dedicated to God and approved by him, due to the influence of the Holy Spirit (tacitly opposed to the sacrifices of an external worship), 1 Peter 2:5; equivalent to produced by the sole power of God himself without natural instrumeutality, supernatural) food; 4and all drank the same spiritual drink, for they were drinking from a spiritual rock which followed them; and the rock was Christ. 5Nevertheless, with most of them God was not well-pleased (to [not] be well pleased with, take pleasure in, a person or thing); for they were laid low (to strew over [the ground]; to prostrate, slay [cf. our to lay low] [A. V. overthrown]) in the wilderness. (NASB: V 1 Under God’s leadership and guidance. His guidance did not fail them-He successfully led them through the sea. V 2 As a people, they were under God’s redemptive program, and they submitted to Moses, God’s appointed leader. [Baptized] [is] a figure uses to depict their submission to Moses as their deliverer and leader, just as Christian baptism depicts the believer’s submission to Christ as Savior and Lord. VV 3-4 the manna and the water from the rock are used as figures representing the spiritual sustenance that God continually provided for His people [Ex 16:2-36; 17:1-7; Num 20:2-11; 21:16]. The rock, from which the water came, and the manna were symbolic of supernatural sustenance through Christ, the bread of life and the water of life [John 4:14; 6:30-35]. V 5 in spite of the remarkable privileges given to Israel [vv. 1-4] they failed to obey God, thus incurring His displeasure. Of the adults who came out of Egypt, only Caleb and Joshua were allowed to enter Canaan [Num 14:22-24, 28-35; Josh 1:1-2].)
6Now these things happened as examples for us, so that we would not crave evil things as they also craved (to lust after, covet, of those who seek things forbidden). 7Do not be idolaters ([i. e. a hireling, servant, slave], a worshipper of false gods, an idolater: anyone, even a Christian, participant in any way in the worship of heathen, especially one who attends their sacrificial feasts and eats of the remains of the offered victims), as some of them were; as it is written, “THE PEOPLE SAT DOWN TO EAT AND DRINK, AND STOOD UP TO PLAY.” 8Nor let us act immorally, as some of them did, and twenty-three thousand fell in one day. 9Nor let us try (a word wholly biblical (Deuteronomy 8:2 “You shall remember all the way which the LORD your God has led you in the wilderness these forty years, that He might humble you, testing you, to know what was in your heart, whether you would keep His commandments or not.); to prove, test, thoroughly (A. V. tempt): to put to proof God’s character and power. τόν Χριστόν, by irreligion and immorality to test the patience or the avenging power of Christ [exalted to God’s right hand]) the Lord, as some of them did, and were destroyed by the serpents. 10Nor grumble (of those who discontentedly complain), as some of them did, and were destroyed by the destroyer (a ruiner, i.e. (specially), a venomous serpent — destroyer.). 11Now these things happened to them as an example, and they were written for our instruction, upon whom the ends of the ages have come. 12Therefore let him who thinks he stands take heed that he does not fall. 13No temptation has overtaken you but such as is common to man; and God is faithful, who will not allow you to be tempted (positive tests; of God; to inflict evils upon one in order to prove his character and the steadfastness of his faith [cf. Hebrews 2:18; Hebrews 4:15; Gen 22:1; Rev 3:10; Deut 8:2) beyond what you are able, but with the temptation will provide the way of escape (ékbasis– properly, moving out from and to the outcome (new destination); departure; (figuratively) “the (successful) way out” which also goes on to what is new (desirable), i.e. the Lord’s outcome; an egress, way out: applied figuratively to the way of escape from temptation…) also, so that you will be able to endure (to bear by being under, bear up (a thing placed on one’s shoulders); tropically, to bear patiently, to endure) it. (Alice: For by grace are ye saved through faith… …The just shall live by faith. …From faith to faith [by hearing the Word of God]…. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound… Thank God! By grace through faith all the way.)
14Therefore, my beloved, flee from idolatry. 15I speak as to wise (intelligent; thoughtful, i.e. sagacious or discreet) men; you judge what I say. 16Is not the cup of blessing which we bless a sharing in the blood of Christ? Is not the bread which we break a sharing in the body of Christ? 17Since there is one bread, we who are many are one body; for we all partake of the one bread. 18Look at the nation Israel; are not those who eat the sacrifices sharers in the altar? 19What do I mean then? That a thing sacrificed to idols is anything, or that an idol is anything? 20No, but I say that the things which the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to demons and not to God; and I do not want you to become sharers in demons. 21You cannot drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons; you cannot partake of the table of the Lord and the table of demons. 22Or do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? We are not stronger than He, are we?
23All things are lawful, but not all things are profitable. All things are lawful, but not all things edify. 24Let no one seek his own good, but that of his neighbor. 25Eat anything that is sold in the meat market without asking questions for conscience’ sake; 26FOR THE EARTH IS THE LORD’S, AND ALL IT CONTAINS. 27If one of the unbelievers invites you and you want to go, eat anything that is set before you without asking questions for conscience’ sake. 28But if anyone says to you, “This is meat sacrificed to idols,” do not eat it, for the sake of the one who informed you, and for conscience’ sake; 29I mean not your own conscience, but the other man’s; for why is my freedom judged by another’s conscience? 30If I partake with thankfulness, why am I slandered concerning that for which I give thanks?
31Whether, then, you eat or drink or whatever you do, do all to the glory of God. 32Give no offense (metaphorically, not leading others into sin by one’s mode of life) either to Jews or to Greeks or to the church of God; 33just as I also please all men in all things, not seeking my own profit but the profit of the many, so that they may be saved.

 
New American Standard Bible
Christian Order

1 Cor 11:1Be imitators of me, just as I also am of Christ.
2Now I praise you because you remember me in everything and hold firmly to the traditions, just as I delivered them to you. 3But I want you to understand that Christ is the head of every man, and the man is the head of a woman, and God is the head of Christ. 4Every man who has something on his head (physical) while praying or prophesying disgraces his head ( spiritual Head [Christ]) (NASB: In the culture of Paul’s day, men uncovered their heads in worship to signify their respect for and submission to deity. When a man prayed or prophesied (to break forth under sudden impulse in lofty discourse or in praise of the divine counsels— or, under the like prompting, to teach, refute, reprove, admonish, comfort others.) with his head covered, he failed to show the proper attitude toward Christ). 5But every woman who has her head uncovered while praying or prophesying disgraces (to put to shame) her head, for she is one and the same as the woman whose head is shaved (NASB: For a woman, taking off her head covering in public and exposing her hair was a sign of loose morals and sexual promiscuity. Paul says she might as well have her hair cut or shaved off. The shaved head indicated that the woman either had been publicly disgraced because of some shameful act or was openly flaunting he independence and her refusal to be in submission to her husband: Paul’s message to her to her was: Show your respect for and submission to your husband by covering your head during public worship.). 6For if a woman does not cover her head, let her also have her hair cut off; but if it is disgraceful for a woman to have her hair cut off or her head shaved, let her cover her head. 7For a man ought not to have his head covered, since he is the image (the image of one; one in whom the likeness of anyone is seen: is applied to man, on account of his power of command) and glory (whose function of government reflects the majesty of the divine ruler; opinion [always good in N.T.], hence praise, honor, glory) of God; but the woman is the glory of man. 8For man does not originate from woman, but woman from man; 9for indeed man was not created for the woman’s sake (διά with the accusative of a person is often equivalent to for the benefit of [English for the sake of] Gen 2:18, 20 one who helps), but woman for the man’s sake. 10Therefore the woman ought to have a symbol of authority (a sign of the husband’s authority over his wife, i. e. the veil with which propriety required a woman to cover herself) on her head, because of the angels (NASB: Perhaps mentioned here because they are interested in all aspects of the Christian’s salvation and are sensitive to decorum in worship (cf. Eph 3:10; 1 Tim 5:21). 11However, in the Lord, neither is woman independent (separately, separate from) of man, nor is man independent of woman. 12For as the woman originates from the man, so also the man has his birth through the woman; and all things originate from God. 13Judge for yourselves: is it proper for a woman to pray to God with her head uncovered? 14Does not even nature itself teach you that if a man has long hair, it is a dishonor (dishonor, ignominy, disgrace) to him, (NASB: Believers must be conscious of how their actions action appear in their culture, in light of what is considered to be honorable behavior.) 15but if a woman has long hair, it is a glory (εἶναι τίνι δόξα, to be a glory, ornament, to one) to her? For her hair is given to her for a covering (a veil). 16But if one is inclined to be contentious (fond of strife), we have no other practice, nor have the churches of God.
17But in giving this instruction, I do not praise you, because you come together not for the better but for the worse. 18For, in the first place, when you come together as a church, I hear that divisions exist among you; and in part I believe it. 19For there must also be factions (dissensions arising from diversity of opinions and aims; choice) among you, so that those who are approved (proved, tried: in the N. T. one who is of tried faith and integrity) may become evident (apparent, manifest evident, known) among you. 20Therefore when you meet together, it is not to eat the Lord’s Supper, 21for in your eating each one takes his own supper first; and one is hungry and another is drunk. 22What! Do you not have houses in which to eat and drink? Or do you despise the church of God and shame those who have nothing? What shall I say to you? Shall I praise you? In this I will not praise you.

The Lord’s Supper

23For I received from the Lord that which I also delivered to you, that the Lord Jesus in the night in which He was betrayed took bread; 24and when He had given thanks, He broke it and said, “This is My body, which is for you; do this in remembrance of Me.” 25In the same way He took the cup also after supper, saying, “This cup is the new covenant in My blood; do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of Me.” 26For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim (to announce, declare, promulgate, make known; to proclaim publicly, publish: with the included idea of celebrating, commending, openly praising) the Lord’s death until He comes.
27Therefore whoever eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner, shall be guilty (guilty of a crime committed against the body and blood of the Lord. NASB: In the irreverent and self-centered manner that characterized some of the Corinthians at their unruly agape supper) of the body and the blood of the Lord. 28But a man must examine (to test, by impl. to approve) himself, and in so doing he is to eat of the bread and drink of the cup. 29For he who eats and drinks, eats and drinks judgment (so to eat as to incur the judgment or punishment of God) to himself if he does not judge the body (the body [as a sound whole]) rightly. 30For this reason many among you are weak and sick, and a number sleep (metaphorically, and euphemistically equivalent to to die). 31But if we judged ourselves rightly, we would not be judged. 32But when we are judged, we are disciplined (in Biblical and ecclesiastical use employed of God, to chasten by the infliction of evils and calamities) by the Lord so that we will not be condemned (simply, of God condemning one to eternal misery [passive]) along with the world.
33So then, my brethren, when you come together to eat, wait for one another. 34If anyone is hungry, let him eat at home, so that you will not come together for judgment. The remaining matters I will arrange when I come.

 
New American Standard Bible
The Use of Spiritual Gifts

1 Cor 12:1Now concerning spiritual gifts, brethren, I do not want you to be unaware. 2You know that when you were pagans (a race (as of the same habit), i.e. a tribe; specially, a foreign (non-Jewish) one (usually, by implication, pagan) — Gentile, heathen, nation, people.), you were led astray to the mute (voiceless, dumb; without the faculty of speech; used of idols) idols, however you were led (urged on by blind impulse, — unless impelled by Satan’s influence be preferable, cf. 1 Corinthians 10:20; Ephesians 2:2). 3Therefore I make known to you that no one speaking by the Spirit of God says, “Jesus is accursed”; and no one can say, “Jesus is Lord”, except by the Holy Spirit. (Accursed: to execrate one: to declare to be evil or detestable; to detest utterly). (NASB: rather, he (by the Holy Spirit) is the only one who from the heart can confess, “Jesus is Lord” [cf. John 20:28 also 1 John 4:2-3 John 20:28 Thomas answered and said to Him, “My Lord and my God!” 1 John 4:2-3 By this you know the Spirit of God: every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is from God; and every spirit that does not confess Jesus is not from God; this is the spirit of the antichrist (the adversary of the Messiah), of which you have heard that it is coming, and now it is already in the world. (Confess: to profess; to declare openly, speak out freely, followed by an infinitive, that of which he is convinced and which he holds to be true; e.g., to profess oneself the worshipper of one [Jesus], cf. 1 John 4:3.)
4Now there are varieties (in particular, a distinction arising from a different distribution to different persons, [A. V. diversity]) of gifts (in the technical Pauline sense χαρίσματα [A. V. gifts] denote “extraordinary powers, distinguishing certain Christians and enabling them to serve the church of Christ, the reception of which is due to the power of divine grace operating in their souls by the Holy Spirit”), but the same Spirit. 5And there are varieties of ministries (of the ministration or service of all who, endowed by God with powers of mind and heart peculiarly adapted to this end, endeavor zealously and laboriously to promote the cause of Christ among men, as apostles, prophets, evangelists, elders, etc.), and the same Lord. 6There are varieties of effects (thing wrought; effect, operation: plural [R. V. workings.]), but the same God who works all things in all persons. 7But to each one is given the manifestation (exhibition, i.e. [figuratively] expression, [by extension] a bestowment — manifestation.) of the Spirit for the common good. 8For to one is given the word of wisdom (the ability to discourse eloquently of this wisdom) through the Spirit, and to another the word of knowledge (the deeper, more perfect and enlarged knowledge of this religion, such as belongs to the more advanced) according to the same Spirit; 9to another faith (faithfulness) by the same Spirit, and to another gifts of healing ( a healing) by the one Spirit, 10and to another the effecting of miracles (the power of performing miracles; (miraculous) power, might, strength), and to another prophecy (of the endowment and speech of the Christian teachers called προφῆται), and to another the distinguishing (a distinguishing, discerning, judging) of spirits, to another various kinds of tongues (words spoken in a tongue), and to another the interpretation (interpretation (of what has been spoken more or less obscurely by others) of tongues. 11But one and the same Spirit works (to effect) all these things, distributing to each one individually just as He wills (of the will electing or choosing between two or more things).
12For even as the body is one and yet has many members, and all the members of the body, though they are many, are one body, so also is Christ. 13For by one Spirit we were all baptized (to unite together into one body by baptism) into one body (a social, ethical, mystical body”; so in the N. T. of the church), whether Jews or Greeks, whether slaves or free, and we were all made to drink (NASB: God has given all His people the Holy Spirit to indwell them (6:19) so that their lives may overflow with the fruit of the Spirit [Gal 5:22-23; cf. John 7:37-39])of one Spirit. (1 Cor 6:19 Or do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and that you are not your own? Gal 5:22-23 But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness, self-control; against such things there is no law. John 7:37-39 Now on the last day, the great day of the feast, Jesus stood and cried out, saying, “If anyone is thirsty, let him come to Me and drink. “He who believes in Me, as the Scripture said, ‘From his innermost being will flow rivers of living water.’” But this He spoke of the Spirit, whom those who believed in Him were to receive; for the Spirit was not yet given, because Jesus was not yet glorified.)
14For the body is not one member, but many. 15If the foot says, “Because I am not a hand, I am not a part of the body,” it is not for this reason any the less a part of the body. 16And if the ear says, “Because I am not an eye, I am not a part of the body,” it is not for this reason any the less a part of the body. 17If the whole body were an eye, where would the hearing be? If the whole were hearing, where would the sense of smell be? 18But now God has placed the members, each one of them, in the body, just as He desired (to be resolved or determined, to purpose; to will, wish). 19If they were all one member, where would the body be? 20But now there are many members, but one body. 21And the eye cannot say to the hand, “I have no need of you”; or again the head to the feet, “I have no need of you.” 22On the contrary, it is much truer that the members of the body which seem to be weaker (weaker and inferior) are necessary; 23and those members of the body which we deem less honorable (base, of less esteem), on these we bestow more abundant honor, and our less presentable members become much more presentable, 24whereas our more presentable members have no need of it. But God has so composed the body, giving more abundant honor to that member which lacked, 25so that there may be no division in the body, but that the members may have the same care for one another. 26And if one member suffers, all the members suffer with it; if one member is honored, all the members rejoice with it.
27Now you are Christ’s body, and individually members of it. 28And God has appointed (to make [or set] for oneself or for one’s use) in the church, first apostles (According to Paul, apostles surpassed as well the various other orders of Christian teachers, as also the rest of those on whom the special gifts of the Holy Spirit had been bestowed, by receiving a richer and more copious conferment of the Spirit), second prophets (The prophets that appeared in the apostolic age among the Christians, they are associated with apostles), third teachers (of those who in the religious assemblies of Christians undertake the work of teaching, with the special assistance of the Holy Spirit), then miracles (the power of performing miracles, plural), then gifts of healings, helps (In Biblical speech aid, help; plural, 1 Corinthians 12:28, the ministrations of the deacons, who have care of the poor and the), administrations, various kinds of tongues. 29All are not apostles, are they? All are not prophets, are they? All are not teachers, are they? All are not workers of miracles, are they? 30All do not have gifts of healings, do they? All do not speak with tongues, do they? All do not interpret, do they? 31But earnestly desire the greater gifts.
And I show you a still more excellent way.
New American Standard Bible
The Excellence of Love

1 Cor 13:1If I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, but do not have love, I have become a noisy gong or a clanging cymbal. 2If I have the gift of prophecy, and know all mysteries and all knowledge; and if I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, but do not have love (affection, good-will, love, benevolence, brotherly love: Of the love of men [human beings] to men [human beings]; especially of that love of Christians toward Christians which is enjoined and prompted by their religion, whether the love be viewed as in the soul or as expressed), I am nothing. 3And if I give all my possessions to feed the poor, and if I surrender my body to be burned, but do not have love, it profits me nothing.
4Love is patient, love is kind and is not jealous; love does not brag and is not arrogant, 5does not act unbecomingly; it does not seek its own, is not provoked, does not take into account a wrong suffered, 6does not rejoice in unrighteousness, but rejoices with the truth; 7bears (to cover over with silence; to keep secret; to hide, conceal; is explained by some, love covereth, i. e. hides and excuses, the errors and faults of others; but it is more appropriately rendered [with other interpreters] beareth.) all things, believes (to trust, entrust; is used in an ethical sense, of confidence in the goodness of men; to have faith (in, upon, or with respect to, a person or thing), i.e. credit; by implication, to entrust [especially one’s spiritual well-being to Christ]) all things, hopes (to wait, to hope; to hope [in a religious sense, to wait for salvation with joy and full of confidence]) all things, endures (to endure, bear bravely and calmly: with an accusative of the thing) all things.
8Love never fails (to perish, i. e. to come to an end, disappear, cease: of virtues); but if there are gifts of prophecy, they will be done away; if there are tongues, they will cease; if there is knowledge, it will be done away. 9For we know in part (in part, partially, i. e. imperfectly) and we prophesy in part; 10but when the perfect (the perfect state of all things, to be ushered in by the return of Christ from heaven) comes, the partial will be done away. 11When I was a child (an infant, fig. a simple-minded or immature person), I used to speak like a child, think like a child, reason like a child; when I became a man (with a reference to age, and to distinguish an adult man from a boy, with the added notion also of intelligence and virtue), I did away (to cause to cease, put an end to, do away with, annul, abolish) with childish things. 12For now we see in a mirror dimly, but then face (see God face to face, i. e. discern perfectly his nature, will, purposes) to face; now I know (absolutely, of the knowledge of divine things) in part, but then I will know fully just as I also have been fully known. 13But now faith, hope, love, abide these three; but the greatest of these is love.

 
New American Standard Bible
Prophecy a Superior Gift

1 Cor 14:1Pursue (to seek after eagerly, earnestly endeavor to acquire) love, yet desire (to be jealous) earnestly spiritual gifts, but especially that you may prophesy. 2For one who speaks in a tongue does not speak to men but to God; for no one understands, but in his spirit he speaks mysteries. 3But one who prophesies speaks to men for edification (in the N. T. metaphorically, “edifying, edification, i. e. the act of one who promotes another’s growth in Christian wisdom, piety, holiness, happiness”) and exhortation (exhortation, admonition, encouragement) and consolation (encouragement, exhortation, comfort). 4One who speaks in a tongue edifies himself; but one who prophesies edifies the church. 5Now I wish that you all spoke in tongues, but even more that you would prophesy; and greater (eminent, distinguished, or in excellence, worth, authority, etc. [gifts]) is one who prophesies than one who speaks in tongues, unless he interprets, so that the church may receive edifying.
6But now, brethren, if I come to you speaking in tongues, what will I profit you unless I speak to you either by way of revelation (to speak on the ground of (others, in the form of) a revelation, agreeably to a revelation received) or of knowledge or of prophecy or of teaching? 7Yet even lifeless things, either flute or harp, in producing a sound, if they do not produce a distinction in the tones, how will it be known what is played on the flute or on the harp? 8For if the bugle produces an indistinct sound, who will prepare himself for battle? 9So also you, unless you utter by the tongue speech that is clear, how will it be known what is spoken? For you will be speaking into the air (‘to speak into the air’ i. e. without effect, used of those who speak what is not understood by the hearers). 10There are, perhaps, a great many kinds of languages in the world, and no kind is without meaning. 11If then I do not know the meaning of the language, I will be to the one who speaks a barbarian, and the one who speaks will be a barbarian to me. 12So also you, since you are zealous of spiritual gifts, seek to abound for the edification of the church.
13Therefore let one who speaks in a tongue pray that he may interpret. 14For if I pray in a tongue, my spirit prays, but my mind (the spirit intensely roused and completely absorbed with divine things, but destitute of clear ideas of them) is unfruitful (contributing nothing to the instruction, improvement, comfort, of others). 15What is the outcome then? I will pray with the spirit and I will pray with the mind also; I will sing with the spirit and I will sing with the mind also (NASB: May mean that Paul will sometimes pray or sing with his spirit in a tongue; at other times he will pray or sing with his mind in his own language.). 16Otherwise if you bless in the spirit only, how will the one who fills the place of the ungifted (“destitute of the ‘gift of tongues,”) say the “Amen” at your giving of thanks, since he does not know what you are saying? 17For you are giving thanks well enough, but the other person is not edified. 18I thank God, I speak in tongues more than you all; 19however, in the church I desire to speak five words with my mind so that I may instruct others also, rather than ten thousand words in a tongue.

Instruction for the Church

20Brethren, do not be children in your thinking; yet in evil be infants, but in your thinking be mature (the perfect, i. e. the more intelligent, ready to apprehend divine things). 21In the Law it is written, “BY MEN OF STRANGE TONGUES AND BY THE LIPS OF STRANGERS I WILL SPEAK TO THIS PEOPLE, AND EVEN SO THEY WILL NOT LISTEN TO ME,” (NASB: The passage is from Is 28 indicates that the foreign language of the Assyrians was a sign to unbelieving Israel that judgment was coming on them. Paul deduced from this fact that tongues were intended to be a sign for unbelievers [v. 22] as, e.g., in Acts 2:4-12. Similarly, prophecy was for believers [v. 22] since it communicated revealed truth to those disposed to receive it [cf. Matt 13:11-16]) says the Lord.
Matt 13:11-16 “Therefore I speak to them in parables; because while seeing they do not see, and while hearing they do not hear, nor do they understand. “In their case the prophecy of Isaiah is being fulfilled, which says, ‘YOU WILL KEEP ON HEARING, BUT WILL NOT UNDERSTAND; YOU WILL KEEP ON SEEING, BUT WILL NOT PERCEIVE; FOR THE HEART OF THIS PEOPLE HAS BECOME DULL, WITH THEIR EARS THEY SCARCELY HEAR, AND THEY HAVE CLOSED THEIR EYES, OTHERWISE THEY WOULD SEE WITH THEIR EYES, HEAR WITH THEIR EARS, AND UNDERSTAND WITH THEIR HEART AND RETURN, AND I WOULD HEAL THEM. “But blessed are your eyes, because they see; and your ears, because they hear.
22So then tongues are for a sign, not to those who believe but to unbelievers; but prophecy is for a sign, not to unbelievers but to those who believe. 23Therefore if the whole church assembles together and all speak in tongues, and ungifted men or unbelievers enter, will they not say that you are mad? 24But if all prophesy, and an unbeliever or an ungifted man enters, he is convicted (to convict, refute, confute, of crime, fault, or error; of sin) by all, he is called to account ( to scrutinize, i.e. [by implication] investigate, interrogate, determine — ask, question, discern, examine, judge, search.) by all; 25the secrets of his heart are disclosed (visible, manifest); and so he will fall on his face and worship God, declaring that God is certainly among you.
26What is the outcome then, brethren? When you assemble, each one has a psalm, has a teaching, has a revelation, has a tongue, has an interpretation (NASB: Elements that make up the worship service at Corinth.). Let all things be done for edification. 27If anyone speaks in a tongue, it should be by two or at the most three, and each in turn, and one must interpret; 28but if there is no interpreter, he must keep silent in the church; and let him speak to himself and to God. 29Let two or three prophets speak, and let the others pass judgment (to learn by discrimination, to try, decide). 30But if a revelation is made to another who is seated, the first one must keep silent. 31For you can all prophesy one by one, so that all may learn and all may be exhorted; 32and the spirits of prophets are subject to prophets (The prophets that appeared in the apostolic age among the Christians, and in the religious assemblies of the Christians, being suddenly seized by the Spirit [whose promptings, however, do not impair their self-government]); 33for God is not a God of confusion but of peace, as in all the churches of the saints.
34The women are to keep silent in the churches (an assembly of Christians gathered for worship. NASB: …. There were occasions, though –even in this culture-for women to speak in church. For example, in 11:5 Pail assumes that women pray and prophesy in public worship….. Paul does not altogether forbid women to speak in church [see 11:5]. What he is forbidding is the disorderly speaking indicated in these verses.); for they are not permitted to speak, but are to subject themselves, just as the Law also says. 35If they desire to learn anything, let them ask their own husbands at home; for it is improper (base, dishonorable) for a woman to speak in church. 36Was it from you that the word of God first went forth? Or has it come to you only? (NASB: Paul asks these questions sarcastically, suggesting that the Corinthians were following their own practice in these matters rather than conforming to God’s word.)
37If anyone thinks he is a prophet or spiritual, let him recognize (in the sense of acknowledge) that the things which I write to you are the Lord’s commandment. 38But if anyone does not recognize this, he is not recognized.
39Therefore, my brethren, desire earnestly to prophesy, and do not forbid to speak in tongues. 40But all things must be done properly and in an orderly manner.

 
New American Standard Bible
The Fact of Christ’s Resurrection

1 Cor 15:1Now I make known to you, brethren, the gospel which I preached to you, which also you received, in which also you stand (to persist, continue, persevere), 2by which also you are saved, if you hold fast the word which I preached to you, unless you believed in vain. (Saved: to make one a partaker of the salvation by Christ; Since salvation begins in this life [in deliverance from error and corrupt notions, in moral purity, in pardon of sin, and in the blessed peace of a soul reconciled to God], but on the visible return of Christ from heaven will he perfected in the consummate blessings of ὁ αἰών ὁ μέλλων, we can understand why τό σῴζεσθαι is spoken of in some passages as a present possession, in others as a good yet future: — as a blessing beginning [or begun] on earth) (Dr. Essex sets forth that warnings in the epistles are there because not all those in the local churches are “in Christ”, they are professing Christians only, yet believers hear these warnings and learn from them.)
3For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received, that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, 4and that He was buried, and that He was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, 5and that He appeared to Cephas, then to the twelve. 6After that He appeared to more than five hundred brethren at one time, most of whom remain until now, but some have fallen asleep; 7then He appeared to James, then to all the apostles; 8and last of all, as to one untimely born, He appeared to me also (where Paul likens himself to an ἔκτρωμα, and in explains in what sense: that he is as inferior to the rest of the apostles as an immature birth comes short of a mature one, and is no more worthy of the name of an apostle than an abortion is of the name of a child.). 9For I am the least (in rank and excellence: of persons) of the apostles, and not fit to be called an apostle, because I persecuted (Hence, in any way whatever to harass, trouble, molest one) the church of God. 10But by the grace of God I am what I am, and His grace toward me did not prove vain; but I labored even more than all of them, yet not I, but the grace of God with me. 11Whether then it was I or they, so we preach and so you believed.
12Now if Christ is preached, that He has been raised from the dead, how do some among you say that there is no resurrection of the dead? 13But if there is no resurrection of the dead, not even Christ has been raised; 14and if Christ has not been raised, then our preaching is vain (metaphorically, empty, vain; devoid of truth), your faith also is vain. 15Moreover we are even found to be false witnesses of God, because we testified against God that He raised Christ, whom He did not raise, if in fact the dead are not raised. 16For if the dead are not raised, not even Christ has been raised; 17and if Christ has not been raised, your faith is worthless (useless, to no purpose); you are still in your sins. 18Then those also who have fallen asleep (the dead) in Christ have perished (to incur the loss of true or eternal life; to be delivered up to eternal misery). 19If we have hoped in Christ in this life only, we are of all men most to be pitied.

The Order of Resurrection

20But now Christ has been raised from the dead, the first fruits (as the first one recalled to life of them that have fallen asleep [here the phrase seems also to signify that by his case the future resurrection of Christians is guaranteed; because the first-fruits forerun and are, as it were, a pledge and promise of the rest of the harvest].) of those who are asleep. 21For since by a man came death, by a man also came the resurrection of the dead. 22For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ all will be made alive (NASB: All who are “in Adam”-i.e., his descendents-suffer death. All who are “in Christ”–i.e., who are related to him by faith-will be made alive at the resurrection [cf. John 5:25“Truly, truly, I say to you, an hour is coming and now is, when the dead will hear the voice of the Son of God, and those who hear will live. 1 Thess 4:16-17 For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel and with the trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive and remain will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we shall always be with the Lord. Rev 20:6Blessed and holy is the one who has a part in the first resurrection; over these the second death has no power, but they will be priests of God and of Christ and will reign with Him for a thousand years.]) . 23But each in his own order: Christ the first fruits, after that those who are Christ’s at His coming, 24then comes the end (denotes either the end of the eschatological events, or the end of the resurrection i. e. the last or third act of the resurrection. NASB: The second coming of Christ and all the events accompanying it. This includes His handing over the kingdom to the Father, following His destroying all dominion, authority and power of the persons and forces who oppose Him.), when He hands over the kingdom to the God and Father, when He has abolished all rule and all authority and power. 25For He must reign until He has put all His enemies under His feet. 26The last enemy that will be abolished is death. 27For HE HAS PUT ALL THINGS IN SUBJECTION UNDER HIS FEET. But when He says, “All things are put in subjection (to arrange under, to subordinate; to subject, put in subjection),” it is evident that He (YHWH) is excepted (beyond, besides, except) who put all things in subjection to Him (Yehoshua). 28When all things are subjected to Him, then the Son Himself also will be subjected (properly, “under God’s arrangement,” i.e. submitting to the Lord (His plan; to place or rank under, to subject, to obey) to the One who subjected all things to Him, so that God may be all in all.
29Otherwise, what will those do who are baptized for the dead (deceased, departed, one whose soul is in Hades. NASB: The present tense suggests that at Corinth people were currently being baptized for the dead. Paul does not give any more information about this practice. [Alice: There are three views on this passage of scripyure, but one suggest that living believers were being baptized for believers who died before they were baptized, so that they too , in a sense, would not miss out on baptism.])? If the dead are not raised at all, why then are they baptized for them? 30Why are we also in danger (to be in jeopardy, to be in danger, to be pat in peril) every hour? 31I affirm, brethren, by the boasting in you which I have in Christ Jesus our Lord, I die daily (I meet death daily, live daily in danger of death). 32If from human motives I fought with wild beasts at Ephesus, what does it profit me? If the dead are not raised, LET US EAT AND DRINK, FOR TOMORROW WE DIE. 33Do not be deceived: “Bad company corrupts good morals.” 34Become sober-minded (to return to soberness of mind. – properly, delivered out of drunkenness and to sobriety (seriousness), i.e. with the awareness outcome of being responsibly aware; (figuratively) aroused (awakened) out of the stupor of spiritual delusion (apathy); “to come to one’s senses”; sober-minded because “snapped out of” the intoxicating influence of sin (darkness) and brought into keen alertness of spiritual truth [conviction, faith, etc.].) as you ought, and stop sinning; for some have no knowledge of God. I speak this to your shame (to arouse your shame).
35But someone will say, “How are the dead raised? And with what kind of body do they come?” 36You fool! That which you sow does not come to life unless it dies; 37and that which you sow, you do not sow the body which is to be, but a bare grain, perhaps of wheat or of something else. 38But God gives it a body just as He wished, and to each of the seeds a body of its own. 39All flesh is not the same flesh, but there is one flesh of men, and another flesh of beasts, and another flesh of birds, and another of fish. 40There are also heavenly bodies and earthly bodies, but the glory of the heavenly is one, and the glory of the earthly is another. 41There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars; for star differs from star in glory.
42So also is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown a perishable body (in a state of corruption or decomposition [of the body at burial]), it is raised an imperishable body (of the body of man exempt from decay after the resurrection.); 43it is sown in dishonor, it is raised in glory; it is sown in weakness, it is raised in power; 44it is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body. If there is a natural body, there is also a spiritual body. 45So also it is written, “The first MAN, Adam, BECAME A LIVING SOUL.” The last Adam (Yehoshua) became a life-giving spirit. 46However, the spiritual is not first, but the natural; then the spiritual. 47The first man is from the earth, earthy; the second man is from heaven. 48As is the earthy, so also are those who are earthy; and as is the heavenly, so also are those who are heavenly. 49Just as we have borne the image of the earthy, we will also bear the image of the heavenly.

The Mystery of Resurrection

50Now I say this, brethren, that flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God; nor does the perishable (that which is subject to corruption) inherit the imperishable (indestructibility, incorruptibility; hence: immortality.). 51Behold, I tell you a mystery; we will not all sleep, but we will all be changed, 52in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet; for the trumpet will sound, and the dead will be raised imperishable, and we will be changed. 53For this perishable must put on the imperishable, and this mortal must put on immortality. 54But when this perishable will have put on the imperishable, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then will come about the saying that is written, “DEATH IS SWALLOWED UP in victory. 55“O DEATH, WHERE IS YOUR VICTORY? O DEATH, WHERE IS YOUR STING?” (a sting, as that of bees [4 Macc. 14:19], scorpions, locusts, Revelation 9:10 They have tails like scorpions, and stings; and in their tails is their power to hurt men for five months. Since animals wound by their sting and even cause death, Paul in 1 Corinthians 15:55 [after Hosea 13:14 , Shall I ransom them from the power of Sheol? Shall I redeem them from death? O Death, where are your thorns? O Sheol, where is your sting? Compassion will be hidden from My sight. the Sept.] attributes to death, personified, a κέντρον, i. e. a deadly weapon, and that κέντρον is said to be ἡ ἁμαρτία (56), because sin is death’s cause and punishment (?) (Romans 5:12 Therefore, just as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men, because all sinned— ). Dr. Saucy says there is some kind of “sting” associated with death.) 56The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law; 57but thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ.
58Therefore, my beloved brethren, be steadfast (in the N. T. metaphorically, of those who are fixed in purpose), immovable (firmly persistent (A. V. unmovable), always abounding (to be pre-eminent, to excel) in the work of the Lord, knowing that your toil is not in vain in the Lord.

 
New American Standard Bible
Instructions and Greetings

1 Cor 16:1Now concerning the collection (a collection: of money gathered for the relief of the poor) for the saints (set apart for God, to be, as it were, exclusively his: Just as the Israelites claimed for themselves the title οἱ ἅγιοι [Sacred, holy] because God selected them from the other nations to lead a life acceptable to him and rejoice in his favor and protection, so this appellation is very often in the N. T. transferred to Christians, as those whom God has selected ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου [John 17:14, 16 “I have given them Your word; and the world has hated them, because they are not of the world, even as I am not of the world. “They are not of the world, even as I am not of the world.], that under the influence of the Holy Spirit they may be rendered, through holiness, partakers of salvation in the kingdom of God), as I directed the churches of Galatia, so do you also. 2On the first day of every week each one of you is to put aside and save, as he may prosper (whatever (business) has prospered), so that no collections be made when I come. 3When I arrive, whomever you may approve, I will send them with letters to carry your gift to Jerusalem; 4and if it is fitting for me to go also, they will go with me.
5But I will come to you after I go through Macedonia, for I am going through Macedonia; 6and perhaps I will stay with you, or even spend the winter, so that you may send me on my way (to send forward, bring on the way, accompany or escort. NASB: With supplies and equipment, and certainly with prayers and goodwill. However, Paul had indicated earlier in the letter [9:7-12] that he did not want to be a financial burden to them.) wherever I may go. 7For I do not wish to see you now just in passing; for I hope to remain with you for some time, if the Lord permits. 8But I will remain in Ephesus until Pentecost; 9for a wide door for effective (is spoken of, ‘an opportunity for the working of the gospel) service has opened to me, and there are many adversaries.
10Now if Timothy comes, see that he is with you without cause to be afraid, for he is doing the Lord’s work, as I also am. 11So let no one despise (to make of no account, to despise utterly) him. But send him on his way in peace, so that he may come to me; for I expect him with the brethren.
12But concerning Apollos our brother, I encouraged him greatly to come to you with the brethren; and it was not at all his desire to come now, but he will come when he has opportunity.
13Be on the alert (Metaphorically, to watch i. e. give strict attention to, be cautious, or Active —lest one fall into sin), stand firm (to stand firm; tropically, to persist, persevere (A. V. stand fast): in one’s fellowship with the Lord) in the faith, act like men, be strong (i. e. show yourselves brave). 14Let all that you do be done in love.
15Now I urge you, brethren (you know the household of Stephanas, that they were the first fruits of Achaia, and that they have devoted themselves for ministry to the saints), 16that you also be in subjection to such men and to everyone who helps in the work and labors. 17I rejoice over the coming of Stephanas and Fortunatus and Achaicus, because they have supplied what was lacking on your part. 18For they have refreshed my spirit and yours. Therefore acknowledge such men.
19The churches of Asia greet you. Aquila and Prisca greet you heartily in the Lord, with the church that is in their house. 20All the brethren greet you. Greet one another with a holy kiss.
21The greeting is in my own hand—Paul. 22If anyone does not love the Lord, he is to be accursed (a man accursed, devoted to the direst woes). Maranatha (i. e. our Lord cometh or will come). 23The grace (The apostles and N. T. writers at the beginning and end of their Epistles crave for their readers the favor (`grace’) of God or of Christ, to which all blessings, especially spiritual, are due.) of the Lord Jesus be with you. 24My love be with you all in Christ Jesus. Amen.

 
New American Standard Bible
2 Corinthians
Introduction

2 Cor 1:1Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, and Timothy our brother,
To the church of God which is at Corinth with all the saints who are throughout Achaia:
2Grace to you and peace (in the salutations at the beginning and the close of the apostolic Epistles) from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
3Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies (the father of mercies i. e. most merciful) and God of all comfort (God the author and bestower of comfort), 4who comforts us in all our affliction so that we will be able to comfort those who are in any affliction with the comfort with which we ourselves are comforted by God. 5For just as the sufferings (also the afflictions which Christians must undergo in behalf of the same cause for which Christ patiently endured, are called παθήματα τοῦ Χριστοῦ [that which befalls one, i.e. a suffering, a passion]) of Christ are ours in abundance, so also our comfort is abundant through Christ. 6But if we are afflicted, it is for your comfort and salvation; or if we are comforted, it is for your comfort, which is effective (to display one’s activity, show oneself operative) in the patient enduring of the same sufferings which we also suffer; 7and our hope for you is firmly grounded, knowing that as you are sharers of our sufferings, so also you are sharers of our comfort.
8For we do not want you to be unaware, brethren, of our affliction which came to us in Asia, that we were burdened excessively, beyond our strength, so that we despaired even of life; 9indeed, we had the sentence (an answer: where the meaning is, ‘On asking myself whether I should come out safe from mortal peril, I answered, I must die.) of death within ourselves ( i. e. in the soul, spirit, heart) so that we would not trust in ourselves, but in God who raises the dead; 10who delivered us from so great a peril of death, and will deliver us, He on whom we have set our hope (in whom you have put your hope, and rely upon it). And He will yet deliver us, 11you also joining in helping us through your prayers, so that thanks may be given by many persons on our behalf for the favor (a gift of grace; a favor which one receives without any merit of his own; in the N. T. (where [except 1 Peter 4:10] used only by Paul) the gift of divine grace) bestowed on us through the prayers of many.

Paul’s Integrity

12For our proud confidence is this: the testimony of our conscience, that in holiness (sanctity, in a moral sense) and godly sincerity (purity, sincerity, ingenuousness, which God effects by the Holy Spirit), not in fleshly (equivalent to human: with the included idea of depravity) wisdom but in the grace of God, we have conducted ourselves in the world, and especially toward you. 13For we write nothing else to you than what you read and understand, and I hope you will understand until the end (the end of all things [i. e. of the present order of things]); 14just as you also partially (in part, i. e. somewhat) did understand us, that we are your reason to be proud as you also are ours, in the day (of the last day of the present age, the day in which Christ will return from heaven, raise the dead, hold the final judgment, and perfect his kingdom) of our Lord Jesus.
15In this confidence (trust, confidence (R. V.), reliance) I intended (to will deliberately, have a purpose, be minded) at first to come to you, so that you might twice receive a blessing; 16that is, to pass your way into Macedonia, and again from Macedonia to come to you, and by you to be helped (to send forward, bring on the way, accompany or escort) on my journey to Judea. 17Therefore, I was not vacillating when I intended to do this, was I? Or what I purpose, do I purpose according to the flesh, so that with me there will be yes, yes and no, no at the same time? 18But as God is faithful, our word to you is not yes and no. 19For the Son of God, Christ Jesus, who was preached among you by us—by me and Silvanus and Timothy—was not yes and no, but is yes in Him. 20For as many as are the promises of God, in Him they are yes; therefore also through Him is our Amen (i. e. had shown themselves most sure) to the glory (so as to honor God, to promote his glory [among men]) of God through us. 21Now He who establishes (causing us to be steadfast in our fellowship with Christ) us with you in Christ and anointed (enduing Christians with the gifts of the Holy Spirit) us is God, 22who also sealed (respecting God, who by the gift of the Holy Spirit indicates who are his, passive) us and gave us the Spirit in our hearts as a pledge (to pledge; a word which seems to have passed from the Phoenicians to the Greeks, and thence into Latin. [the Holy Spirit is the believers’ down payment on eschatological salvation, cf. Eph 4:30 Do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, by whom you were sealed for the day of redemption.]), an earnest, i. e. money which in purchases is given as a pledge that the full amount will subsequently be paid; payment in advance for security) 23But I call God as witness to my soul (breath, i.e. [by implication] spirit, abstractly or concretely — heart (+ -ily), life, mind, soul, + us, + you. ), that to spare you I did not come again to Corinth. 24Not that we lord it over your faith, but are workers with you for your joy; for in your faith you are standing firm.

 
New American Standard Bible
Reaffirm Your Love

2 Cor 2:1But I determined this for my own sake, that I would not come to you in sorrow (of one who on coming both saddens and is made sad) again. 2For if I cause you sorrow, who then makes me glad but the one whom I made sorrowful? 3This is the very thing I wrote you, so that when I came, I would not have sorrow from those who ought to make me rejoice; having confidence in you all that my joy would be the joy of you all. 4For out of much affliction (anxiety, burden of heart) and anguish (straits, distress) of heart I wrote to you with many tears; not so that you would be made sorrowful, but that you might know the love which I have especially for you. (NASB: This passage refers to a previous letter that had been sent to the Corinthians [1 Corinthians]).
5But if any has caused sorrow, he has caused sorrow not to me, but in some degree—in order not to say too much—to all of you. 6Sufficient for such a one is this punishment (“to turn a situation in the right direction”) – the fitting (appropriate) response necessary to turn someone in the right direction) which was inflicted [many (high in number]; multitudinous, plenteous, “much”; “great” in amount [extent]) by the majority, 7so that on the contrary you should rather forgive and comfort him, otherwise such a one might be overwhelmed by excessive sorrow. 8Wherefore I urge you to reaffirm your love for him. 9For to this end also I wrote, so that I might put you to the test, whether you are obedient in all things. 10But one whom you forgive anything, I forgive also; for indeed what I have forgiven, if I have forgiven anything, I did it for your sakes in the presence of Christ, 11so that no advantage would be taken of us by Satan, for we are not ignorant of his schemes. (NASB: 2:5-11 speaks of a particular person who has been the cause of serious offense in Corinth and upon whom the church discipline has been imposed. Paul admonishes the Corinthians that because the offender has shown genuine sorrow and repentance for his sin the punishment should be discontinued and he should be lovingly restored to their fellowship.)
12Now when I came to Troas for the gospel of Christ and when a door was opened for me in the Lord, 13I had no rest for my spirit, not finding Titus my brother; but taking my leave of them, I went on to Macedonia. (NASB: Paul had traveled up from Ephesus to Troas, a city on the Aegean coast opposite the Island of Tenedos, hoping to find Titus there and to receive news from him about the Corinthian church.)
14But thanks be to God, who always leads us in triumph (with the accusative of a person, to cause one to triumph, i. e. metaphorically, to grant one complete success) in Christ, and manifests through us the sweet aroma (smell) of the knowledge of Him in every place. 15For we are a fragrance (our efficiency in which the power of Christ himself is at work is well-pleasing to God) of Christ to God among those who are being saved ( [it must be borne in mind, that according to John’s conception eternal life begins on earth, just as soon as one becomes united to Christ by faith]. Hence, οἱ σῳζόμενοι they to whom it belongs to partake of salvation, and οἱ ἀπολλύμενοι those to whom it belongs to perish or to be consigned to eternal misery, are contrasted by Paul.) and among those who are perishing; 16to the one an aroma from death to death, to the other an aroma from life to life. And who is adequate (sufficient in ability, i. e. meet, fit [worthy, able, etc.], for something) for these things? 17For we are not like many (the many whom ye know), peddling (– properly, to act as an unscrupulous merchant, i.e. “a huckster” who profits by “peddling the Word of God” for personal gain. (“peddler”) is only used in 2 Cor 2:17 – of people “marketing the ministry” [the Word of God] for fast gain; equivalent to to trade in the word of God, i. e. to try to get base gain by teaching divine truth. But as pedlers were in the habit of adulterating their commodities for the sake of gain) the word of God, but as from sincerity (purity, sincerity, ingenuousness), but as from God, we speak in Christ in the sight (he being witness) of God.

 
New American Standard Bible
Ministers of a New Covenant

2 Cor 3: 1Are we beginning to commend (to set one with another i. e. by way of presenting or introducing him, i. e. to commend) ourselves again? Or do we need, as some, letters of commendation (properly, what stands together, referring to a coherent endorsement, or letter of commendation [used only in 2 Cor 3:1]. NASB: Paul is sensitive to the fact that virtually everything he wrote or said was liable to be twisted and used in a hostile manner by the false teachers in Corinth.) to you or from you? 2You are our letter, written in our hearts, known and read by all men; 3being manifested that you are a letter of Christ, cared for by us, written not with ink but with the Spirit of the living God, not on tablets of stone but on tablets of human hearts.
4Such confidence we have through Christ toward God. 5Not that we are adequate in ourselves to consider anything as coming from ourselves, but our adequacy is from God, 6who also made us adequate as servants of a new covenant, not of the letter but of the Spirit (the sacred writings Since the Jews so clave to the letter of the law that it not only became to them a mere letter but also a hindrance to true religion, Paul calls it γράμμα in a disparaging sense, and contrasts it with τό πνεῦμα i. e. the divine Spirit, whether operative in the Mosaic law, or in the gospel, by which Christians are governed); for the letter kills (to deprive of spiritual life and procure eternal misery), but the Spirit gives life (to cause to live, make alive, give life, by spiritual power to arouse and invigorate).
7But if the ministry of death, in letters engraved on stones, came with glory, so that the sons of Israel could not look intently at the face of Moses because of the glory of his face, fading as it was, 8how will the ministry of the Spirit fail to be even more with glory? 9For if the ministry of condemnation has glory (opinion [always good in N.T.], hence praise, honor, glory), much more does the ministry of righteousness abound (to be pre-eminent, to excel) in glory. 10For indeed what had glory (Law), in this case has no glory because of the glory that surpasses it. 11For if that which fades away was with glory, much more that which remains is in glory.
12Therefore having such a hope, we use great boldness (freedom in speaking, unreservedness in speech) in our speech, 13and are not like Moses, who used to put a veil over his face so that the sons of Israel would not look intently at the end of what was fading away. 14But their minds were hardened (to grow hard or callous, become dull, lose the power of understanding); for until this very day at the reading of the old covenant the same veil remains unlifted, because it is removed (to render inoperative, abolish) in Christ. 15But to this day whenever Moses is read, a veil lies over their heart; 16but whenever a person turns to the Lord, the veil is taken away. 17Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is liberty (from Jewish errors so blinding the mental vision that it does not discern the majesty of Christ). 18But we all, with unveiled face, beholding as in a mirror (the glory of Christ [which we behold in the gospel as in a mirror from which it is reflected]) the glory of the Lord, are being transformed (we are transformed into the same image [of consummate excellence that shines in Christ], reproduce the same image) into the same image (the image of the Son of God, into which true Christians are transformed, is likeness not only to the heavenly body (cf. 1 Corinthians 15:49; Philippians 3:21), but also to the most holy and blessed state of mind, which Christ possesses: Romans 8:29; 2 Corinthians 3:18.) from glory to glory, just as from the Lord, the Spirit.

 
New American Standard Bible
Paul’s Apostolic Ministry

2 Cor 4: 1Therefore, since we have this ministry (For the believer, /diakonía (“ministry”) specifically refers to Spirit-empowered service guided by faith [/pístis, “the Lord’s inbirthed persuasion”]; of the office of the apostles and its administration), as we received mercy (to experience (A. V. obtain) mercy, specifically, of God granting even to the unworthy favor, benefits, opportunities, and particularly salvation by Christ.), we do not lose heart, 2but we have renounced (to give up) the things hidden (his secret thoughts, feelings, desires) because of shame (evil arts of which one ought to be ashamed), not walking in craftiness (cunning) or adulterating (to corrupt divine truth by mingling with it wrong notions) the word of God, but by the manifestation of truth commending (to set one with another i. e. by way of presenting or introducing him) ourselves to every man’s conscience (“the soul as distinguishing between what is morally good and bad, prompting to do the former and shun the latter, commending the one, condemning the other; conscience”) in the sight of God (NASB: Paul is referring to false teachers in Corinth. By contrast, he is able to appeal to the conscience of every one of them and also to his integrity in the sight of God, because his practice was always that of setting forth the truth plainly, i.e., without veiling it resorting to deception (cf. 1:12, 18-24.). 3And even if our gospel (of the author of the particular mode in which the subject-matter of the gospel is understood [conception of the gospel] and taught to others; thus Paul calls his exposition of the gospel [and that of the teachers who agree with him], in opposition to that of those teaching differently) is veiled (to hide, veil, i. e. to hinder the knowledge of a thing), it is veiled to those who are perishing (to destroy, destroy utterly; to die, with the implication of ruin and destruction”; cause to be lost [utterly perish] by experiencing a miserable end), 4in whose case the god of this world (the devil, who rules the thoughts and deeds of the men of this age) has blinded (to blunt the mental discernment, darken the mind) the minds of the unbelieving so that they might not see the light ( that the brightness of the gospel might not shine forth (R. V. dawn [upon them]), i. e. (dropping the figure) that the enlightening truth of the gospel might not be manifest or be apprehended.) of the gospel (the good news [see not on the gospel below]) of the glory of Christ, who is the image of God (Image: Image then exactly reflects its source [what it directly corresponds to]. For example, Christ is the very image [supreme expression] of the Godhead; to Christ, on account of his divine nature and absolute moral excellence, [see Col 1:15]). 5For we do not preach ourselves but Christ Jesus as Lord, and ourselves as your bond-servants (devoted to another to the disregard of one’s own interests: strenuously laboring for another’s salvation) for Jesus’ sake. 6For God, who said, “Light shall shine out of darkness,” (cf. Gen 1:3) is the One who has shone in our hearts to give the Light (the act of enlightening, illumination: that by teaching we may bring to light etc.) of the knowledge (the knowledge of God, such as is offered in the gospel, especially in Paul’s exposition of it) of the glory of God in the face of Christ (to appear before the face of God, spoken of Christ, the eternal priest, who has entered into the heavenly sanctuary, Hebrews 9:24; in imitation of the Hebrew אֵל־פָּנִים פָּנִים [face] we have the phrase πρόσωπον πρός πρόσωπον, face [turned] to face: tropically, see God face to face, i. e. discern perfectly his nature, will, purposes; a person is said to be sent or to go, i. e. before one, to announce his coming and remove the obstacles from his way, that we may bring forth into the light the knowledge of the glory of God as it shines in the face of Jesus Christ, 2 Corinthians 4:6 [Paul really means, the majesty of God manifest in the person of Christ; but the signification of πρόσωπον is ‘face,’ and Paul is led to use the word by what he had said in of the brightness visible in the force of Moses].). (Note on pistis [faith] and diakonia [ministry] in v. 4:1: Observe the close connection of faith (4102 /pístis) and 1248 (diakonía) in Ac 6:1-7,21:19,20; Rom 12:3,7; 1 Cor 16:13,15; Eph 4:12,13; 1 Tim 1:12,14; 2 Tim 4:5,7.) (Note on the gospel v. 4:4: (the glad tidings of the kingdom of God soon to be set up, and subsequently also of Jesus, the Messiah, the founder of this kingdom; After the death of Christ the term τό εὐαγγέλιον comprises also the preaching of [concerning] Jesus Christ as having suffered death on the cross to procure eternal salvation for men in the kingdom of God, but as restored to life and exalted to the right hand of God in heaven, thence to return in majesty to consummate the kingdom of God; so that it may be more briefly defined as “the glad tidings of salvation through Christ; the proclamation of the grace of God manifested and pledged in Christ; the gospel”)
7But we have this treasure (something precious, used thus of the light of the gospel) in earthen (made of clay, earthen: with the added suggestion of frailty) vessels (is applied to human bodies, as frail), so that the surpassing greatness (superiority, excellence, preeminence (R. V. exceeding greatness) of the power (“inherent power, power residing in a thing by virtue of its nature, or which a person or thing exerts and puts forth”: moral power and excellence of soul [see quote by Bruce below]. Saucy says the battle of Christ in the incarnation was a moral, “In the final analogy, it is a moral battle. It is a spiritual moral battle. It is not who has the most power. God could have obliterated Satan instantly, but that would not have won a moral battle. So it has to be fought on the moral plane, and it was on this plane that Yehoshua won.”) will be of God and not from ourselves; 8we are afflicted in every way, but not crushed (passive tropically, of one sorely ‘straitened’ in spirit); perplexed (to be at a loss with oneself, be in doubt; not to know how to decide or what to do), but not despairing (“to be utterly at a loss, be utterly destitute of measures or resources, to renounce all hope, be in despair”); 9persecuted, but not forsaken (to abandon, desert, in some place or condition), i. e. to leave in straits, leave helpless); struck down (to cast down: to throw to the ground, prostrate: passive [where the metaphor is taken from an athlete or combatant]), but not destroyed (tropically, to incur the loss of true or eternal life; to be delivered up to eternal misery); 10always carrying (to carry round: to bear about everywhere with one) about in the body the dying (equivalent to the being put to death, i. e. the (protracted) death (A. V. the dying) which Jesus underwent in God’s service; Paul so styles the marks of perpetual trials, misfortunes, hardships attended with peril of death, evident in his body) of Jesus, so that the life (a new mode of life, dedicated to God; of the life of Jesus after his resurrection, with the added notion of vigor) of Jesus also may be manifested in our body. 11For we who live are constantly being delivered over to (to councils [involving also the idea of conducting]) death (passive, to be given over to the peril of death) for Jesus’ sake, so that the life of Jesus also may be manifested in our mortal flesh. 12So death works in us, but life in you. (Quote by Bruce v. 7: It (the victory of Christ over temptation) must not be the matter-of course result of the physical ground of His being, but the effect brought about by the operations of the Holy Spirit dwelling in Him in plenary measure, helping Him to exercise strong faith and to cherish lively hope, and inspiring Him with a love to His Father and to men, and with a consuming zeal for righteousness, which should be more than a match for all the temptations that might be directed against Him, by Satan and an evil world, acting on and through a pure but tremulously sensitive human nature. So regarded Christ’s strife with sin is a fair fight, and His conquest a moral achievement, and the physical divine ground is simply the guarantee that gracious influences shall be supplied to the adequate extent (A. B. Bruce, p. 270).)
13But having the same spirit of faith, according to what is written, “I BELIEVED, THEREFORE I SPOKE,” (is used emphatically, of those who acknowledge Jesus as the saviour and devote themselves to him. NASB: Faith leads to testimony. Paul therefore tirelessly labored and journeyed to bring the gospel message to others.) we also believe, therefore we also speak, 14knowing that He (YHWH) who raised the Lord Jesus will raise us also with Jesus and will present us with you. 15For all things are for your sakes, so that the grace which is spreading to more and more people may cause the giving of thanks to abound to the glory of God.
16Therefore we do not lose heart, but though our outer man is decaying, yet our inner man is being renewed (new, to make new”; passive, new strength and vigor is given to me; /anakainóō [“to renew”] only occurs in 2 Cor 4:16 and Col 3:10, both times referring to God ever-transforming the believer – by renewing “the new man” (anthrōpos) in Christ.) day by day. 17For momentary, light affliction is producing for us an eternal weight of glory far beyond all comparison, 18while we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen; for the things which are seen are temporal, but the things which are not seen are eternal.

 

 

New American Standard Bible
The Temporal and Eternal

2 Cor: 5 1For we know that if the earthly tent (a tabernacle, a tent, used metaphorically, of the human body, in which the soul dwells as in a tent, and which is taken down at death) which is our house is torn down, we have a building (used of the heavenly body, the abode of the soul after death) from God, a house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens. 2For indeed in this house we groan, longing to be clothed with our dwelling from heaven, 3inasmuch as we, having put it on, will not be found naked (– clothe oneself, emphasizing the personal choice (heart-desire) that strongly yearns to be aptly clothed. Both occasions of ependýomai [“appropriately clothed”] refer to the glorified body the Lord gives [puts on] each believer at Christ’s return (cf. 2 Cor 5:2,4 with 5:10). This unique glorification will “fit” [be appropriate], and is part of the eternal reward matching the individual’s desire to see Christ return (see J. I. Packer, Concise Theology, 249). ). 4For indeed while we are in this tent, we groan, being burdened, because we do not want to be unclothed (to put off the body, the clothing of the soul (A. V. be unclothed) but to be clothed (to put on over [A. V. to be clothed upon]), so that what is mortal will be swallowed up by life (without epithet, are used of the blessing of real life after the resurrection, at the end. NASB: By our participation in the resurrection life of Jesus (4:10) our mortal being is swallowed up by life, not by death. Paul reverses the age-old imagery of death and the grave being the great swallower [see Ps 69:15; Prov 1:12], as did Isaiah [see Is 25:8; see also 1 Cor 15:54]. ). 5Now He who prepared (to fashion, i. e. render one fit for a thing) us for this very purpose is God, who gave to us the Spirit as a pledge [an earnest [a part payment in advance for security]).
6Therefore, being always of good courage, and knowing that while we are at home in the body we are absent from the Lord— 7for we walk by faith, not by sight— 8we are of good courage, I say, and prefer rather to be absent from the body and to be at home with the Lord. 9Therefore we also have as our ambition (to strive earnestly, make it one’s aim), whether at home or absent, to be pleasing to Him. 10For we must all appear before the judgment seat (a raised place mounted by steps; a platform, tribune: used of the official seat of a judge; of the judgment-seat of Christ, Romans 14:10 But you, why do you judge your brother? Or you again, why do you regard your brother with contempt? For we will all stand before the judgment seat of God. [Believers’’ judgment for the works done in this life, to receive rewards or suffer lost. Also see Eph 2:10) of Christ, so that each one may be recompensed for his deeds in the body, according to what he has done, whether good or bad. (1 Cor 3: 10-15 According to the grace of God which was given to me, like a wise master builder I laid a foundation, and another is building on it. But each man must be careful how he builds on it. For no man can lay a foundation other than the one which is laid, which is Jesus Christ. Now if any man builds on the foundation with gold, silver, precious stones, wood, hay, straw, each man’s work will become evident; for the day will show it because it is to be revealed with fire, and the fire itself will test the quality of each man’s work. If any man’s work which he has built on it remains, he will receive a reward. If any man’s work is burned up, he will suffer loss; but he himself will be saved, yet so as through fire.)
11Therefore, knowing the fear of the Lord, we persuade (to persuade, to have confidence) men, but we are made manifest to God; and I hope that we are made manifest also in your consciences. 12We are not again commending ourselves to you but are giving you an occasion to be proud of us, so that you will have an answer for those who take pride in appearance and not in heart. 13For if we are beside ourselves (to displace, to stand aside from), it is for God; if we are of sound mind, it is for you. 14For the love of Christ controls (to urge, impel: tropically, the soul [A. V. constraineth]) us, having concluded this, that one died for all, therefore all died; 15and He died for all, so that they who live (to live, of the manner of living and acting; of morals or character; to devote, consecrate, life to one; so to live that life results in benefit to someone or to his cause) might no longer live for themselves, but for Him who died and rose again on their behalf.
16Therefore from now on we recognize no one according to the flesh (man as he appears, such as he presents himself to view, man’s external appearance and condition); even though we have known Christ according to the flesh, yet now we know Him in this way no longer. 17Therefore if anyone is in Christ, he is a new (all things are new, previously non-existent, begin to be far different from what they were before) creature (is used of a man regenerated through Christ); the old things (the man’s previous moral condition) passed away; behold, new things have come. 18Now all these things are from God, who reconciled (to receive one into his favor (A. V. reconcile one to himself [where in the added participles two arguments are adduced which prove that God has done this: first, that he does not impute to men their trespasses; second, that he has deposited the doctrine of reconciliation in the souls of the preachers of the gospel]) us to Himself through Christ and gave us the ministry of reconciliation, 19namely, that God was in Christ reconciling the world to Himself, not counting their trespasses against them, and He has committed to us the word of reconciliation.
20Therefore, we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God were making an appeal (to admonish, exhort, followed by direct discourse,) through us; we beg (δεομεθα to beg (as binding oneself), i.e. petition — beseech, pray (to), make request.) you on behalf of Christ, be reconciled to God. 21He made Him who knew no sin to be sin on our behalf, so that we might become the righteousness of God in Him.

 
New American Standard Bible
Their Ministry Commended

2 Cor 6: 1And working together with Him, we also urge you not to receive the grace (is used of “the merciful kindness by which God, exerting his holy influence upon souls, turns them to Christ, keeps, strengthens, increases them in Christian faith, knowledge, affection, and kindles them to the exercise of the Christian virtues”) of God in vain— (to no purpose, empty. NASB: to live for oneself [see 5:15] is one way to do this)
2for He says,
“AT THE ACCEPTABLE TIME I LISTENED TO YOU,
AND ON THE DAY OF SALVATION I HELPED YOU.”
Behold, now is “THE ACCEPTABLE TIME,” behold, now is “THE DAY OF SALVATION”—
(NASB: This understanding dos not exclude from grace and salvation those who lived before Christ’s coming, for the believers of the OT period received the promises that in due course were fulfilled in Christ (1:20) and they saw and welcomed their fulfillment from a distance (see John 8:56; Heb 11:13)
3giving no cause for offense (to do something which causes others to stumble, i. e. leads them into error or sin,) in anything, so that the ministry will not be discredited (to blame, find fault with, mock at), 4but in everything commending ourselves as servants of God, in much endurance (in the N. T. the characteristic of a man who is unswerved from his deliberate purpose and his loyalty to faith and piety by even the greatest trials and sufferings), in afflictions (oppression, affliction, tribulation, distress, straits), in hardships (calamity, distress, straits [plural]), in distresses (dire calamity, extreme affliction, (A. V. distress, anguish), 5in beatings, in imprisonments, in tumults (disturbances, disorders of seditions), in labors (intense labor united with trouble, toil [plural] ), in sleeplessness, in hunger, 6in purity (uprightness of life), in knowledge (the deeper, more perfect and enlarged knowledge of this religion, such as belongs to the more advanced), in patience (forbearance, long-suffering, slowness in avenging wrongs), in kindness (benignity ), in the Holy Spirit, in genuine love, 7in the word of truth ( preaching), in the power (is used of the divine power considered as acting upon the minds of men) of God; by the weapons ([“instruments to make war”] underlines that God always gives all the resources we need to prevail in every form of spiritual warfare – as we live in faith [“His inbirthed persuasion”]) of righteousness (“integrity, virtue, purity of life, uprightness, correctness in thinking, feeling, and acting) for the right hand (for the purpose of defense, as the shield) and the left (defensive weapons), 8by glory and dishonor, by evil report and good report; regarded as deceivers and yet true; 9as unknown yet well-known, as dying (I meet death daily, live daily in danger of death) yet behold, we live (in the sense of living and thriving); as punished yet not put to death, 10as sorrowful yet always rejoicing, as poor (needy) yet making many rich (used of spiritual riches), as having nothing yet possessing all things.(NASB: True wealth does not consist in worldly possessions but in being “rich toward God” (Luke 12:15, 21). The believer, even if he has nothing of this world’s goods, nevertheless has everything in Him who is Lord of all [cf. 1Cor 1:4-5; 3:21-23; Eph 2:7; 3:8; Phil 4:19; Col 2:3])
11Our mouth has spoken freely to you, O Corinthians, our heart is opened wide. 12You are not restrained (ample space is granted you in our souls, i. e. we enfold you with large affection) by us, but you are restrained (you do not grant a place in your heart for love toward me) in your own affections. 13Now in a like exchange (n a good sense, a concise expression for Be ye also enlarged i. e. enlarge your hearts, just as I have done, that so ye may recompense me) —I speak as to children—open wide (be ye also enlarged in heart, to receive me therein) to us also.
14Do not be bound together (to be unequally yoked; tropically, to have fellowship with one who is not an equal, where the apostle is forbidding Christians to have contact with idolaters) with unbelievers; for what partnership (a sharing, communion, fellowship; a close relation between partners, i.e. people sharing something held in common) have righteousness and lawlessness, or what fellowship has light (used to denote truth and its knowledge, together with the spiritual purity congruous with it, especially the saving truth embodied in Christ and by his love and effort imparted to mankind) with darkness (of ignorance respecting divine things and human duties, and the accompanying ungodliness and immorality, together with their consequent misery)? 15Or what harmony (concord, agreement) has Christ with Belial (Belial, a name of Satan), or what has a believer in common with an unbeliever?
16Or what agreement has the temple of God (of a company of Christians, a Christian church, as dwelt in by the Spirit of God) with idols (a false god)? For we are the temple of the living God; just as God said,
“I WILL DWELL IN THEM AND WALK AMONG THEM;
AND I WILL BE THEIR GOD, AND THEY SHALL BE MY PEOPLE.
17“Therefore, COME OUT FROM THEIR MIDST AND BE SEPARATE,” says the Lord.
“AND DO NOT TOUCH WHAT IS UNCLEAN;
And I will welcome you.
18“And I will be a father to you,
And you shall be sons and daughters to Me,”
Says the Lord Almighty.

(Saucy: Adoption is the ultimate fruit and goal of redemption. The ultimate goal of God’s covenants with his people is that He may be their God and they His people [Jer. 31:33; 2 Cor. 6:16, 18; cf. Rev. 21:7—“He who overcomes will inherit these things, and I will be his God and he will be My son”]. All true believers overcome in Christ because He overcame.)

 
New American Standard Bible
Paul Reveals His Heart

2 Cor 7:1Therefore, having these promises, beloved, let us cleanse (in a moral sense; to free from the defilement of sin and from faults; to purify from wickedness) ourselves from all defilement of flesh and spirit, perfecting (to bring to an end, accomplish, perfect, execute, complete) holiness in the fear of God.
2Make room for us in your hearts; we wronged no one, we corrupted (to to bring to want or beggary) no one, we took advantage (to gain or take advantage of another, to overreach) of no one. 3I do not speak to condemn you, for I have said before that you are in our hearts to die together and to live together. 4Great is my confidence in you; great is my boasting on your behalf. I am filled with comfort (solace or cheer which comes from a happy lot or a prosperous state of things); I am overflowing with joy in all our affliction.
5For even when we came into Macedonia our flesh had no rest, but we were afflicted on every side: conflicts without, fears within. 6But God, who comforts the depressed (brought low with grief, depressed), comforted us by the coming of Titus; 7and not only by his coming, but also by the comfort with which he was comforted in you, as he reported to us your longing, your mourning, your zeal for me; so that I rejoiced even more. 8For though I caused you sorrow by my letter, I do not regret it; though I did regret it—for I see that that letter caused you sorrow, though only for a while— 9I now rejoice, not that you were made sorrowful, but that you were made sorrowful to the point of repentance (used merely of the improved spiritual state resulting from deep sorrow for sin); for you were made sorrowful according to the will of God, so that you might not suffer loss in anything through us. 10For the sorrow that is according to the will of God produces a repentance without regret, leading to salvation (salvation as the present possession of all true Christians), but the sorrow of the world produces death (“the misery of soul arising from sin, which begins on earth but lasts and increases after the death of the body”). 11For behold what earnestness this very thing, this godly sorrow, has produced in you: what vindication of yourselves, what indignation, what fear, what longing, what zeal, what avenging of wrong (a revenging; vengeance, punishment)! In everything you demonstrated yourselves to be innocent in the matter. 12So although I wrote to you, it was not for the sake of the offender nor for the sake of the one offended, but that your earnestness on our behalf might be made known to you in the sight of God. 13For this reason we have been comforted.
And besides our comfort, we rejoiced even much more for the joy of Titus, because his spirit has been refreshed by you all. 14For if in anything I have boasted to him about you, I was not put to shame; but as we spoke all things to you in truth, so also our boasting before Titus proved to be the truth. 15His affection abounds all the more toward you, as he remembers the obedience of you all, how you received him with fear and trembling. 16 I rejoice that in everything I have confidence in you.

New American Standard Bible
Great Generosity

2 Cor 8: 1Now, brethren, we wish to make known to you the grace of God which has been given in the churches of Macedonia, 2that in a great ordeal of affliction their abundance of joy and their deep poverty overflowed (to redound unto, turn out abundantly for, a thing) in the wealth (fullness, abundance, plenitude) of their liberality (openness of heart manifesting itself by benefactions). 3For I testify that according to their ability, and beyond their ability, they gave of their own accord, 4begging us with much urging for the favor of participation in the support of the saints, 5and this, not as we had expected, but they first gave themselves to the Lord and to us by the will (a determination (properly, the thing), i.e. (actively) choice (specially, purpose, decree; abstractly, volition) or (passively) inclination — desire, pleasure, will.) of God. 6So we urged Titus that as he had previously made a beginning, so he would also complete in you this gracious work as well. (NASB: The collection had been started in Corinth under the directions of Titus during the previous year (see v.10; 9:2), but, no doubt because of the troubles in the Corinthian church, had slowed down or come to a standstill. Paul is now sending Titus back to them, taking with him this present letter, for the purpose of completing this good work, which he describes as a “gracious work” [cf. the link between the grace of God and the selfless generosity of the Macedonian churches in vv. 1-5]).
7But just as you abound in everything, in faith and utterance (a word [as embodying an idea], a statement, a speech) and knowledge and in all earnestness ( diligence: universally, earnestness in accomplishing, promoting, or striving after anything) and in the love we inspired in you, see that you abound in this gracious work also. 8I am not speaking this as a command, but as proving ( to test; by implication, to approve — allow, discern, examine, like, (ap-)prove, try.) through the earnestness of others (NASB: The remarkable example of the Macedonian churches [vv. 1-5]) the sincerity of your love ( NASB: They can prove this by giving selflessly and spontaneously.) also. 9For you know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that though He was rich (he formerly abounded in the riches of a heavenly condition, by assuming human nature he entered into a state of [earthly] poverty, ), yet for your sake He became poor (properly, one who slinks and crouches), often involving the idea of roving about in wretchedness [“but it always had a bad sense till it was ennobled in the Gospels]; see Phil 2:3-8 Do nothing from selfishness or empty conceit, but with humility of mind regard one another as more important than yourselves; do not merely look out for your own personal interests, but also for the interests of others. Have this attitude in yourselves which was also in Christ Jesus, who, although He existed in the form of God, did not regard equality with God a thing to be grasped, but emptied Himself, taking the form of a bond-servant, and being made in the likeness of men. Being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross.), so that you through His poverty might become rich. 10I give my opinion in this matter, for this is to your advantage (to bring together, to be profitable), who were the first to begin a year ago not only to do this, but also to desire to do it. 11But now finish doing it also, so that just as there was the readiness (inclination; readiness of mind) to desire it, so there may be also the completion of it by your ability. 12For if the readiness is present, it is acceptable according to what a person has, not according to what he does not have. 13For this is not for the ease of others and for your affliction, but by way of equality— 14at this present time your abundance being a supply for their need, so that their abundance also may become a supply for your need, that there may be equality; 15as it is written, “HE WHO gathered MUCH DID NOT HAVE TOO MUCH, AND HE WHO gathered LITTLE HAD NO LACK.” (NASB: The reference is to the gathering by the Israelites of the manna in the wilderness. Though in the daily gathering the aged and weak might collect less than the prescribed amount and the young and vigorous might collect more, there was an equal distribution, so that the excess of some ministered to the deficiency of others.)
16But thanks be to God who puts the same earnestness (diligence: earnestness in accomplishing, promoting, or striving after anything) on your behalf in the heart of Titus. 17For he not only accepted our appeal (exhortation, admonition, encouragement), but being himself very earnest, he has gone to you of his own accord. 18We have sent along with him the brother whose fame in the things of the gospel has spread through all the churches; 19and not only this, but he has also been appointed by the churches to travel with us in this gracious work, which is being administered by us for the glory of the Lord Himself, and to show our readiness (properly, “before-passion” referring to someone who is already being willing, i.e. an eager disposition which is pre-inclined [already “ready and willing”]), 20taking precaution (to arrange, prepare, gather up, hence to restrain ) so that no one will discredit us in our administration of this generous gift (once in the N. T.: bountiful collection, great liberality, [R. V. bounty]); 21for we have regard for what is honorable ( better, fair, good(-ly), honest, meet, well, worthy), not only in the sight of the Lord, but also in the sight of men. 22We have sent with them our brother, whom we have often tested and found diligent in many things, but now even more diligent because of his great confidence in you. 23As for Titus, he is my partner and fellow worker among you; as for our brethren, they are messengers (a delegate, messenger, one sent forth with orders) of the churches, a glory to Christ. 24Therefore openly before the churches, show them the proof of your love and of our reason for boasting about you.
New American Standard Bible
God Gives Most

2 Cor 9:1For it is superfluous for me to write to you about this ministry to the saints; 2for I know your readiness, of which I boast about you to the Macedonians, namely, that Achaia has been prepared since last year, and your zeal has stirred up most of them. 3But I have sent the brethren, in order that our boasting about you may not be made empty in this case, so that, as I was saying, you may be prepared; 4otherwise if any Macedonians come with me and find you unprepared, we—not to speak of you—will be put to shame by this confidence (firm trust, assurance). 5So I thought it necessary to urge the brethren that they would go on ahead to you and arrange beforehand your previously promised bountiful gift, so that the same would be ready as a bountiful gift and not affected by covetousness a gift which betrays the giver’s covetousness [here R. V. text extortion]).
6Now this I say, he who sows sparingly will also reap sparingly, and he who sows bountifully will also reap bountifully (NASB: probably a well-known proverb – but not taken from the O.T. book of Proverbs). 7Each one must do just as he has purposed (to bring forth or forward, to prefer) in his heart, not grudgingly (of necessity, i. e. by compulsion) or under compulsion, for God loves a cheerful (“won over, already inclined”, is only used in 2 Cor 9:7 where it describes spontaneously non-reluctant giving.) giver. 8And God is able to make all grace abound to you, so that always having all sufficiency (a perfect condition of life, in which no aid or support is needed; hence, a sufficiency of the necessaries of life) in everything, you may have an abundance for every good deed;
9as it is written,
“HE SCATTERED ABROAD, HE GAVE TO THE POOR,
HIS RIGHTEOUSNESS ENDURES FOREVER.”
10Now He who supplies seed to the sower and bread for food will supply and multiply your seed for sowing and increase the harvest of your righteousness; 11you will be enriched in everything for all liberality, which through us is producing thanksgiving (the giving of thanks) to God. 12For the ministry of this service is not only fully supplying the needs of the saints, but is also overflowing through many thanksgivings to God. 13Because of the proof given by this ministry, they will glorify God for your obedience to your confession of the gospel of Christ and for the liberality of your contribution to them and to all, 14while they also, by prayer on your behalf, yearn for you because of the surpassing grace of God (NASB: Displayed in this unselfish demonstration of their loving concern for fellow believers who are in desperate need) in you. 15Thanks be to God for His indescribable gift (His own Son [John 3:16])!

 
New American Standard Bible
Paul Describes Himself

2 Cor 10:1Now I, Paul, myself urge you by the meekness (gentleness) and gentleness (mildness, gentleness, fairness ) of Christ—I who am meek when face to face with you, but bold ( to exercise courage — be bold, boldly, have confidence, be confident) toward you when absent! 2I ask that when I am present I need not be bold with the confidence with which I propose to be courageous against some, who regard us as if we walked according to the flesh. 3For though we walk in the flesh, we do not war (to fight: tropically, of the conflicts of the apostolic office; to make war, hence to serve as a soldier) according to the flesh, 4for the weapons of our warfare are not of the flesh, but divinely powerful (mighty, i. e. having power for something [YHWH]; God being judge) for the destruction of fortresses (oxýrōma– a fortified, military stronghold; a strong-walled fortress; [“a heavily-fortified containment”] is used figuratively of a false argument in which a person seeks “shelter” [“a safe place”] to escape reality). 5We are destroying speculations and every lofty thing raised up against the knowledge of God, and we are taking every thought captive to the obedience of Christ, 6and we are ready to punish all disobedience, whenever your obedience is complete (to make complete in every particular; to render perfect; to cause all to obey).
7You are looking at things as they are outwardly. If anyone is confident in himself that he is Christ’s, let him consider this again within himself, that just as he is Christ’s, so also are we. 8For even if I boast somewhat further about our authority (the power of authority (influence) and of right: spoken of the authority of an apostle), which the Lord gave for building you up and not for destroying you, I will not be put to shame (to be suffused with shame, be made ashamed, be ashamed), 9for I do not wish to seem as if I would terrify you by my letters. 10For they say, “His letters are weighty and strong, but his personal presence is unimpressive and his speech contemptible.” 11Let such a person consider this, that what we are in word by letters when absent, such persons we are also in deed when present.
12For we are not bold to class or compare ourselves with some of those who commend themselves; but when they measure themselves by themselves and compare themselves with themselves, they are without understanding (where what is understood is evident from the preceding context. NASB: The false teachers in Corinth behave as though there is no standard of comparison higher than themselves, but Paul boasts only in the Lord [see vv. 13-18; cf. 1Cor 1:31]). 13But we will not boast beyond our measure, but within the measure of the sphere (“a definitely bounded or fixed space within the limits of which one’s power or influence is confined; the province assigned one; one’s sphere of activity”) which God apportioned (to bestow, impart) to us as a measure, to reach even as far as you. (NASB: In intruding themselves into Corinth, the false apostles had crossed into Paul’s lane [as if running on an athletic track], which was the lane that God had marked out and that had brought him to the Corinthians as their genuine apostle. He has no intention of invading the territory marked out for others and claiming their work as his own, as these false teachers were doing.) 14For we are not overextending ourselves, as if we did not reach to you, for we were the first to come even as far as you in the gospel of Christ; 15not boasting beyond our measure, that is, in other men’s labors, but with the hope that as your faith grows, we will be, within our sphere, enlarged (of Paul, that his apostolic efficiency among the Corinthians may increase more and more and have more abundant results) even more by you, 16so as to preach the gospel even to the regions beyond you, and not to boast in what has been accomplished in the sphere of another. 17But HE WHO BOASTS IS TO BOAST IN THE LORD. 18For it is not he who commends (to set one with another i. e. by way of presenting or introducing him; establish, stand near, consist) himself that is approved, but he whom the Lord commends.

 
New American Standard Bible
Paul Defends His Apostleship

2 Cor 11:1I wish that you would bear with me in a little foolishness (folly, senselessness) but indeed you are bearing with me. 2For I am jealous (zeal) for you with a godly jealousy (NASB: Paul cannot bear the thought that there might be any rival to Christ and His gospel.); for I betrothed you to one husband (NASB: As their spiritual father [cf. 6:13], Paul has promised the Corinthian believers to Christ, who is frequently depicted in the NT as the bridegroom, with the church portrayed as His bride [Matt 9:15; John 3:29; Rom 7:4; 1 Cor 6:15; Eph 5:23-32; Rev 19:7-9; 21:2]), so that to Christ I might present you as a pure virgin (NASB: Pure virgin: undefiled by the doctrine of false teachers [see vv. 3-4]) 3But I am afraid that, as the serpent (with the ancients the serpent was an emblem of cunning and wisdom) deceived (to seduce wholly [see 1 John 2:16 lust (desire for what is forbidden, lust) of the flesh (the animal nature with cravings which incite to sin. See Gen 3:4-6 The serpent said to the woman, “You surely will not die! “For God knows that in the day you eat from it your eyes will be opened, and you will be like God, knowing good and evil.” When the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was a delight to the eyes, and that the tree was desirable to make one wise, she took from its fruit and ate; and she gave also to her husband with her, and he ate.), eyes, and pride (display in one’s style of living, [R. V. vainglory]) of life]) Eve by his craftiness, your minds will be led astray from the simplicity (sincerity of mind toward Christ, i. e. single-hearted faith in Christ, as opposed to false wisdom in matters pertaining to Christianity) and purity of devotion to Christ. 4For if one comes and preaches another Jesus whom we have not preached (NASB: They [false apostles] presented a Jesus cast in the mold of judaistic teaching (Paul’s opponents were Jews; see v.22.), or you receive a different spirit ( NASB: A spirit of bondage, fear and worldliness [cf. rom 8:15; 1 Cor 2:12; Gal 2:4; 4:24; Col 2:20-23] instead of a spirit of freedom, love, joy, peace and power [cf. 3:17; Rom 14:17; Gal 2:4; 5:1, 22; Eph 3:20; Col 1:11; 2 Tim 1:7]. They had been undiscerningly tolerant of these deceivers in their midst.) which you have not received, or a different gospel which you have not accepted, you bear [to hold up] to hold oneself erect and firm [against any person or thing], to sustain, to bear [with equanimity], to bear with, endure) this beautifully 5For I consider myself not in the least inferior to the most eminent apostles. 6But even if I am unskilled in speech, yet I am not so in knowledge; in fact, in every way we have made this evident to you in all things.
7Or did I commit a sin in humbling myself so that you might be exalted, because I preached the gospel of God to you without charge? 8I robbed (NASB: Accepted freely given support from other established congregations) other churches by taking wages from them to serve you; 9and when I was present with you and was in need, I was not a burden to anyone; for when the brethren came from Macedonia they fully supplied my need, and in everything I kept myself from being a burden to you, and will continue to do so. 10As the truth of Christ is in me, this boasting of mine will not be stopped in the regions of Achaia. 11Why? Because I do not love you? God knows I do!
12But what I am doing I will continue to do, so that I may cut off opportunity from those who desire an opportunity to be regarded just as we are in the matter about which they are boasting. 13For such men are false apostles, deceitful workers, disguising themselves as apostles of Christ. 14No wonder, for even Satan disguises himself as an angel (messenger) of light (a heavenly light, such as surrounds angels when they appear on earth, and illumines the place where they appear. NASB: Though he is really the prince of darkness.). 15Therefore it is not surprising if his servants also disguise themselves as servants of righteousness, whose end will be according to their deeds (to recompense one).
16Again I say, let no one think me foolish; but if you do, receive me even as foolish, so that I also may boast a little. 17What I am saying, I am not saying as the Lord would, but as in foolishness, in this confidence of boasting. 18Since many boast according to the flesh, I will boast also. 19For you, being so wise, tolerate the foolish gladly. 20For you tolerate it if anyone enslaves you, anyone devours you, anyone takes advantage of you, anyone exalts himself, anyone hits you in the face. 21To my shame I must say that we have been weak by comparison.
But in whatever respect anyone else is bold—I speak in foolishness—I am just as bold myself. 22Are they Hebrews? So am I. Are they Israelites? So am I. Are they descendants of Abraham? So am I. 23Are they servants of Christ?—I speak as if insane—I more so; in far more labors, in far more imprisonments, beaten times without number, often in danger of death. 24Five times I received from the Jews thirty-nine lashes. 25Three times I was beaten with rods, once I was stoned, three times I was shipwrecked, a night and a day I have spent in the deep. 26I have been on frequent journeys, in dangers from rivers, dangers from robbers, dangers from my countrymen (stock, race), dangers from the Gentiles, dangers in the city, dangers in the wilderness, dangers on the sea, dangers among false brethren; 27I have been in labor and hardship, through many sleepless nights, in hunger and thirst, often without food, in cold and exposure. 28Apart from such external things, there is the daily pressure on me of concern for all the churches. 29Who is weak without my being weak? Who is led into sin without my intense concern? (NASB: So closely did Pau identify himself with them that he felt the weakness of any member who was weak. If anyone was led into sin, he not only burned with indignation against the person responsible but also experienced the shame of the offense and longed for the restoration of the one who had stumbled.)
30If I have to boast, I will boast of what pertains to my weakness (to bear trials and troubles). 31The God and Father of the Lord Jesus, He who is blessed forever, knows that I am not lying. 32In Damascus the ethnarch (the governor of Damascene Syria, ruling in the name of king Aretas) under Aretas the king was guarding the city of the Damascenes in order to seize me, 33and I was let down in a basket through a window in the wall, and so escaped his hands.

 
New American Standard Bible
Paul’s Vision

2 Cor 12:1Boasting is necessary, though it is not profitable; but I will go on to visions and revelations of the Lord. 2I know a man in Christ who fourteen years ago—whether in the body I do not know, or out of the body I do not know, God knows—such a man was caught up to the third heaven. 3And I know how such a man—whether in the body or apart from the body I do not know, God knows— 4was caught up into Paradise (an upper region in the heavens) and heard inexpressible words, which a man is not permitted to speak. 5On behalf of such a man I will boast; but on my own behalf I will not boast, except in regard to my weaknesses. 6For if I do wish to boast I will not be foolish, for I will be speaking the truth; but I refrain from this, so that no one will credit me with more than he sees in me or hears from me. (NASB: If his adversaries falsely claimed to have received their teaching directly from God through visions and revelations, Paul could claim that this was truly so in his case. But he mentions this here to show that the supreme height to which he was raised through these ecstatic experiences was counterbalanced by the humbling depth of a particular affliction he was given to bear [See v. 7], so that he should continue to glory not in self but only in the “God of all grace” [1 Peter 5:10])

A Thorn in the Flesh

7Because of the surpassing greatness of the revelations, for this reason, to keep me from exalting myself, there was given me a thorn (properly, anything with a sharp point, a thorn; (figuratively) an instrument producing pain, discomfort acute irritation]; to pierce my flesh, appears to indicate some constant bodily ailment or infirmity, which, even when Paul had been caught up in a trance to the third heaven, sternly admonished him that he still dwelt in a frail and mortal body) in the flesh, a messenger (angle) of Satan to torment me—to keep me from exalting myself! 8Concerning this I implored the Lord three times that it might leave me. 9And He has said to me, “My grace is sufficient (my grace is sufficient for thee, namely, to enable thee to bear the evil manfully; there is, therefore, no reason why thou shouldst ask for its remova) for you, for power is perfected in weakness.” (plural the mental states in which this weakness manifests itself) Most gladly, therefore, I will rather boast about my weaknesses, so that the power of Christ may dwell in me. 10Therefore I am well content with weaknesses, with insults, with distresses, with persecutions, with difficulties, for Christ’s sake; for when I am weak, then I am strong (strong in soul: to bear calamities and trials with fortitude and patience).
11I have become foolish; you yourselves compelled me. Actually I should have been commended by you, for in no respect was I inferior to the most eminent apostles, even though I am a nobody. 12The signs of a true apostle were performed among you with all perseverance (steadfastness, constancy, endurance; in the N. T. the characteristic of a man who is unswerved from his deliberate purpose and his loyalty to faith and piety by even the greatest trials and sufferings), by signs (the tokens by which one is proved to be an apostle) and wonders (a miraculous wonder, done to elicit a reaction from onlookers; accordingly something so strange as to cause it to be ‘watehed’ or ‘observed’) and miracles (a mighty work ((miraculous) power, might, strength; force; specially, miraculous power; [Note: dýnamis– properly, “ability to perform” (for the believer, power to achieve by applying the Lord’s inherent abilities. “Power through God’s ability” is needed in every scene of life to really grow in sanctification and prepare for heaven (glorification)]). 13For in what respect were you treated as inferior to the rest of the churches, except that I myself did not become a burden to you? Forgive me this wrong!
14Here for this third time I am ready to come to you, and I will not be a burden to you; for I do not seek what is yours, but you; for children are not responsible to save up for their parents, but parents for their children. 15I will most gladly spend and be expended (to spend oneself wholly: followed by ὑπέρ τίνος, of one who consumes strength and life in laboring for others’ salvation) for your souls. If I love you more, am I to be loved less? 16But be that as it may, I did not burden you myself; nevertheless, crafty fellow that I am, I took you in by deceit (NASB: Sarcastically echoes another of the slanders being made against Paul by the false apostles). 17Certainly I have not taken advantage of you through any of those whom I have sent to you, have I? 18I urged Titus to go, and I sent the brother with him. Titus did not take any advantage of you, did he? Did we not conduct ourselves in the same spirit and walk in the same steps?
19All this time you have been thinking that we are defending (by my defense I strive to convince that I am innocent or upright, to defend or justify myself in one’s eyes unto) ourselves to you. Actually, it is in the sight of God that we have been speaking in Christ; and all for your upbuilding (with a genitive of the person whose growth is furthered), beloved. (NASB: Paul’s concern in speaking of himself is not for his own personal prestige and reputation before people (cf. 1 Cor 4:3-4). It is before God that he stands, and his standing before God is in Christ. Far from being self-centered, his concern is for the Corinthians, his dear friends – for their strengthening as they too stand before God in Christ. His entire ministry, with its suffering, is directed to this end [cf. 10:8]). 20For I am afraid that perhaps when I come I may find you to be not what I wish and may be found by you to be not what you wish; that perhaps there will be strife, jealousy, angry tempers, disputes, slanders, gossip, arrogance, disturbances; 21I am afraid that when I come again my God may humiliate me before you, and I may mourn over many of those who have sinned in the past and not repented of the impurity, immorality and sensuality which they have practiced.

 
New American Standard Bible
Examine Yourselves

2 Cor 13:1This is the third time I am coming to you. EVERY FACT IS TO BE CONFIRMED BY THE TESTIMONY OF TWO OR THREE WITNESSES. 2I have previously said when present the second time, and though now absent I say in advance to those who have sinned in the past and to all the rest as well, that if I come again I will not spare (to keep back) anyone, 3since you are seeking for proof of the Christ who speaks in me, and who is not weak toward you, but mighty in you. 4For indeed He was crucified because of weakness, yet He lives because of the power of God. For we also are weak in Him, yet we will live with Him because of the power of God directed (of reference or relation; with respect to, in reference to; as regards) toward you (NASB: Paul is referring to his present apostolic authority, and to the fact that divine power will be displayed by the punishment of any who resist that authority.)
5Test (to make proof of, to attempt, test, tempt) yourselves to see if you are in the faith; examine yourselves! (NASB: Instead of demanding proof that Christ was speaking through him [v. 3], as the false apostles were inciting them to do, they should look into their own hearts.) Or do you not recognize this about yourselves, that Jesus Christ is in you—unless indeed you fail the test (not standing the test, rejected)? 6But I trust that you will realize that we ourselves do not fail the test. 7Now we pray to God that you do no wrong (to do, commit evil); not that we ourselves may appear approved, but that you may do what is right, even though we may appear unapproved. 8For we can do nothing against the truth, but only for the truth. 9For we rejoice when we ourselves are weak but you are strong; this we also pray for, that you be made complete (– properly, a particular brand (type) of adjustment – overcoming “mental dislocations” brought on by arrogance (refusal to repent); a strengthening, perfecting, of the soul, [a training, disciplining, instructing]). 10For this reason I am writing these things while absent, so that when present I need not use severity (sharply, severely [cf. our curtly]), in accordance with the authority which the Lord gave me for building up and not for tearing down.
11Finally, brethren, rejoice, be made complete, be comforted, be like-minded, live in peace; and the God of love and peace will be with you. 12Greet one another with a holy kiss. 13All the saints greet you.
14The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love (Of the love of God toward men) of God, and the fellowship (the share which one has in anything, participation) of the Holy Spirit, be with you all.

 
New American Standard Bible
Galatians
Introduction

Gal 1:1Paul, an apostle (not sent from men nor through the agency of man, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father, who raised Him from the dead), 2and all the brethren (a fellow-believer, united to another by the bond of affection; so most frequently of Christians, constituting as it were but a single family) who are with me,
To the churches of Galatia:
3Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ, 4who gave Himself for our sins so that He might rescue us from this present evil age, according to the will (pleasure) of our God and Father, 5to whom be the glory forevermore. Amen.

Perversion of the Gospel

6I am amazed (to marvel that) that you are so quickly deserting (to transfer, change) Him who called you by the grace of Christ, for a different (to quality; another i. e. one not of the same nature, form, class, kind; different) gospel; 7which is really not another; only there are some who are disturbing you and want to distort (to pervert, corrupt) the gospel of Christ. 8But even if we, or an angel from heaven, should preach to you a gospel contrary (contrary to that which, i. e. at variance with that which) to what we have preached to you, he is to be accursed (devoted to the direst woes, anathema)! 9As we have said before, so I say again now, if any man is preaching to you a gospel contrary to what you received, he is to be accursed!
10For am I now seeking the favor of men, or of God? Or am I striving to please men? If I were still trying to please men, I would not be a bond-servant of Christ.

Paul Defends His Ministry

11For I would have you know, brethren, that the gospel which was preached by me is not according to man. 12For I neither received it from man, nor was I taught it, but I received it through a revelation (in N. T. and ecclesiastical language (see end), a. a disclosure of truth, instruction, concerning divine things before unknown — especially those relating to the Christian salvation — given to the soul by God himself, or by the ascended Christ, especially through the operation of the Holy Spirit) of Jesus Christ.
13For you have heard of my former manner of life in Judaism, how I used to persecute the church of God beyond measure and tried to destroy it; 14and I was advancing in Judaism beyond many of my contemporaries among my countrymen, being more extremely zealous (to defend and uphold a thing, vehemently contending for a thing) for my ancestral traditions (precepts received from the fathers, whether handed down in the O. T. books or orally, others restrict the word here to the extra-biblical traditions). 15But when God, who had set me apart even from my mother’s womb and called (to call (equivalent to to select) to assume some office, of God appointing or committing an office to one) me through His grace, was pleased (Grace: but the N. T. writers use χάρις pre-eminently of that kindness by which God bestow: favors even upon the ill-deserving, and grants to sinners the pardon of their offences, and bids them accept of eternal salvation through Christ. [Paul’s conversion: Acts 9:1-19 … vv. 3-6; 13-16 As he was traveling, it happened that he was approaching Damascus, and suddenly a light from heaven flashed around him; and he fell to the ground and heard a voice saying to him, “Saul, Saul, why are you persecuting Me?” And he said, “Who are You, Lord?” And He said, “I am Jesus whom you are persecuting, but get up and enter the city, and it will be told you what you must do.” ….But Ananias answered, “Lord, I have heard from many about this man, how much harm he did to Your saints at Jerusalem; and here he has authority from the chief priests to bind all who call on Your name.” But the Lord said to him, “Go, for he is a chosen [the act of picking out, choosing: specifically used of that act of God’s free will by which before the foundation of the world he decreed his blessings to certain persons; a (divine) selection] instrument of Mine, to bear My name before the Gentiles and kings and the sons of Israel; for I will show him how much he must suffer for My name’s sake.” It is retold in Acts 22:6-21 vv. 12-15 “A certain Ananias, a man who was devout by the standard of the Law, and well spoken of by all the Jews who lived there, came to me, and standing near said to me, ‘Brother Saul, receive your sight!’ And at that very time I looked up at him. “And he said, ‘The God of our fathers has appointed (to put into the hand, to take into one’s hand, hence to determine) you to know His will (of the purpose of God to bless mankind through Christ,) and to see the Righteous One and to hear an utterance from His mouth. ‘For you will be a witness for Him to all men of what you have seen and heard. It is also retold in Acts 26:12-18 vv. 15- 18 “And I said, ‘Who are You, Lord?’ And the Lord said, ‘I am Jesus whom you are persecuting. ‘But get up and stand on your feet; for this purpose I have appeared to you, to appoint you a minister and a witness not only to the things which you have seen, but also to the things in which I will appear to you; rescuing you from the Jewish people and from the Gentiles, to whom I am sending you, to open their eyes so that they may turn from darkness to light and from the dominion of Satan to God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins and an inheritance among those who have been sanctified by faith in Me.’]), 16to reveal His Son in me so that I might preach Him among the Gentiles, I did not immediately consult with flesh and blood, 17nor did I go up to Jerusalem to those who were apostles before me; but I went away to Arabia, and returned once more to Damascus.
18Then three years later I went up to Jerusalem to become acquainted with Cephas, and stayed with him fifteen days. 19But I did not see any other of the apostles except James, the Lord’s brother. 20(Now in what I am writing to you, I assure you before God that I am not lying.) 21Then I went into the regions of Syria and Cilicia. 22I was still unknown by sight to the churches of Judea which were in Christ; 23but only, they kept hearing, “He who once persecuted us is now preaching the faith which he once tried to destroy.” 24And they were glorifying God because of me.

 

 

New American Standard Bible
The Council at Jerusalem

Gal 2:1Then after an interval of fourteen years I went up again to Jerusalem with Barnabas, taking Titus along also. 2It was because of a revelation that I went up; and I submitted to them the gospel which I preach among the Gentiles, but I did so in private to those who were of reputation (those highly esteemed, of repute, looked up to, influential. NASB: Paul recognized their authority, and is probably referring to James, Peter, and John [v. 9; cf. v. 6]), for fear that I might be running, or had run (by a metaphor taken from the runners in a race, to exert oneself, strive hard; to spend one’s strength in performing or attaining something), in vain (to no purpose). 3But not even Titus, who was with me, though he was a Greek, was compelled to be circumcised. 4But it was because of the false brethren (i. e. one who ostentatiously professes to be a Christian, but is destitute of Christian knowledge and piety) secretly (secretly or surreptitiously brought in; one who has stolen in) brought in, who had sneaked in to spy out our liberty (from the yoke of the Mosaic law) which we have in Christ Jesus, in order to bring us into bondage (enslave). 5But we did not yield (give place) in subjection (obedience) to them for even an hour, so that the truth of the gospel would remain with you. 6But from those who were of high reputation (what they were makes no difference to me; God shows no partiality [Hebraistically, the appearance one presents by his wealth or poverty, his rank or low condition; outward circumstances, external condition; so used in expressions which denote to regard the person in one’s judgment and treatment of men])—well, those who were of reputation contributed nothing to me. 7But on the contrary, seeing that I had been entrusted with the gospel to the uncircumcised, just as Peter had been to the circumcised 8(for He who effectually(intransitive, to be operative, be at work, put forth power; work [effectually in]; , to work for one, aid one, unto [the accomplishing of] something, unto the assumption [or discharge] of the apostolic office) worked for Peter in his apostleship to the circumcised effectually worked for me also to the Gentiles), 9and recognizing the grace that had been given to me, James and Cephas and John, who were reputed to be pillars (used of persons to whose eminence and strength the stability and authority of any institution or organization are due), gave to me and Barnabas the right hand of fellowship (the right hand as the sign and pledge of fellowship [in fulfilling the apostolic office]), so that we might go to the Gentiles and they to the circumcised. 10They only asked us to remember the poor—the very thing I also was eager to do.

Peter (Cephas) Opposed by Paul

11But when Cephas came to Antioch, I opposed (to set oneself against, to withstand resist) him to his face, because he stood condemned. 12For prior to the coming of certain men from James, he used to eat with the Gentiles; but when they came, he began to withdraw and hold himself aloof (to make a ὅρος or boundary); “to mark off from (ἀπό) others by boundaries, to limit, to separate” from others), fearing the party of the circumcision. 13The rest of the Jews joined him in hypocrisy, with the result that even Barnabas was carried away by their hypocrisy (to play a part with). 14But when I saw that they were not straightforward about the truth of the gospel, I said to Cephas in the presence of all, “If you, being a Jew, live like the Gentiles and not like the Jews, how is it that you compel the Gentiles to live like Jews?
15“We are Jews by nature (birth, physical origin: we so far as our origin is considered, i. e. by birth, are Jews) and not sinners (heathen, called by the Jews sinners) from among the Gentiles; 16nevertheless knowing that a man is not justified by the works of the Law but through faith in Christ Jesus, even we have believed in Christ Jesus, so that we may be justified by faith in Christ and not by the works of the Law; since by the works of the Law no flesh will be justified. 17“But if, while seeking to be justified in Christ, we ourselves have also been found sinners (pre-eminently sinful, especially wicked), is Christ then a minister of sin? May it never be! 18“For if I rebuild (to build upon a foundation laid by others, i. e. (without a figure) to carry on instruction begun by others) what I have once destroyed, I prove myself to be a transgressor (a lawbreaker). 19“For through the Law I died (to become wholly alienated from a thing, and freed from all connection with it, so that your relation to etc. has passed away) to the Law, so that I might live (to devote, consecrate, life to one; so to live that life results in benefit to someone or to his cause) to God. 20“I have been crucified (to crucify together with; by the death of Christ upon the cross I have become utterly estranged from (dead to) my former habit of feeling and action.) with Christ; and it is no longer (for it cannot now be said) I who live (that life which I live in an earthly body), but Christ lives in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith (in the N. T. of “the conviction and trust to which a man is impelled by a certain inner and higher prerogative and law of his soul”; thus it stands α. absolutely to trust in Jesus or in God as able to aid either in obtaining or in doing something; entrust; in reference to Christ, it denotes “a strong and welcome conviction or belief that Jesus is the Messiah, through whom we obtain eternal salvation in the kingdom of God” [with the genitive of the object]. Note: 4100 pisteúō (from 4102 /pístis, “faith,” derived from 3982 /peíthō, “persuade, be persuaded”) – believe (affirm, have confidence); used of persuading oneself (= human believing) and with the sacred significance of being persuaded by the Lord (= faith-believing). Only the context indicates whether 4100 /pisteúō (“believe”) is self-serving (without sacred meaning), or the believing that leads to/proceeds from God’s inbirthing of faith.) in the Son of God, who loved me and gave Himself up for me. 21“I do not nullify the grace of God, for if righteousness comes through the Law, then Christ died needlessly.” (NASB: To mingle legalism with grace distorts grace and makes a mockery of the cross.)

 
New American Standard Bible
Faith Brings Righteousness

Gal 3:1You foolish (not understanding, unwise) Galatians, who has bewitched (to bring evil on one by feigned praise or an evil eye, to charm, bewitch one, hence, of those who lead away others into error by wicked arts; [figuratively] captivate [“be spellbinding”], appealing to someone’s vanity and selfishness; “to blight by the evil eye, bewitch”) you, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was publicly portrayed as crucified? 2This is the only thing I want to find out from you: did you receive the Spirit by the works of the Law, or by hearing (properly, hearing; used of inner [spiritual] hearing that goes with receiving faith from God [Ro 10:17], i.e. spiritual hearing [discerning God’s voice]; instruction, namely oral; specifically, the preaching of the gospel, preaching on the necessity of faith) with faith (in reference to Christ, it denotes “a strong and welcome conviction or belief that Jesus is the Messiah, through whom we obtain eternal salvation in the kingdom of God”, instruction concerning the necessity of faith). Are you so foolish? Having begun by the Spirit, are you now (frequently it denotes a somewhat extended portion of present time as opposed to a former state of things) being perfected (to make an end for oneself, i. e. to leave off so as to give yourselves up to the flesh, stop with, rest in it (others take it passively here: are ye perfected in etc.) by the flesh (to make for oneself an end by devoting oneself to the flesh, i. e. by gradually losing the Holy Spirit and giving oneself up to the control of the flesh)? (NASB: Both salvation and sanctification are the work of the Holy Spirit. Flesh: A reference to human nature in its unregenerate weakness. Trying to achieve righteousness by works, including circumcision, was a part of life in the “flesh.”) 4Did you suffer ( properly, to feel heavy emotion, especially suffering; affected, experiencing feeling [literally “sensible” = “sensed-experience”]; “the feeling of the mind, emotion, passion”; to experience a sensation or impression [usually painful] — feel, passion, suffer, vex.) so many things in vain (in vain; without success or effect)—if indeed it was in vain? (NASB: Paul hopes those who have been mislead will return to the true gospel.) 5So then, does He who provides you with the Spirit and works miracles among you, do it by the works of the Law, or by hearing with faith?
6Even so Abraham BELIEVED GOD, AND IT WAS RECKONED (lay to one’s charge; “a thing is reckoned as or to be something, i. e. as availing for or equivalent to something, as having the like force and weight”) TO HIM AS RIGHTEOUSNESS (faith is reckoned to one for righteousness, i. e. is so taken into account, that righteousness is ascribed to it or recognized in it). 7Therefore, be sure (understand) that it is those who are of faith who are sons of Abraham. (NASB: Abraham was the physical and spiritual father of the Jewish race [see John 8:33, 39, 53; Acts 7:2; Rom 4:12]. Here all believers [Jews and Gentiles] are called his spiritual children. They are also referred to as the “seed” or “descendents” of Abraham (v. 16; Heb 2:16) 8The Scripture, foreseeing that God would justify (Especially is it so used, in the technical phraseology of Paul, respecting God who judges and declares such men as put faith in Christ to be righteous and acceptable to him, and accordingly fit to receive the pardon of their sins and eternal life.) the Gentiles by faith, preached the gospel beforehand to Abraham, saying, “ALL THE NATIONS WILL BE BLESSED IN YOU.” 9So then those who are of faith are blessed with Abraham, the believer.
10For as many as are of the works of the Law (NASB: The reference is to legalists – those who refuse God’s offer of grace and insist on pursuing righteousness through works.) are under a curse (to be under a curse, i. e. liable to the appointed penalty of being cursed); for it is written, “CURSED IS EVERYONE WHO DOES NOT ABIDE BY ALL THINGS WRITTEN IN THE BOOK OF THE LAW, TO PERFORM THEM.” 11Now that no one is justified by the Law before God is evident; for, “THE RIGHTEOUS MAN SHALL LIVE BY FAITH.” (NASB: Live: Means here (and in v. 12) almost the same thing ‘will be justified.”) 12However, the Law is not of faith; on the contrary, “HE WHO PRACTICES THEM SHALL LIVE (emphatically, and in the Messianic sense, to enjoy real life, i. e. to have true life and worthy of the name — active, blessed, endless in the kingdom of God) BY THEM.” 13Christ redeemed (properly to redeem i. e. by payment of a price to recover from the power of another, to ransom, buy off ; metaphorically, of Christ freeing men from the dominion of the Mosaic law at the price of his vicarious death) us from the curse of the Law, having become a curse (to redeem one exposed to the threatened penalty of a curse) for us—for it is written, “CURSED (abstract for the concrete, one in whom the curse is exhibited, i. e. undergoing the appointed penalty of cursing) IS EVERYONE WHO HANGS ON A TREE”— 14in order that in Christ Jesus the blessing of Abraham might come to the Gentiles, so that we would receive the promise of the Spirit through faith. (NASB: The blessing of Abraham: see v.8. Promise of the Spirit: see Ez 36:26; 37:14; 39:29; John 14:16; cf. Eph 1:13)

Intent of the Law

15Brethren, I speak in terms of human relations: even though it is only a man’s (I speak as a man to whom analogies from human affairs present themselves, while I illustrate divine things by an example drawn from ordinary human life) covenant, yet when it has been ratified (to make valid; to confirm publicly or solemnly), no one sets it aside or adds conditions to it. 16Now the promises were spoken to Abraham and to his seed (By a rabbinical method of interpreting, opposed to the usage of the Hebrew זֶרַע , which signifies the offspring whether consisting of one person or many, Paul lays such stress on the singular number in Genesis 13:15; Genesis 17:8 as to make it denote but one of Abraham’s posterity, and that the Messiah). He does not say, “And to seeds,” as referring to many, but rather to one, “And to your seed,” that is, Christ. (See Gen 22:17indeed I will greatly bless you, and I will greatly multiply your seed (Yehoshua) as the stars of the heavens and as the sand which is on the seashore; and your seed (Yehoshua) shall possess the gate of their [lit, his] enemies. 18“In your seed (Yehoshua) all the nations of the earth shall be blessed, because you have obeyed My voice.” [See Heb 11:8, 17]) 17What I am saying is this: the Law, which came four hundred and thirty years later, does not invalidate a covenant previously ratified by God, so as to nullify (to make void) the promise. 18For if the inheritance is based on law, it is no longer based on a promise; but God has granted it to Abraham by means of a promise.
19Why the Law then? It was added because of transgressions (to create transgressions, i. e. that sins might take on the character of transgressions, and thereby the consciousness of sin be intensified and the desire for redemption be aroused), having been ordained through angels by the agency of a mediator (used of Moses, as one who brought the commands of God to the people of Israel and acted as mediator with God on behalf of the people), until the seed (Yehoshua) would come to whom the promise had been made. 20Now a mediator is not for one party only; whereas God is only one. 21Is the Law then contrary to the promises of God? May it never be! For if a law had been given which was able to impart life, then righteousness would indeed have been based on law. 22But the Scripture has shut up everyone under sin, so that the promise by faith in Jesus Christ might be given to those who believe.
23But before faith came, we were kept in custody (under the control of the Mosaic law, that we might not escape from its power, with, kept in ward) under the law, being shut up (to shup up on all sides, shut up completely; so to deliver one up to the power of a person or thing that he is completely shut in, as it were, without means of escape) to the faith (in Christ v. 22) which was later to be revealed. 24Therefore the Law has become our tutor to lead us to Christ, so that we may be justified by faith (Tutor: The name carries with it an idea of severity (as of a stern censor and enforcer of morals) in Galatians 3:24f where the Mosaic law is likened to a tutor because it arouses the consciousness of sin, and is called paidagogos, i. e. preparing the soul for Christ, because those who have learned by experience with the law that they are not and cannot be commended to God by their works, welcome the more eagerly the hope of salvation offered them through the death and resurrection of Christ, the Son of God.). 25But now that faith has come, we are no longer under a tutor. 26For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus. (NASB: vv. 25-26 By adoption, the justified believer is a full adult and heir in God’s family, with all the attendant rights and privileges (Gal 4:1-7; Rom 8:14-17) 27For all of you who were baptized (to bring by baptism into fellowship with Christ, into fellowship in his death, by which fellowship we have died to sin, Holy Spirit baptism) into Christ have clothed (to clothe or be clothed with [in the sense of sinking into a garment]; see 1 Cor 12:13 For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether slaves or free, and we were all made to drink of one Spirit. [Cf. Rom 6:3-11]) yourselves with Christ. 28There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free man, there is neither male nor female; for you are all one in Christ Jesus. 29And if you belong to Christ, then you are Abraham’s descendants, heirs according to promise.

 
New American Standard Bible
Sonship in Christ

Gal 4:1Now I say, as long as the heir is a child, he does not differ at all from a slave although he is owner of everything, 2but he is under guardians and managers until the date set by the father. 3So also we, while we were children, were held in bondage under the elemental things (the heavenly bodies, either as parts of the heavens, or [as others think] because in them the elements of man’s life and destiny were supposed to reside. Elemental spirits.) of the world. 4But when the fullness of the time came, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the Law, 5so that He might redeem those who were under the Law, that we might receive the adoption as sons. 6Because you are sons (those who are governed by the Spirit of God, repose the same calm and joyful trust in God which children do in their parents, and hereafter in the blessedness and glory of the life eternal will openly wear this dignity of sons of God), God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into our hearts (the center and seat of spiritual life, “the soul or mind, as it is the fountain and seat of the thoughts, passions, desires, appetites, affections, purposes, endeavors” (so in English heart, inner man; [intellect, emotion, will] etc.), crying (of those who offer earnest, importunate, prayers to God, followed by direct discourse), “Abba! Father!” 7Therefore you are no longer a slave, but a son; and if a son, then an heir through God.
8However at that time, when you did not know God, you were slaves to those which by nature are no gods. 9But now that you have come to know God (to learn to know, come to know, get a knowledge of; passive to become known; to learn from one, with the accusative of person to recognize as worthy of intimacy and love, to own; so those whom God has judged worthy of the blessings of the gospel are said ὑπό τοῦ Θεοῦ γινώσκεσθαι: I am taking in knowledge, come to know, learn; ginṓskō – properly, to know, especially through personal experience (first-hand acquaintance). /ginṓskō [“experientially know”] is used for example in Lk 1:34, “And Mary [a virgin] said to the angel, ‘How will this be since I do not know [/ginṓskō = sexual intimacy] a man?'”), or rather to be known by God, how is it that you turn back again to the weak (used of the religious systems anterior to Christ, as having no power to promote piety and salvation) and worthless (helpless, powerless to accomplish an end; `bringing no rich endowment of spiritual treasure’ [Lightfoot]) elemental things, to which you desire (to be resolved or determined, to purpose) to be enslaved all over again? 10You observe days and months and seasons and years. 11I fear for you, that perhaps I have labored over you in vain (Labored: for one, for his benefit, in vain: without success or effect).
12I beg of you, brethren, become as I am, for I also have become as you are (to suffer oneself to be wronged, take wrong). You have done me no wrong; 13but you know that it was because of a bodily illness that I preached the gospel to you the first time; 14and that which was a trial (proving; the trial made of you by my bodily condition, since this condition served to test the love of the Galatians toward Paul) to you in my bodily condition you did not despise or loathe, but you received me as an angel of God, as Christ Jesus Himself. 15Where then is that sense of blessing you had? For I bear you witness that, if possible, you would have plucked out your eyes and given them to me. 16So have I become your enemy by telling you the truth? 17They (NASB: Judizers, see 2:4,12) eagerly seek you, not commendably, but they wish to shut you out so that you will seek them. 18But it is good always to be eagerly sought in a commendable manner, and not only when I am present with you. 19My children, with whom I am again in labor (whose souls I am striving with intense effort and anguish to conform to the mind of Christ) until Christ is formed (literally, until a mind and life in complete harmony with the mind and life of Christ shall have been formed in you) in you— (NASB: The goal of Paul’s ministry, see Rom 8:29 For those whom He foreknew, He also predestined to become conformed to the image of His Son, so that He would be the firstborn among many brethren. Eph 4:13 until we all attain to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to a mature man, to the measure of the stature which belongs to the fullness of Christ. Eph 4:15 but speaking the truth in love, we are to grow up in all aspects into Him who is the head, even Christ. Col 1:27 to whom God willed to make known what is the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory.) 20but I could wish to be present with you now and to change my tone, for I am perplexed (I am perplexed about you, I know not how to deal with you, in what style to address you) about you.

Bond and Free

21Tell me, you who want to be under law, do you not listen to the law? 22For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by the bondwoman (specifically, of the maid-servant who had charge of the door: Hagar who was Sarah’s handmaid, an Egyptian, the mother if Ishmael) and one by the free woman (Abraham’s wife: Sarai changed to Sarah, the mother of Isaac). 23But the son by the bondwoman was born according to the flesh, and the son by the free woman through the promise. 24This is allegorically speaking, for these women are two covenants: one proceeding from Mount Sinai (Law) bearing children who are to be slaves; she is Hagar. 25Now this Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia and corresponds to the present Jerusalem, for she is in slavery with her children. 26But the Jerusalem above (above, in a higher place) is free; she is our mother.
27For it is written,
“REJOICE, BARREN WOMAN WHO DOES NOT BEAR;
BREAK FORTH AND SHOUT, YOU WHO ARE NOT IN LABOR;
FOR MORE NUMEROUS ARE THE CHILDREN OF THE DESOLATE
THAN OF THE ONE WHO HAS A HUSBAND.”
28And you brethren, like Isaac, are children of promise. 29But as at that time he who was born according to the flesh persecuted (hence, in any way whatever to harass, trouble, molest one) him who was born according to the Spirit, so it is now also.
30But what does the Scripture say?
“CAST OUT THE BONDWOMAN AND HER SON,
FOR THE SON OF THE BONDWOMAN SHALL NOT BE AN HEIR (to inherit) WITH THE SON OF THE FREE WOMAN.”
31So then, brethren, we are not children of a bondwoman, but of the free woman.
(*Excerpts from Classroom Biblical Theology I and III: Gal. 4:3 – elemental spirits of this world: “Even so we, when we were children, were in bondage under the elements of the world”, that is, elementary spirits that use the law to hold people in bondage. They use the fundamental moral law that everyone has to hold people in bondage. Rom. 2:14-15 “Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil”. Anyone that is under Law, Satan uses that to keep them in bondage. To say that Christ has fulfilled the law for believers puts everything in a different perspective. The devil uses the law to keep people in bondage, and the elemental spirits are behind it. There is a spiritual power at work, and believers are always dealing with it. There is probably nothing against God that does not have some relationship to some spiritual power. The atoning work of Christ takes power to free believers from bondage. *What is this force that keeps man in bondage? *Does disobedience itself have power in it? Answer: There is a living active force in the world that opposes God, and this is what man deals with: Eph. 6:12 “For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places.” Christ has broken the hold of this power on believers and they do not have to obey it anymore: Heb. 2:14 “Forasmuch then as the children are partakers of flesh and blood, he also himself likewise took part of the same; that through death he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the devil”. 1Jn. 3:8 “He that committeth sin (continually) is of the devil; for the devil sinneth from the beginning. For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that he might destroy the works of the devil.” Rom. 6:16 “Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants ye are to whom ye obey; whether of sin unto death, or of obedience unto righteousness?” Rom. 7:8 But sin, taking occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence. For without the law sin was dead. Rom. 7:11 “For sin, taking occasion by the commandment, deceived me, and by it slew me.” If human beings are held in bondage, that takes some kind of force. *If human beings are fighting against a force, what is this force? *Does disobedience have force within it? Answer: There is a living force fighting against God. Living beings were probably holding believers in bondage (see Eph. 6:12 above). Now believers have the power and freedom to obey God in Christ.)

 
New American Standard Bible
Walk by the Spirit

Gal 5:1It was for freedom that Christ set us free; therefore keep standing firm and do not be subject again to a yoke of slavery.
2Behold I, Paul, say to you that if you receive circumcision, Christ will be of no benefit (to help, profit, one in a thing) to you. 3And I testify again to every man who receives circumcision, that he is under obligation to keep the whole Law. 4You have been severed (to be severed from, separated from, discharged from, loosed from, anyone; to terminate all contact with one [a pregnant construction]) from Christ, you who are seeking to be justified by law; you have fallen (to drop away; specially, be driven out of one’s course; figuratively, to lose, become inefficient — be cast, fail, fall [away, off], take none effect. NASB: Placed yourself outside the scope of divine favor, because gaining favor by observing the law and receiving it by grace are mutually exclusive [see 2 Peter 3:17You therefore, beloved, knowing this beforehand, be on your guard so that you are not carried away by the error of unprincipled men and fall from your own steadfastness]) from grace. 5For we through the Spirit, by faith, are waiting for the hope of righteousness ([Eschatological salvation] A reference to God’s final verdict of ‘not guilty,” assured presently to the believer by faith and by the sanctifying work of the Holy Spirit. This is one of the few eschatological statements in Galatians) (Remember that in all the local churches there were professing Christians who were not really saved; the same way it is today). 6For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision means anything, but faith working (to be at work, to work, to do) through love (Of the love of men to men; especially of that love of Christians toward Christians which is enjoined and prompted by their religion, whether the love be viewed as in the soul or as expressed. [The source of love in believers is YHWH, See Rom 5:5 and hope does not disappoint, because the love [affection, good will, love, benevolence, brotherly love] of God has been poured out within our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us.)
7You were running well; who hindered (to cut into, to impede one’s course by cutting off his way) you from obeying the truth? 8This persuasion (used only of self-produced persuasion; treacherous or deceptive persuasion) did not come from Him who calls you. 9A little leaven leavens the whole lump of dough. 10I have confidence in you in the Lord that you will adopt (to have understanding, to think) no other view; but the one who is disturbing you will bear his judgment (to bear the force of the condemnatory judgment in suffering punishment), whoever he is. 11But I, brethren, if I still preach circumcision, why am I still persecuted? Then the stumbling block of the cross has been abolished. 12I wish that those who are troubling you would even mutilate (I would that they [who urge the necessity of circumcision would not only circumcise themselves, but] would even mutilate themselves [or cut off their privy parts]) themselves.
13For you were called to freedom (liberty to do or to omit things having no relation to salvation, from the yoke of the Mosaic law), brethren; only do not turn your freedom into an opportunity (to take occasion, find an incentive. NASB: Liberty is not license but freedom to serve God and each other in love.) for the flesh, but through love serve one another 14For the whole Law is fulfilled in one word, in the statement, “YOU SHALL LOVE YOUR NEIGHBOR AS YOURSELF.” 15But if you bite (to wound the soul, cut, lacerate, rend with reproaches) and devour (to ruin) one another, take care that you are not consumed (to consume, use up, destroy) by one another.
16But I say, walk (to regulate one’s life, to conduct oneself, with a dative of the standard according to which one governs his life [the Holy Spirit]) by the Spirit, and you will not carry out the desire of the flesh (to perform, execute, complete, fulfill (so that the thing done corresponds to what has been said, the order, command, etc.), i. e. α. with special reference to the subject-matter, to carry out the contents of a command” [from the flesh] [Remember that the flesh is physically alive. Man is a “living soul”: the material (body) and the sprit (heart [intellect, emotion, will], inner man), see gen 2:7 And the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul (being)]). 17For the flesh sets its desire against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh; for these are in opposition (to oppose, be adverse to, withstand) to one another, so that you may not do the things that you please. 18But if you are led (to more, impel, of forces and influences affecting the mind) by the Spirit, you are not under the Law (remember that the “Everlasting Covenant” is to walk, conduct, your life with YHWH). 19Now the deeds of the flesh are evident, which are: immorality (fornication used properly, of illicit sexual intercourse in general.), impurity (in a moral sense, the impurity of lustful, luxurious, profligate living), sensuality (lasciviousness), 20idolatry (the worship of false gods, idolatry), sorcery (sorcery, magical arts, often found in connection with idolatry and fostered by it), enmities (hostility; by implication, a reason for opposition — enmity, hatred), strife (literally quarrel, strife; properly, a readiness to quarrel (having a contentious spirit), affection for dispute; contention, strife, wrangling), jealousy (zeal), outbursts of anger (also impulses), disputes (rivalry, hence ambition), dissensions (division), factions (dissensions arising from diversity of opinions), 21envying, drunkenness, carousing (a revel, used generally, of feasts and drinking-parties that are protracted till late at night and indulge in revelry), and things like these, of which I forewarn you, just as I have forewarned you, that those who practice such things will not inherit the kingdom of God (NASB: For other lists see 2 Cor 6:6; Eph 4:2; Col 3:12-15. Christian character is produced by the Holy Spirit, not by the mere moral discipline of trying to live by law. Paul makes it clear that justification by faith does not result in libertinism. The indwelling Holy Spirit produces Christian virtues in the believer’s life.). 22But the fruit (singular) of the Spirit is love (love, i.e. affection or benevolence; specially (plural) a love-feast — (feast of) charity(-ably), dear, love; properly, love which centers in moral preference. So too in secular ancient Greek, (agápē) focuses on preference; likewise the verb form (/agapáō) in antiquity meant “to prefer” (TDNT, 7). In the NT, (agápē) typically refers to divine love [= what God prefers].), joy (gladness), peace (peace between individuals, i. e. harmony, concord), patience (/makrothymía (“divinely-regulated patience”) is used of God Himself (see 1 Pet 3:20; 2 Pet 3:15). Indeed, only the Lord produces /makrothymía (“true patience, longsuffering”) in us and hence is a fruit of the Spirit; patience, forbearance, long-suffering, slowness in avenging wrongs), kindness (/xrēstótēs (“useful kindness”) refers to meeting real needs, in God’s way, in His timing (fashion). Hence (xrēstótēs) is listed as a fruit of the Holy Spirit. With the believer, /xrēstótēs (“divine kindness”) is the Spirit-produced goodness which meets the need and avoids human harshness (cruelty). “We have no term that quite carries this notion of kind and good”; benignity.), goodness, faithfulness (fidelity, faithfulness, i. e. the character of one who can be relied on), 23gentleness (mildness), self-control (For the believer, /egkráteia (“self-control, Spirit-control”) can only be accomplished by the power of the Lord. Accordingly, /egkráteia (“true mastery from within”) is explicitly called a fruit of the Holy Spirit; the virtue of one who masters his desires and passions, especially his sensual appetites); against such things there is no law. 24Now those who belong to Christ Jesus have crucified (to crucify the flesh, destroy its power utterly [the nature of the figure implying that the destruction is attended with intense pain (but note the aorist, indicative mood: In the indicative mood the aorist tense denotes action that occurred in the past time, often translated like the English simple past tense.)]) the flesh with its passions and desires.
25If we live (to be actuated by the Spirit) by the Spirit, let us also walk by the Spirit. 26Let us not become boastful, challenging one another, envying one another.

 
New American Standard Bible
Bear One Another’s Burdens

Gal 6:1Brethren, even if anyone is caught in any trespass, you who are spiritual (one who is filled with and governed by the Spirit of God), restore such a one in a spirit of gentleness; each one looking to yourself, so that you too will not be tempted (to try or test one’s faith, virtue, character, by enticement to sin; hence, according to the context equivalent to to solicit to sin, to tempt). 2Bear one another’s burdens (heaviness, weight, trouble), and thereby fulfill the law of Christ. 3For if anyone thinks he is something when he is nothing, he deceives (– properly, to act from a distorted perspective [warped sense of reality] which “redefines reality” [facts] – i.e. to fit one’s self-deception) himself. 4But each one must examine (to test, by impl. to approve) his own work, and then he will have reason for boasting in regard to himself alone, and not in regard to another. 5For each one will bear (to be equal to understanding a matter and receiving it calmly) his own load (phortíon – properly, a burden which must be carried by the individual, i.e. as something personal and hence is not transferrable, i.e. it cannot “be shifted” to someone else.).
6The one who is taught the word is to share all good things (a good thing, convenience, advantage, and in particular outward and inward good things.) with the one who teaches him. 7Do not be deceived (to err), God is not mocked (properly, to turn up the nose or sneer at; to mock, deride: God does not suffer himself to be mocked); for whatever a man sows, this he will also reap. 8For the one who sows to his own flesh will from the flesh reap corruption (decay, i.e. ruin [spontaneous or inflicted, literally or figuratively] — corruption, destroy, perish. Bible Knowledge Commentary: If a person sows to please his sinful nature… he will reap a harvest that will fade into oblivion.) but the one who sows to the Spirit will from the Spirit reap eternal life (ἡ βίβλος and τό βιβλίον τῆς ζωῆς, the book in which the names of those are recorded to whom eternal life has been decreed). 9Let us not lose heart (disheartened) in doing good, for in due time we will reap if we do not grow weary (to weaken, relax, exhaust). 10So then, while we have opportunity, let us do good to all people, and especially to those who are of the household of the faith.
11See with what large letters I am writing to you with my own hand. 12Those who desire to make a good showing (to be of good countenance, i.e. to look well) in the flesh try to compel you to be circumcised, simply so that they will not be persecuted (to be maltreated, suffer persecution on account of something) for the cross of Christ. 13For those who are circumcised do not even keep the Law themselves, but they desire to have you circumcised so that they may boast (St. Paul uses ‘flesh’ of the whole man, body and soul, reason and all his faculties included, because all that is in him longs and strives after the flesh; note that ‘flesh’ signifies the entire nature of man, sense and reason, without the Holy Spirit”.). 14But may it never be that I would boast, except in the cross of our Lord Jesus Christ, through which the world has been crucified to me, and I to the world. 15For neither is circumcision anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new (of a new kind; unprecedented, novel, uncommon, unheard of) creation (is used of a man regenerated through Christ). 16And those who will walk by this rule, peace and mercy be upon them, and upon the Israel of God (Israḗl (transliterated from the OT term /Nazaréth, “Israel”) – Israel; the elect-nation of God in the OT “consummated by the inclusion of Gentile believers in the NT to form the body of Christ” [cf. 1 Cor 12:13 with Gal 6:16]; By metonymy, for the posterity of Israel i. e. the Israelites (a name of especially honor because it made reference to the promises of salvation through the Messiah, which were given to Jacob in preference to Esau, and to be fulfilled to his posterity, i.e., Christians.).
17From now on let no one cause trouble for me, for I bear on my body the brand-marks of Jesus.
18The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit, brethren. Amen.

 
New American Standard Bible
Ephesians
The Blessings of Redemption

Eph 1:1Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will ((thélēma) is nearly always used of God, referring to His preferred-will. Occasionally it is used of man (cf. Lk 23:25; Jn 1:13.]; choice) of God, To the saints who are at Ephesus and who are faithful in Christ Jesus: 2Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
3Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who has blessed (eulogéō [“confer what is beneficial”] is used of God blessing people) us with every spiritual (in reference to things; emanating from the Divine Spirit, or exhibiting its effects and so its character) blessing in the heavenly (the heavenly regions, i. e. heaven itself, the abode of God and angels) places in Christ, 4just as He chose (to select — make choice, choose (out), chosen; of Christians, as those whom he has set apart from among the irreligious multitude as dear unto himself, and whom he has rendered, through faith in Christ, citizens in the Messianic kingdom: so that the ground of the choice lies in Christ and his merits) us in Him before (i.e. in front of, prior) the foundation (from the foundation of the world) of the world (i. e. the universe; order; [literally, “something ordered”] – properly, an “ordered system” [like the universe, creation]; the world; orderly arrangement, i.e. decoration; by implication, the world (in a wide or narrow sense, including its inhabitants, literally or figuratively [morally] — adorning), that we would be holy (for the believer, (hágios) means “likeness of nature with the Lord” because “different from the world.”; sacred [physically, pure, morally blameless, saint; of sacrifices and offerings; prepared for God with solemn rite, pure, clean) and blameless (without blemish) before Him. In love (NASB: Divine election is a constant theme in Paul’s letters: Rom 8:29-33; 9:6-26; 11:5, 7, 28; 16:13; Col 3:12; 1 Thess 1:4; 2 Thess 2:13; Titus 1:1. Holy and blameless: Holiness is the result – not the basis – of God’s choosing. It refers both to the holiness imparted to the believer because of Christ and to the believer’s personal sanctification) 5He predestined (to predetermine, decide beforehand, [R.V to foreordain]: in the N. T. of God decreeing from eternity, followed by an accusative with the infinitive to foreordain, appoint beforehand) us to adoption (the nature and condition of the true disciples of Christ, who by receiving the Spirit of God into their souls become the sons of God) as sons through Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the kind intention (in particular, good-will, kindly intent, benevolence) of His will, 6to the praise (that a person or thing may be praised) of the glory (majesty in the sense of the absolute perfection of the deity; of the majesty of his saving grace; glory (as very apparent), in a wide application (literal or figurative, objective or subjective) — dignity, glory(-ious), honour, praise, worship) of His grace, which He freely ((xaritóō) is used twice in the NT [Lk 1:28 and Eph 1:6], both times of God extending Himself to freely bestow grace [favor]; to pursue with grace, compass with favor; to honor with blessings) bestowed on us in the Beloved (Everything pertaining to salvation is in [inside the spiritual sphere, of] Yehoshua; He is the “Chosen One”, and believers are “chosen in Him.” What He has, they have). 7In Him we have redemption (everywhere in the N. T. metaphorically, viz. deliverance effected through the death of Christ from the retributive wrath of a holy God and the merited penalty of sin) through His blood, the forgiveness (forgiveness, pardon, of sins [properly, the letting them go, as if they had not been committed, remission of their penalty) of our trespasses (a lapse or deviation from truth and uprightness; a sin, misdeed), according to the riches (fullness, abundance, plenitude) of His grace (acceptable, benefit, favour, gift, grace(-ious), joy, liberality, pleasure, thank[-s, -worthy]) 8which He lavished (to make a thing to abound unto one, to confer a thing abundantly upon one) on us. In all wisdom (In Paul’s Epistles: a knowledge of the divine plan, previously hidden, of providing salvation for men by the expiatory death of Christ; hence, all the treasures of wisdom are said to be hidden in Christ) and insight (understanding: (A. V. prudence; specifically, knowledcje [sic] and holy love of the will of God) 9He made known to us the mystery (a hidden purpose or counsel; secret will: the secret counsels which govern God in dealing with the righteous, which are hidden from ungodly and wicked men but plain to the godly. In the N. T., God’s plan of providing salvation for men through Christ, which was once hidden but now is revealed; [with τοῦ θελήματος αὐτοῦ added, boulḗ – properly, a resolved plan, used particularly of the immutable aspect of God’s plan – purposefully arranging all physical circumstances, which guarantees every scene of life works to His eternal purpose. This level of God’s plan (/boulḗ) demonstrates He is the Lord of history, i.e. always in charge! ( (boulḗ) is more than God’s immutable plan of physical circumstances. It always also includes the Lord’s purpose in them – and hence arranging all the physical scenes of history before creation (Ps 139:16; Jn 1:3).)] of His will, according to His kind intention (good-will, kindly intent, benevolence) which He purposed (to set before oneself, propose to oneself; to purpose, determine in himself [God the Father is the originator of the plan of salvation, it is done through Yehoshua, and executed by the Holy Spirit. This is how the Trinity functions, the “Economic Trinity.”]) in Him 10with a view (to or into (indicating the point reached or entered, of place, time, fig. purpose, result)) to an administration (administration, dispensation, which in a theocratic sense is ascribed to God himself as providing for man’s salvation: which good will he purposed to show with a view to (that) dispensation (of his) by which the times (namely, of infancy and immaturity cf. Galatians 4:1-4) were to be fulfilled) suitable to the fullness of the times, that is, the summing (to sum up [again], to repeat summarily and so to condense into a summary) up of all things in Christ, things in the heavens and things on the earth (NASB: A contemporary way of putting it might be to say that in a world of confusion, where things do not “add up” or make sense, we look forward to the time when everything will be brought into meaningful relationship under the headship of Christ. In Him: Christ is the center of God’s plan. Whether the universe or the individual Christian is in view, it is only in relationship to Christ that there is a meaningful future destiny.). In Him 11also we have obtained an inheritance (/klēróō (“assign by divine lot-cast”), is only used in Eph 1:11 where it is often translated “obtained an inheritance.” The Greek text literally reads, “In whom (Christ), indeed we were lot-cast (/klēróō), having already been pre-horizoned (/proorízō, aorist participle) according to (divine) purpose, of the one energizing all things according to the counsel (/boulḗ) arising from His will (/thélēma).” [The above rendering regards the Greek genitive as “subjective.”]; the heritage of God), having been predestined (proorízō (from /pró, “before” and /horízō, “establish boundaries, limits”) – properly, pre-horizon, pre-determine limits (boundaries) predestine. [(proorízō) occurs six times in the NT (eight in the writings of Paul). Since the root (/horízō) already means “establish boundaries,” the added prefix (pro, “before”) makes (proorízō) “to pre-establish boundaries,” i.e. before creation.]; 1 aorist passive participle, to predetermine, decide beforehand, Vulg. (except in Acts) praedestino (R. V. to foreordain): in the N. T. of God decreeing from eternity, one to obtain a thing.) according to His purpose who works all things after the counsel of His will, 12to the end that we who were the first (NASB: Probably a reference to those Jews who, like Paul, had become believers before many Gentiles had. Essex says the Apostles and other Jews.) to hope in Christ would be to the praise of His glory. 13In Him, you also (NASB: Probably refers to the majority of the Ephesians, who were Gentiles. Essex say the Ephesians believers and the Gentile believers), after listening to the message of truth (“the truth, as taught in the Christian religion, respecting God and the execution of his purposes through Christ, and respecting the duties of man,” opposed alike to the superstitions of the Gentiles and the inventions of the Jews, and to the corrupt opinions and precepts of false teachers even among Christians: in faith and truth, of which I became a partaker through faith), the gospel of your salvation—having also believed, you were sealed (respecting God, who by the gift of the Holy Spirit indicates who are his, passive [Essex says that Paul is addressing Gentile believers specifically]) in Him with the Holy Spirit of promise (the promised Spirit), 14who is given as a pledge (to pledge; an earnest, i. e. money which in purchases is given as a pledge that the full amount will subsequently be paid, as is expressed in full in; i.e., the Holy Spirit is God’s down payment of His purchased possession, believers, which will be paid in full in the future.) of our inheritance, with a view to the redemption of God’s own possession, to the praise of His glory.
15For this reason I too, having heard of the faith in the Lord Jesus which exists among you and your love for all the saints, 16do not cease giving thanks for you, while making mention of you in my prayers; 17that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may give to you a spirit of wisdom (In Paul’s Epistles: a knowledge of the divine plan, previously hidden, of providing salvation for men by the expiatory death of Christ) and of revelation (a spirit received from God disclosing what and how great are the benefits of salvation) in the knowledge (with the genitive of the person known; — of God, especially the knowledge of his holy will and of the blessings which he has bestowed and constantly bestows on men through Christ) of Him. 18I pray that the eyes of your heart (specifically, of the understanding, the faculty and seat of intelligence) may be enlightened (to give understanding to, as respects the eyes of your soul. NASB: Your mind or understanding or inner awareness), so that you will know what is the hope (the bringing in of a better hope) of His calling (in the N. T. everywhere in a technical sense, the divine invitation to embrace salvation in the kingdom of God, which is made especially through the preaching of the gospel: with the genitive of the author, τοῦ Θεοῦ [YHWH]), what are the riches (abundance, richness, (specially), valuable bestowment – riches, wealth) of the glory (of the majesty of his saving grace) of His inheritance (an inheritance, an heritage, regularly the gift of God to His chosen people, in the Old Testament: the Promised Land, in NT a possession viewed in one sense as present, in another as future; a share, participation. NASB: Hope: Has an objective quality of certainty (see Rom 8:25) It is the assurance of eternal life guaranteed by the present possession of the Holy Spirit [see v14]. The glory of His inheritance in the saints: Either the inheritance we have from God [see v. 14; Col 1:12] or the inheritance God receives, i.e., the saints themselves.) in the saints, 19and what is the surpassing greatness of His power (is used of the divine power considered as acting upon the minds of men. [If God is in the believer’s heart, and He is, then He in his intellect, emotion, and will, the inner, hidden, man.]. Essex says that Paul prays that believers may know and come to experience the power that is also theirs because of their position in Christ.) toward (for, for the benefit of, to the advantage of) us who believe. These are in accordance with the working of the strength (power; the might of his strength) of His might (power [over external things] afforded by strength. NASB: In this verse Paul piles term upon term to emphasize that the extraordinary divine force by which Jesus Christ was raised (v. 20) is the same power at work in and through believers.) 20which He brought about (to be at work, to work, to do; nergéō – properly, energize, working in a situation which brings it from one stage (point) to the next, like an electrical current energizing a wire, bringing it to a shining light bulb) in Christ, when He raised (from the company of the dead) Him from the dead and seated Him at His right hand (to confer the kingdom upon one. NASB: Right hand: The symbolic place of highest honor and authority) in the heavenly places, 21far above all rule (the first place, principality, rule, magistracy [cf. English ‘authorities’.] Hence, the term is transferred by Paul to angels and demons holding dominions entrusted to them in the order of things) and authority (the leading and more powerful among created beings superior to man, spiritual potentates; used in the plural of a certain class of angels) and power (is used of the power of angels) and dominion (in the N. T. one who possesses dominion, so used of angels) and every name (equivalent to title, specifically, a title of honor and authority) that is named, not only in this age (a space of time, an age) but also in the one to come (the future age, i. e., the age after the return of Christ in majesty, the period of the consummate establishment of the divine kingdom and all its blessings. NASB: This age … the one to come: Like rabbinic teaches of his day, Paul distinguishes between the present age, which is evil, and the future age when the Messiah will consummate His kingdom and there will be a completely righteous society on earth.). 22And He put all things in subjection under His feet (a foot, both of men and of beasts. NASB: Under His feet: Ps 8:5-6 emphasizes the destiny of man. And Heb 2:6-9 shows that ultimately it is the Son of man who rules over everything (cf. Heb 10:13). Head: Christ is not only head of the church [ekklésia: called out assembly; the whole body of Christians scattered throughout the earth; collectively, all who worship and honor God and Christ in whatever place they may be], but also head over everything.), and gave Him as head over all things to the church, 23which is His body, the fullness of Him who fills all in all (NASB: fullness…fills: The church is the fullness of Christ probably in the sense that it is filled by Him who fills all things.

 
New American Standard Bible
Made Alive in Christ

Eph 2: 1And you were dead ([spiritually dead, i. e.] “destitute of a life that recognizes and is devoted to God, because given up to trespasses and sins; inactive as respects doing right”) in your trespasses and sins, 2in which you formerly walked (to regulate one’s life, to conduct oneself, or the virtue or vice to which he is given) according (according to, agreeably to; in reference to agreement or conformity to a standard, in various ways; according to anything as a standard, agreeably to) to the course of this world (to breathe, blow, as to denote properly that which causes life, vital force), according to the prince (the ruler of the irreligious mass of mankind) of the power (used also of demons, collectively) of the air (signifies ‘the ruler of the powers [spirits, see ἐξουσία] in the air,’ i. e. the devil, the prince of the demons that according to Jewish opinion fill the realm of air), of the spirit ([a spirit that comes from the devil) that is now working (intransitive, to be operative, be at work, put forth power; ) in the sons (those whose character belongs to this age [is ‘worldly’]) of disobedience (in the N. T. particularly obstinate opposition to the divine will; those who are animated by this obstinacy, used of the Gentiles). 3Among them we too all formerly lived in the lusts (desire for what is forbidden) of our flesh (when either expressly or tacitly opposed to τό πνεῦμα (τοῦ Θεοῦ), has an ethical sense and denotes “mere human nature, the earthly nature of man apart from divine influence, and therefore prone to sin and opposed to God”; accordingly it includes whatever in the soul is weak, low, debased, tending to ungodliness and vice (“Thou must not understand ‘flesh’, therefore, as though that only were ‘flesh’ which is connected with unchastity, but St. Paul uses ‘flesh’ of the whole man, body and soul, reason and all his faculties included, because all that is in him longs and strives after the flesh; [Luther] note that ‘flesh’ signifies the entire nature of man, sense and reason, without the Holy Spirit”) indulging (to carry out, to execute) the desires of the flesh and of the mind, and were by nature (a mode of feeling and acting which by long habit has become nature: by [our depraved] nature we were exposed to the wrath of God [this meaning is evident from the preceding context, and stands in contrast with the change of heart and life wrought through Christ by the blessing of divine grace]. Josephus, Antiquities 13, 10, 6. [Others (see Meyer)] would lay more stress here upon the constitution in which this ‘habitual course of evil’ has its origin, whether that constitution be regarded [with some] as already developed at birth, or [better] as undeveloped) children of wrath (men exposed to divine punishment), even as the rest. 4But God, being rich in mercy (especially the mercy and clemency of God in providing and offering to men salvation by Christ), because of His great love ( agápē) (to give a proof of love) with which He loved (agapáō) us (The combination ἀγάπην ἀγαπᾶν τινα occurs, when a relative intervenes) 5even when we were dead in our transgressions, made us alive (to make one alive together with another, with Christ, Ephesians 2:5; σύν τῷ Χριστῷ, Colossians 2:13; in both of these passages new moral life is referred to. [Note, “belief nor “believe” are mentioned here; this verse is in reference to “regeneration”, “born from above”. God is the subject of the whole passage, vv. 4, 5.]) together with Christ by grace (Bible Knowledge Commentary: In the Septuagint “mercy” [eleos] translates the Hebrew “hesed”, “loyal love”. In the New Testament [eleos] means “undeserved kindness” toward sinners…. The noun for “love” [agapē] comes from the verb “agapaō” that means “to seek the highest good in the one loved”…. Since sinners are spiritually dead toward God, they have nothing to commend them to God…. The only way a spiritually dead person can communicate with God is to be made alive, and that must be done by the One who is Himself alive. This act of God in making the unregenerate alive is an act of grace. agapē: love, i.e. affection or benevolence; specially (plural) a love-feast — (feast of) charity(-ably), dear, love. Strong’s 26 agápē – properly, love which centers in moral preference. So too in secular ancient Greek, 26 (agápē) focuses on preference; likewise the verb form (25 /agapáō) in antiquity meant “to prefer” (TDNT, 7). In the NT, 26 (agápē) typically refers to divine love (= what God prefers).) you have been saved), 6and raised (to raise together, to cause to rise together; in the N. T. tropically, to raise up together from moral death to a new and blessed life devoted to God: ἡμᾶς τῷ Χριστῷ (risen from the dead, because the ground of the new Christian life lies in Christ’s resurrection [Ephesians 2:6; Colossians 3:1; ἐν Χρσίτω, Colossians 2:12.]) us up with Him, and seated (transitive, to cause to sit down together, place together [This is NOT legal fiction. The believer experiences this translation in time and space.]) us with Him in the heavenly (the heavenly regions, i. e. heaven itself, the abode of God and angels) places in Christ Jesus, 7so that in the ages to come (the future age) He might show the surpassing riches of His grace in kindness toward us in Christ Jesus. 8For by grace you have been saved through faith (not belief); and that not of yourselves, it is the gift (a present) of God; 9not as a result of works, so that no one may boast (to glory). 10For we are His workmanship (that which has been made; a work: of the works of God as creator; a product, i.e. fabric — thing that is made, workmanship), created in Christ Jesus for good (agathós – inherently (intrinsically) good; as to the believer, 18 (agathós) describes what originates from God and is empowered by Him in their life, through faith.) works, which God prepared beforehand (proetoimázō (from /pró, “beforehand” and /hétoimos, “ready because prepared”) – properly, made ready in advance; hence, “ready, already prepared” (used only in Ro 9:23; Eph 2:10). to prepare before, to make ready beforehand) so that we would walk (peripatéō (from /perí, “comprehensively around,” which intensifies /patéō, “walk”) – properly, walk around, i.e. in a complete circuit (going “full circle”). to tread all around, i.e. walk at large (especially as proof of ability); figuratively, to live, be occupied with, walk [about]) in them.
11Therefore remember that formerly you, the Gentiles in the flesh, who are called “Uncircumcision” by the so-called “Circumcision,” which is performed in the flesh by human hands— 12remember that you were at that time separate from Christ, excluded from the commonwealth (spoken of the theocratic or divine commonwealth) of Israel, and strangers (without knowledge of, without a share in) to the covenants of promise (covenants to which was united the promise (of salvation through the Messiah)), having no hope (in the N. T. in the Christian sense, joyful and confident expectation of eternal salvation) and without God (of one who neither knows nor worships the true God; so of the heathen) in the world. 13But now in Christ Jesus you who formerly were far off have been brought near (namely, to the blessings of the kingdom of God) by the blood (having expiatory efficacy, by which the Gentiles are brought to God and the blessings of his kingdom) of Christ. 14For He Himself is our peace, who made both groups (Jew and Gentle) into one and broke down the barrier of the dividing wall, 15by abolishing in His flesh the enmity (hostility; by implication, a reason for opposition — enmity, hatred.), which is the Law of commandments contained in ordinances, so that in Himself He might make the two into one new (new, which as recently made is superior to what it succeeds:) man (with a reference to the twofold moral condition of man, ὁ παλαιός (the corrupt) and ὁ καινός (ὁ νέος) ἄνθρωπος (the truly Christian man, conformed to the nature of God): Romans 6:6; Ephesians 2:15; Ephesians 4:22, 24; Colossians 3:9f.), thus establishing peace, 16and might reconcile (to reconcile completely (ἀπό) (others, to reconcile back again, bring back to a former state of harmony) them both in one body to God through the cross, by it having put to death the enmity. 17AND HE CAME AND PREACHED PEACE TO YOU WHO WERE FAR AWAY, AND PEACE TO THOSE WHO WERE NEAR; 18for through Him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father. 19So then you are no longer strangers and aliens (in the Scriptures a stranger, foreigner, one who lives in a place without the right of citizenship; (R. V. sojourner); the Sept. for גֵּר and תּושָׁב (without citizenship in God’s kingdom) but you are fellow citizens with the saints, and are of God’s household, 20having been built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Christ Jesus Himself being the corner stone (For as the cornerstone holds together two walls, so Christ joins together as Christians, into one body dedicated to God, those who were formerly Jews and Gentiles), 21in whom the whole building, being fitted together, is growing (in reference to Christ so as to form a temple) into a holy temple (of a company of Christians, a Christian church, as dwelt in by the Spirit of God) in the Lord, 22in whom you also are being built together into a dwelling of God in the Spirit (to come to be in the Spirit, under the power of the Spirit, i. e. in a state of inspiration or ecstasy, by the power and aid of the Spirit, the Spirit prompting).

 
New American Standard Bible
Paul’s Stewardship

Eph 3:1For this reason I, Paul, the prisoner of Christ Jesus for the sake of you Gentiles— 2if indeed you have heard of the stewardship (that dispensation (or arrangement) by which the grace of God was granted me) of God’s grace (used of the power to undertake and administer the apostolic office) which was given to me for you; 3that by revelation there was made known to me the mystery (a mystery or secret doctrine, of God’s purpose to bless the Gentiles also with salvation through Christ), as I wrote before in brief. 4By referring to this, when you read you can understand my insight (For the believer, this “connects the dots” through sanctified, inductive reasoning [done under God]. This positive use of /sýnesis [“synthesized understanding”]) into the mystery of Christ, 5which in other generations was not made known to the sons of men, as it has now been revealed (is used of God revealing to men things unknown, especially those relating to salvation: — whether by deeds, [by intimacy with Christ, by his words and acts]; — or by the Holy Spirit,) to His holy apostles and prophets in the Spirit; 6to be specific, that the Gentiles are fellow heirs and fellow members of the body, and fellow partakers of the promise in Christ Jesus through the gospel, 7of which I was made a minister, according to the gift of God’s grace which was given to me according to the working of His power (is used of the divine power considered as acting upon the minds of men, dýnamis (from /dýnamai, “able, having ability”) – properly, “ability to perform” (L-N); for the believer, power to achieve by applying the Lord’s inherent abilities. “Power through God’s ability” ( /dýnamis) is needed in every scene of life to really grow in sanctification and prepare for heaven [glorification].). 8To me, the very least of all saints, this grace was given, to preach to the Gentiles the unfathomable (literally, “not able to trace the steps of” – properly, impossible to “track” [“trace the steps of”]; unable to follow or fully comprehend (“incomprehensible”); inscrutable, past finding out; that cannot be traced out, that cannot be comprehended; unsearchable) riches of Christ, 9and to bring to light (to bring to light, render evident) what is the administration (the dispensation by which he carried out his secret purpose) of the mystery which for ages has been hidden in God who created all things; 10so that the manifold (much varied) wisdom (from the great variety of ways and methods by which he devised and achieved salvation through Christ) of God might now be made known through the church to the rulers (the first place, principality, rule, magistracy; hence, the term is transferred by Paul to angels and demons holding dominions entrusted to them in the order of things. arxḗ (figuratively) what comes first and therefore is chief (foremost), i.e. has the priority because ahead of the rest [“preeminent”]) and the authorities (the leading and more powerful among created beings superior to man, spiritual potentates; used in the plural of a certain class of angels) in the heavenly places. 11This was in accordance with the eternal purpose (NASB: The effective headship of Christ over a united church is in preparation for His ultimate assumption of headship over the universe [1:10]) which He carried out in Christ Jesus our Lord, 12in whom we have boldness (of the undoubting confidence of Christians relative to their fellowship with God) and confident access (– properly, persuasion; Spirit-produced persuasion (2 Cor 3:4; Eph 3:12. Eph 3:12: “In whom we have confidence (/parrhēsía) and interactive-access in persuasion (/pepoíthēsis) through the [principle] of faith that is given by Him.”) through faith in Him. 13Therefore I ask you not to lose heart at my tribulations on your behalf, for they are your glory.
14For this reason I bow my knees before the Father, 15from whom every family (i. e. every order of angels) in heaven and on earth derives (passive to be named, i. e. with the genitive of the one from whom the received name is derived [God the Father]) its name, 16that He would grant (to grant or permit one to etc) you, according to the riches of His glory, to be strengthened (in passive several times for אָמֵץ; to strengthen, make strong) with power (moral power and excellence of soul; force; specially, miraculous power [usually by implication, a miracle itself]. dýnamis (from /dýnamai, “able, having ability”) – properly, “ability to perform” (L-N); for the believer, power to achieve by applying the Lord’s inherent abilities. “Power through God’s ability” (/dýnamis) is needed in every scene of life to really grow in sanctification and prepare for heaven (glorification). (dýnamis) is a very important term, used 120 times in the NT.) through His Spirit in the inner (within: the internal, inner man, i. e. the soul, conscience) man (with a reference to the twofold nature of man, soul and body), 17so that Christ may dwell (dwell:– properly, settle down as a permanent resident, i.e. in a fixed (permanent) dwelling place as one’s personal residence; (figuratively) “to be exactly at home.” To dwell in his soul, to pervade, prompt, govern it. To house permanently, i.e. reside — dwell(-er), inhabitant(-ter).) in ([within]; is used of the person of Christ, who by his holy power and Spirit lives in the souls of his followers, and so moulds their characters that they bear his likeness) your hearts (kardía – heart; “the affective center of our being” and the capacity of moral preference (volitional desire, choice; “desire-producer that makes us tick”, i.e our “desire-decisions” that establish who we really are.[Heart (/kardía) is mentioned over 800 times in Scripture, but never referring to the literal physical pump that drives the blood. the heart, i.e. (figuratively) the thoughts or feelings [mind]) through faith (in reference to Christ, it denotes “a strong and welcome conviction or belief that Jesus is the Messiah, through whom we obtain eternal salvation in the kingdom of God”); and that you, being rooted (tropically, to render firm, to fix, establish, cause a person or a thing to be thoroughly grounded: passive) and grounded (to make stable, establish (A. V. ground): of the soul; passive) in love (agápē), 18may be able to comprehend (to lay hold of with the mind; to understand, perceive, learn, comprehend) with all the saints what is the breadth (width) and length and height (language used in shadowing forth the greatness, extent, and number of the blessings received from Christ; (figuratively) dignity — be exalted, height, (on) high.) and depth (profundity, i.e. (by implication) extent; (figuratively) mystery — deep(-ness, things), depth.), 19and to know the love of Christ which surpasses knowledge, that you may be filled up to all the fullness of God (NASB: Not unknowable, but so great that it cannot be completely known. Fullness: God, who is infinite in all His attributes, allows us to draw on His resources – in this case, His love.).
20Now to Him who is able to do far more abundantly beyond all that we ask or think, according to the power that works (to display one’s activity, show oneself operative. energéō (from /en, “engaged in,” which intensifies /érgon, “work”) – properly, energize, working in a situation which brings it from one stage (point) to the next, like an electrical current energizing a wire, bringing it to a shining light bulb.) within us, 21to Him be the glory in the church and in Christ Jesus to all generations forever and ever. Amen.

 
New American Standard Bible
Unity of the Spirit

Eph 4:1Therefore I, the prisoner of the Lord, implore (to admonish, exhort) you to walk in a manner worthy of the calling with which you have been called, 2with all humility and gentleness, with patience, showing tolerance (to hold oneself erect and firm [against any person or thing], to sustain, to bear [with equanimity], to bear with, endure, with a genitive of the person, of his opinions, actions, etc.) for one another in love, 3being diligent to preserve (anything as a mental deposit; – properly, maintain (preserve); (figuratively) spiritually guard (watch), keep intact.) the unity (oneness, i.e. unanimity) of the Spirit in the bond (that which binds together, a band) of peace. 4There is one body and one Spirit, just as also you were called in one hope of your calling; 5one Lord, one faith (persuasion, i.e. credence; moral conviction; by extension, the system of religious (Gospel) truth itself — assurance, belief, believe, faith, fidelity; in reference to Christ, it denotes “a strong and welcome conviction or belief that Jesus is the Messiah, through whom we obtain eternal salvation in the kingdom of God”), one baptism (of Christian baptism; this, according to the view of the apostles, is a rite of sacred immersion, commanded by Christ, by which men confessing their sins and professing their faith in Christ are born again by the Holy Spirit unto a new life, come into the fellowship of Christ and the church, and are made partakers of eternal salvation. NASB: Probably not the baptism of the Spirit [1 Cor 12:13], which was inward and therefore invisible, but water baptism. Since Paul apparently has in mind that which identifies all believers as belonging together, he would naturally refer to that church ordinance in which every new convert participated publically. At that time is was a more obvious common mark of identification of Christians than it is now, when it is celebrated in different ways and often only seen by those in the church.), 6one God and Father of all (Bible Knowledge Commentary: The forefold use of “all” refers to “all believers,” not “all mankind.” Certainly these characteristics are not common to all people.) who is over all and through all and in all.
7But to each one of us grace (capacity and ability due to the grace of God) was given according to the measure (determined extent, portion measured off, measure or limit) of Christ’s gift (according to the measure in which Christ gave it. Bible Knowledge Commentary: Gifts: As Christ appointed it… i.e., the gift He is pleased to give. Each believer is to function in Christ’s body by God’s enablement, proportionate to the gift [spiritual ability] bestowed on him, no more and no less…. Furthermore, since each believer receives “grace,” clergy and laity – to use a common present-day distinction – are on the same level in exercising their gifts.).
8Therefore it says,
“WHEN HE ASCENDED ON HIGH,
HE LED CAPTIVE A HOST OF CAPTIVES,
AND HE GAVE GIFTS TO MEN.”
(NASB: (Ps 68:18 speaks of God’s triumphant ascension to His throne in the temple at Jerusalem (symbol of His heavenly throne). Paul applies this to Christ’s triumphant ascension into heaven….Probably Paul applies this to the spiritual enemies Christ defeated at the cross. There are sever views on this verse, i.e., HE LED CAPTIVE A HOST OF CAPTIVES)
9(Now this expression, “He ascended,” what does it mean except that He also had descended into the lower parts of the earth? (NASB: Although Paul quoted from the psalm to introduce the idea of the “gifts to men,” he takes the opportunity to remind his readers of Christ’s coming to earth [His incarnation] and His subsequent resurrection and ascension. This passage probably does not teach, as some think and as some translations suggest that Christ descended into hell. I tend to take the NASB’s view in light of the nature of the incarnation and the attributes of YHWH) 10He who descended is Himself also He who ascended far above all the heavens, so that He might fill [i. e. to execute his counsels] all things [in an absolute sense, all things collectively, the totality of created things, the universe of things].) 11And He gave some as apostles (Specially applied to the twelve disciples whom Christ selected, out of the multitude of his adherents, to be his constant companions and the heralds to proclaim to men the kingdom of God: With these apostles Paul claimed equality, because through a heavenly intervention he had been appointed by the ascended Christ himself to preach the gospel among the Gentiles, and owed his knowledge of the way of salvation not to man’s instruction but to direct revelation from Christ himself, and moreover had evinced his apostolic qualifications by many signal proofs. According to Paul, apostles surpassed as well the various other orders of Christian teachers, as also the rest of those on whom the special gifts of the Holy Spirit had been bestowed, by receiving a richer and more copious conferment of the Spirit), and some as prophets (The prophets that appeared in the apostolic age among the Christians: they are associated with apostles. [They discerned and did what was best for the Christian cause, Acts 13:1f; foretold certain future events, Acts 11:27; Acts 21:10ff; and in the religious assemblies of the Christians, being suddenly seized by the Spirit (whose promptings, however, do not impair their self-government, 1 Corinthians 14:32), give utterance in glowing and exalted but intelligible language to those things which the Holy Spirit teaches them, and which have power to instruct, comfort, encourage, rebuke, convict, stimulate, their hearers, 1 Corinthians 14:3, 24.]), and some as evangelists (– properly, an “evangelist”; someone with a vocational calling from God to announce the good news of the Gospel. a bringer of good tidings, an evangelist; this name is given in the N. T. to those heralds of salvation through Christ who are not apostles), and some as pastors (– properly, a shepherd (“pastor” in Latin); (figuratively) someone who the Lord raises up to care for the total well-being of His flock [the people of the Lord]; of the overseers of the Christian assemblies) and teachers (of those who in the religious assemblies of Christians undertake the work of teaching, with the special assistance of the Holy Spirit), 12for the equipping (– properly, exact adjustment which describes how [enables] the individual parts to work together in correct order; complete furnishing (objectively) — perfecting) of the saints for the work of service (of the ministration or service of all who, endowed by God with powers of mind and heart peculiarly adapted to this end, endeavor zealously and laboriously to promote the cause of Christ among men, as apostles, prophets, evangelists, elders, etc.), to the building (in the N. T. metaphorically, “edifying, edification, i. e. the act of one who promotes another’s growth in Christian wisdom, piety, holiness, happiness”) up of the body of Christ; 13until we all attain to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge (of Christ, i. e. the true knowledge of Christ’s nature, dignity, benefits) of the Son of God, to a mature (until we rise to the same level of knowledge which we ascribe to a full-grown man, until we can be likened to a full-grown man) man, to the measure (the required measure, the due, fit, measure; the proper i. e. ripe, full age [of a man]) of the stature (metaphorically, of an attained state of mind fit for a thing: the age in which we are fitted to receive the fullness of Christ) which belongs to the fullness (In the N. T. the body of believers, as that which is filled with the presence, power, agency, riches of God and of Christ) of Christ. 14As a result, we are no longer to be children (childish, untaught, unskilled), tossed here and there by waves and carried about by every wind of doctrine (teaching), by the trickery (associated with a “sleight of the hand,” implies the use of trickery and cheating; the deception [sleight] of men because dice-players sometimes cheated and defrauded their fellow-players [used only in Eph 4:14]) of men, by craftiness (cunning) in deceitful (In the N. T. metaphorically, mental straying, i. e. error, wrong opinion relative to morals or religion) scheming (cunning arts, deceit, craft, trickery); 15but speaking the truth (true doctrine; to deal truly) in love, we are to grow up (of inward Christian growth) in all aspects into Him who is the head, even Christ, 16from whom the whole body, being fitted and held together by what every joint supplies, according to the proper working of each individual part, causes the growth of the body for the building up of itself in love.
The Christian’s Walk

17So this I say, and affirm together with the Lord, that you walk (to live, to regulate one’s life, to conduct oneself) no longer just as the Gentiles also walk, in the futility (perverseness, depravation; vanity, emptiness, unreality, purposelessness, ineffectiveness, instability, frailty; false religion) of their mind, 18being darkened (to darken or blind the mind) in their understanding (/diánoia (“critical thinking”), literally “thorough reasoning,” incorporates both sides of a matter to reach a meaningful (personal) conclusion. Such “full-breadth reasoning” is essential to loving (/agapáō) the Lord and our neighbor (see Mk 12:30). It is also the instrument of self-destruction when exercised without God’s light and power (Lk 1:51; Eph 2:3, 4:18; Col 1:21)), excluded (to alienate, estrange; passive “to be rendered ἀλλότριος: belonging to another person, belonging to others, foreign, strange, to be shut out from one’s fellowship and intimacy) from the life of God because of the ignorance (want of knowledge, ignorance, especially of divine things, such as is inexcusable) that is in them, because of the hardness (properly, the covering with a callus; tropically, obtuseness of mental discernment, dulled perception: τῆς καρδίας [hardening of heart], of stubbornness, obduracy); 19and they, having become callous, have given themselves over to sensuality (of carnality, lasciviousness) for the practice (performing) of every kind of impurity (in a moral sense, the impurity of lustful, luxurious, profligate living) with greediness (greedy desire to have more, covetousness, avarice). 20But you did not learn Christ in this way, 21if indeed you have heard Him and have been taught in Him, just as truth is in Jesus, 22that, in reference to your former manner of life, you lay aside the old self (our old man, i. e. we, as we were before our mode of thought, feeling, action, had been changed), which is being corrupted (“perish, waste away” – properly, waste away, corrupt [deteriorate]; [figuratively] to cause or experience moral deterioration – i.e. decomposition [break-down], due to the corrupting influence of sin. [This root (pht-) literally means “waste away” [degenerate], “moving down from a higher level [quality, status] to a lower form]) in accordance with the lusts of deceit, 23and that you be renewed (/ananeoō [“make new in relation to time”] is only used in Eph 4:23. Here believers are reminded of God’s continuous offer to bring new strides in their sanctification through “sanctified reasoning” – raising the meaning up to new levels of spiritual comprehension and reality.) (– properly, going up to a higher stage (level of sanctification) by God’s power; divinely renewed. /ananeoō [“make new in relation to time”] is only used in Eph 4:23. Here believers are reminded of God’s continuous offer to bring new strides in their sanctification through “sanctified reasoning” – raising the meaning up to new levels of spiritual comprehension and reality; to be renewed in mind, i. e. to be spiritually transformed, to take on a new mind) in the spirit of your mind (to be so changed that the spirit which governs the mind is renewed), 24and put on the new (new, which as recently made is superior to what it succeeds) self, which in the likeness of God has been created in righteousness and holiness of the truth (NASB: Since the new self is created, it cannot refer to the indwelling Christ, but rather to the kind of person He produces in the new believer. Nor is it some kind of new essential nature the believer has, because that would have been brought into existence at this new birth. In contrast, this is a new way of life that one not only “puts on” positionally at conversion but is also urged to “put on” experientially as a Christian.)
25Therefore, laying aside falsehood (a lie; conscious and intentional falsehood), SPEAK TRUTH EACH ONE of you WITH HIS NEIGHBOR (NASB: probably means fellow Christian in this context.), for we are members of one another. 26BE ANGRY, AND yet DO NOT SIN; do not let the sun go down on your anger, 27and do not give the devil an opportunity (opportunity, power, occasion for acting, to his curative efforts in one’s case). 28He who steals must steal no longer; but rather he must labor, performing with his own hands what is good, so that he will have something to share with one who has need. 29Let no unwholesome word proceed from your mouth, but only such a word as is good for edification according to the need of the moment, so that it will give grace to those who hear. 30Do not grieve (to grieve, offend) the Holy Spirit of God, by whom you were sealed for the day of redemption. 31Let all bitterness and wrath and anger and clamor and slander be put away from you, along with all malice. 32Be kind to one another, tender-hearted, forgiving each other, just as God in Christ also has forgiven you.

 
New American Standard Bible
Be Imitators of God

Eph 5:1Therefore (to show what ought now to be done by reason of what has been said; “By extension, here’s how the dots connect”) be imitators (is always used positively in the NT (seven times) – of followers of Christ emulating a God-approved example. The supreme model is God Himself (see Eph 5:1).) of God, as beloved (– properly, divinely-loved; beloved (“loved by God”), i.e. personally experiencing God’s “agapē-love.”) children (n the N. T., in Paul’s writings, all who are animated by the Spirit of God and thus are closely related to God; – properly, a child; (figuratively) anyone living in full dependence on the heavenly Father, i.e. fully (willingly) relying upon the Lord in glad submission. This prompts God to transform them into His likeness.); 2and walk in love, just as Christ also loved you and gave Himself up for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God as a fragrant (in the N. T. by a metaphor borrowed from sacrifices, a thing well-pleasing to God) aroma.
3But immorality or any impurity or greed must not even be named among you, as is proper among saints; 4and there must be no filthiness (baseness, dishonor) and silly (foolish talking) talk, or coarse jesting (in a bad sense, scurrility, ribaldry, low jesting [in which there is some acuteness]), which are not fitting, but rather giving of thanks. 5For this you know with certainty, that no immoral or impure person or covetous man, who is an idolater, has an inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and God.
6Let no one deceive you with empty (vain; devoid of truth) words, for because of these things the wrath of God comes upon the sons (those whose character belongs to this age (is ‘worldly’) of disobedience (in the N. T. particularly obstinate opposition to the divine will, those who are animated by this obstinacy, used of the Gentiles). 7Therefore do not be partakers with them; 8for you were formerly darkness (persons in whom darkness becomes visible and holds sway), but now you are Light (is used to denote truth and its knowledge, together with the spiritual purity congruous with it; luminousness) in the Lord; walk as children of Light 9(for the fruit [work, act, deed; (figuratively) everything done in true partnership with Christ, i.e. a believer [a branch] lives in union with Christ [the Vine]. By definition, fruit (/karpós) results from two life-streams – the Lord living His life through ours – to yield what is eternal (cf. 1 Jn 4:17) By this, love is perfected with us, so that we may have confidence in the day of judgment; because as He is, so also are we in this world. Cf. Jn 15:1, 2: “1I am the true vine, and My Father is the vine-dresser. 2Every branch in Me that does not bear fruit ( /karpós), He takes away; and every branch that bears fruit, He prunes it so that it may bear more fruit” (NASU).] of the Light consists in all goodness and righteousness and truth, NASB: Fruit of the Light: A mixed metaphor, but the meaning is clear. Light is productive (consider the effect of light on plant growth), and those who live in God’s light produce the fruit of moral and ethical character [cf. Gal 5:22-23], while those who live in darkness do not [see v. 11]), 10trying to learn (to test; by implication, to approve — allow, discern, examine, like, (ap-)prove, try) what is pleasing (well-pleasing, acceptable; – properly, well-pleasing (gratifying) because fully acceptable) to the Lord. 11Do not participate (to become a partaker together with others, or to have fellowship with a thing) in the unfruitful deeds of darkness, but instead even expose (by conviction to bring to light. – properly, to convince with solid, compelling evidence, especially to expose [prove wrong, connect].) them; 12for it is disgraceful even to speak of the things which are done by them in secret. 13But all things become visible (to make manifest or visible or known what has been hidden or unknown, to manifest, whether by words, or deeds, or in any other way) when they are exposed by the light, for everything that becomes visible is light.
14For this reason it says,
“Awake, sleeper,
And arise from the dead,
And Christ will shine on you.”
15Therefore be careful how you walk, not as unwise men but as wise, 16making the most of your time (where the meaning seems to be to make a wise and sacred use of every opportunity for doing good, so that zeal and well-doing are as it were the purchase-money by which we make the time our own), because the days are evil (bringing toils, annoyances, perils: of a time full of peril to Christian faith and steadfastness; – properly, pain-ridden, emphasizing the inevitable agonies (misery) that always go with evil). 17So then do not be foolish, but understand what the will of the Lord is. 18And do not get drunk with wine, for that is dissipation (i. e. of an abandoned man, one that cannot be saved from unsavedness, i.e. wastefulness; [figuratively] prodigality, spiritual wastefulness due to excessive behavior and the dire consequences it brings; the character of an ἄσωτος, i. e. of an abandoned man, one that cannot be saved, from wantonness, profligacy, wastefulness; hence, properly, incorrigibleness, an abandoned, dissolute, life; profligacy, prodigality [R. V. riot]) but be filled (to fill, diffuse throughout one’s soul; ) with the Spirit, 19speaking to one another in psalms (a striking, twanging; specifically, a striking the chords of a musical instrument; hence, a pious song) and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody with your heart (the center and seat of spiritual life, “the soul or mind, as it is the fountain and seat of the thoughts, passions, desires, appetites, affections, purposes, endeavors” [so in English heart, inner man, etc.]) to the Lord; 20always giving thanks for all things in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ to God, even the Father; 21and be subject (middle to subject oneself, to obey; to submit to one’s control; to yield to one’s admonition or advice, absolutely. NASB: Be subject to one another: Basic to the following paragraphs. Paul will show how, in each relationship, each partner can have a conciliatory attitude that will help that relationship. The grammar indicates that this mutual submission is associated with the filling of the Spirit in v. 18. The command “be filled” [v. 18] is followed by a series of participles [-ing endings] in the Greek: speaking [v. 19], singing, [v19], making melody [v19], giving thanks [v 20] and submitting [v 21]) to one another in the fear (reverence, respect [for authority, rank, dignity]) of Christ.

Marriage Like Christ and the Church

22Wives, be subject to your own husbands (ídios [a primitive word, NAS dictionary] – properly, uniquely one’s own, peculiar to the individual. /ídios [“uniquely one’s own”] is “stronger than the simple possessive pronoun (‘own’). This emphatic adjective means ‘private, personal’ “. What pertains to one’s property, family, dwelling, country, etc: a husband), as to the Lord. 23For the husband is the head (Metaphorically, anything supreme, chief, prominent; of persons, master, lord: of a husband in relation to his wife) of the wife, as Christ also is the head of the church, He Himself being the Savior (universally [`the savior’ i. e.] preserver of the body, i. e. of the church) of the body. 24But as the church is subject (middle to subject oneself, to obey; to submit to one’s control; to yield to one’s admonition or advice: absolutely) to Christ, so also the wives ought to be to their husbands in everything.
25Husbands, love (to love (in a social or moral sense) – [be-]love[-ed]; to love, to be full of good-will and exhibit the same: to have a preference for, wish well to, regard the welfare of. [Note: and elsewhere; used often in the First Epistle of John of the love of Christians toward one another; of the benevolence which God, in providing salvation for men, has exhibited by sending his Son to them and giving him up to death]) your wives, just as Christ also loved the church and gave (to give oneself up for, give oneself to death for, to undergo death for [the salvation of] one; – properly, to give (turn) over; “hand over from,” i.e. to deliver over with a sense of close (personal) involvement) Himself up for her, 26so that He might sanctify (to purify by expiation, free from the guilt of sin) her, having cleansed (to free from the guilt of sin, to purify, [instrumental dative]) her by the washing (a bath, i.e. [figuratively], baptism — washing) of water with the word (according to promise (properly, on the ground of his word of promise, viz. the promise of the pardon of sins [others take ῤήματι here as equivalent to ‘the gospel,’ cf. Ephesians 6:17, Romans 10:8]), 27that He might present (show) to Himself the church in all her glory, having no spot (a spot: tropically, a fault, moral blemish; – properly, a stain [spot]; [figuratively] a moral (spiritual) fault or blemish. Moral and spiritual stains (spots) come from living outside God’s preferred-will [desire, /thélēma, compare Eph 5:15-17, 27] and are removed with heartfelt confession [1 Jn 1:9]) or wrinkle (– properly, bunched up, contracted; (figuratively) “a wrinkle, from aging”) or any such thing; but that she would be holy (of sacrifices and offerings; prepared for God with solemn rite, pure, clean; sacred [physically, pure, morally blameless or religious, ceremonially, consecrated] – [most] holy [one, thing], saint) and blameless ( unblemished — without blame (blemish, fault, spot), faultless, unblamable). 28So husbands ought also to love their own wives as their own bodies. He who loves his own wife loves himself; 29for no one ever hated (to hate, pursue with hatred, detest; passive to be hated, detested) his own flesh, but nourishes (– properly, feed [nourish out], [i.e. to its needed outcome]. 1625 (ektréphō) suggests “effectively nourish, nurture”, – or “nourish out (up) to maturity” (J. Thayer), i.e. to rear, raise; to nourish up to maturity; then universally, to nourish; to rear up to maturity, i.e. to cherish or train — bring up, nourish) and cherishes (– properly, keep warm; (figuratively) “warm someone up” (= revive their health) by nourishing and nurturing; to cherish with tender love, to foster with tender care; to brood, i.e. (figuratively) to foster — cherish) it, just as Christ also does the church, 30because we are members of His body. 31FOR THIS REASON A MAN SHALL LEAVE HIS FATHER AND MOTHER AND SHALL BE JOINED (to join oneself to closely, cleave to, stick to (Plato): with the dative of a person; – properly, “to glue in” (from extending towards), i.e. to cleave (join with) someone in a personal (“interfacing”) relationship. /proskolláō (literally, “glue to another”) suggests “a more permanent association, focusing upon reciprocal relations”) TO HIS WIFE, AND THE TWO SHALL BECOME ONE FLESH. 32This mystery (it denotes the mystic or hidden sense; a mystery or secret doctrine) is great (things to be esteemed highly for their importance; of great moment, of great weight, important:); but I am speaking with reference to Christ and the church. 33Nevertheless, each individual among you also is to love his own wife even as himself, and the wife must see to it that she respects (to reverence, venerate, to treat with deference or reverential obedience) her husband.

 
New American Standard Bible
Family Relationships

Eph 6: 1Children, obey your parents in the Lord, for this is right. 2HONOR (to revere, venerate) YOUR FATHER AND MOTHER (which is the first commandment with a promise [/epaggelia (“an appropriate promise”) is nearly always used of God’s promises in the NT – and hence guaranteed by His own eternal Law (Being).]), 3SO THAT IT MAY BE WELL (things may turn out well, with thee) WITH YOU, AND THAT YOU MAY LIVE LONG ON THE EARTH (NASB: In Deut 5:16 [Ex 201:1], where this commandment occurs, the “promise” (v. 2) was expressed in terms of the anticipated occupation of the “land”, i.e., Canaan. That specific application was, of course not appropriate to the Ephesians, so the more general application is made here.)
4Fathers, do not provoke (to rouse to wrath, exasperate, anger) your children to anger (NASB: Fathers must surrender any right they may feel they have to act unreasonably toward their children.), but bring them up in the discipline (the whole training and education of children [which relates to the cultivation of mind and morals, and employs for this purpose now commands and admonitions, now reproof and punishment]) and instruction (such as belongs to the Lord [Christ] or proceeds from him) of the Lord.
5Slaves (a bondman, man of servile condition, NASB: Bothe the Old Testament and the New Testament included regulations for societal situations such as slavery and divorce (see Deut 24:1-4), which were the results of the hardness of hearts (Matt 19:8). Such regulations did not encourage or condone such situations but were divinely-given, practical ways of dealing with the realities of the day.), be obedient to those who are your masters according to the flesh, with fear (unto [that ye may] fear) and trembling (used to describe the anxiety of one who distrusts his ability completely to meet all requirements, but religiously does his utmost to fulfill his duty), in the sincerity (singleness, simplicity, sincerity, mental honesty) of your heart, as to Christ; 6not by way of eyeservice, (service performed [only] under the master’s eye; Theophylact, “for the master’s eye usually stimulates to greater diligence; his absence, on the other hand, renders sluggish.”): Ephesians 6:6; Colossians 3:22) as men-pleasers (studying to please men, courting the favor of men), but as slaves of Christ, doing the will of God from the heart. 7With good will (good-will, kindness) render service, as to the Lord, and not to men, 8knowing that whatever good thing each one does, this he will receive (that which he has done, i. e. either the reward or the punishment of the deed) back from the Lord, whether slave or free.
9And masters, do the same things to them, and give up threatening, knowing that both their Master and yours is in heaven, and there is no partiality (respect of persons, partiality, the fault of one who when called on to requite or to give judgment has respect to the outward circumstances of men and not to their intrinsic merits, and so prefers, as the more worthy, one who is rich, high-born, or powerful, to another who is destitute of such gifts) with Him.

The Armor of God

10Finally, be strong (in union with the Lord) in the Lord and in the strength (power, might: the might of his strength) of His might (power [over external things] afforded by strength. NASB: Implies that human effort is inadequate but God’s power is invincible.). 11Put on the full armor (panoplía (from /pás, “every” and /hóplon, “weapon”) – properly, a complete set of defensive and offensive armor (weapons), i.e. everything needed to wage successful warfare; (figuratively) the full resources the Lord gives to the believer so they can successfully wage spiritual warfare. In this way they do not fight for victory – but from His victory! Full armor, complete armor where the spiritual helps needed for overcoming the temptations of the devil are so called.) of God, so that you will be able to stand firm (in a figure, of one who vanquishes his adversaries and holds the ground) against the schemes (to follow craftily, frame devices, deceive: cunning arts, deceit, craft, trickery) of the devil (Satan, the prince of demons, the author of evil, persecuting good men, estranging mankind from God and enticing them to sin, and afflicting them with diseases by means of demons who take possession of their bodies at his bidding; the malignant enemy of God and the Messiah:). 12For our struggle (the struggle of Christians with the powers of evil) is not against flesh (a man, generally with a suggestion of weakness, frailty, mortality) and blood (denotes man’s living body compounded of flesh and blood, and so hints at the contrast between man and God [or even the more exalted creatures] as to suggest his feebleness, which is conspicuous as respects the knowledge of divine things. NASB: A caution against lashing out against human opponents as though they were the real enemy and also against assuming that he battle can be fought using merely human resources.), but against the rulers (angels and demons holding dominions entrusted to them in the order of things), against the powers (the leading and more powerful among created beings superior to man, spiritual potentates; used in the plural of a certain class of angels, used also of demons: in the plural), against the world forces (– properly, world-ruler, referring to Satan [demons] influencing the lives of worldly people; the world-rulers of this darkness) of this darkness (of ignorance respecting divine things and human duties, and the accompanying ungodliness and immorality, together with their consequent), against the spiritual forces (depravity, iniquity, wickedness [almost uniformly], malice) of wickedness (depravity, i.e. [specially], malice; plural [concretely] plots, sins — iniquity, wickedness.) in the heavenly (the lower heavens, or the heaven of the clouds [under the word]) places. 13Therefore, take up the full armor of God, so that you will be able to resist (– properly, take a complete stand against, i.e. a “180 degree, contrary position”; (figuratively) to establish one’s position publicly by conspicuously “holding one’s ground,” i.e. refusing to be moved (“pushed back”). /anthístēmi (“oppose fully”) means to forcefully declare one’s personal conviction (where they unswervingly stand); to keep one’s possession; ardently withstand, without giving up (letting go). (anthístēmi) was a military term in classical Greek (used by Thucydides, etc.) meaning “to strongly resist an opponent” [“take a firm stand against”]) in the evil (bringing toils, annoyances, perils: of a time full of peril to Christian faith and steadfastness) day (in the time of troubles and assaults with which demons try Christians), and having done everything, to stand firm (NASB: Resist and stand firm: In this context the imagery is not that of a massive invasion of the domain of evil, but of individual soldiers withstanding assault. ). 14Stand firm therefore, HAVING GIRDED (with truth as a girdle, figuratively equivalent to to equip oneself with knowledge of the truth) YOUR LOINS (the hip where the zṓnē – a belt [waistband], pulled tightly to remove all the slack from a garment. /zṓnē [“a belt”] was tied around the mid-section – hence, called “a girdle” in the KJV. /zṓnē (“a belt”) was often hollow to be used as a money-belt – therefore also called a “purse” in the KJV.]) WITH TRUTH, and HAVING PUT ON THE BREASTPLATE (refers to “the breastplate of righteousness” and 1 Thes 5:8 to “the breastplate of faith.” This indicates righteousness results from obeying the faith God births in the heart [this is confirmed in texts like Js 2:14-26]. A breast-plate or corselet consisting of two parts and protecting the body on both sides from the neck to the middle) OF RIGHTEOUSNESS (the doctrine concerning the way in which man may attain to a state approved of God), 15and having shod (to bind under oneself, bind on, with readiness) YOUR FEET WITH THE PREPARATION (the condition of a person or thing so far forth as prepared, preparedness, readiness: readiness of mind, with the promptitude and alacrity which the gospel produces) OF THE GOSPEL (After the death of Christ the term τό εὐαγγέλιον comprises also the preaching of [concerning] Jesus Christ as having suffered death on the cross to procure eternal salvation for men in the kingdom of God, but as restored to life and exalted to the right hand of God in heaven, thence to return in majesty to consummate the kingdom of God; so that it may be more briefly defined as “the glad tidings of salvation through Christ; the proclamation of the grace of God manifested and pledged in Christ; the gospel”) OF PEACE (according to a conception distinctly peculiar to Christianity, “the tranquil state of a soul assured of its salvation through Christ, and so fearing nothing from God and content with its earthly lot, of whatsoerer sort that is”.); 16in addition to all, taking up the shield (– properly, a gate or door (or “door-shaped”); used of the large, oblong ancient Roman shield (which looked like a full door), large enough to provide full protection from attack (used only in Eph 6:16)) of faith (in reference to Christ, it denotes “a strong and welcome conviction or belief that Jesus is the Messiah, through whom we obtain eternal salvation in the kingdom of God”) with which you will be able to extinguish (to extinguish — go out, quench) all the flaming (darts filled with inflammable substances and set on fire) arrows of the evil one (the devil). 17And take THE HELMET (the protection of soul which consists in [the hope of] salvation) OF SALVATION (– properly, of salvation [“applied salvation”], emphasizing the direct application of God’s salvation. Simply, equivalent to the hope of [future] salvation), and the sword (the sword with which the Spirit subdues the impulses to sin and proves its own power and efficacy (which sword is said to be ῤῆμα Θεοῦ: – properly, a slaughter-knife; a short sword or dagger mainly used for stabbing) of the Spirit, which is the word of God.
18With all prayer and petition pray at all times in the Spirit (to come to be in the Spirit, under the power of the Spirit, i. e. in a state of inspiration or ecstasy. Dative by the power and aid of the Spirit, the Spirit prompting. NASB: Reminders that he battle is spiritual and must be fought in God’s strength, depending on the word and on God through prayer.), and with this in view, be on the alert (to be sleepless, keep awake, watch [to be intent upon a thing]) with all perseverance (– strong perseverance which prevails by interacting with God) and petition for all the saints, 19and pray on my behalf, that utterance may be given to me in the opening of my mouth, to make known with boldness the mystery of the gospel, 20for which I am an ambassador in chains; that in proclaiming it I may speak boldly, as I ought to speak.
21But that you also may know about my circumstances, how I am doing, Tychicus, the beloved brother and faithful minister in the Lord, will make everything known to you. 22I have sent him to you for this very purpose, so that you may know about us, and that he may comfort your hearts.
23Peace be to the brethren, and love with faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 24Grace be with all those who love our Lord Jesus Christ with incorruptible love.

 

 

New American Standard Bible
Philippians
Thanksgiving

Phil 1:1Paul and Timothy, bond-servants of Christ Jesus,To all the saints in Christ Jesus who are in Philippi, including the overseers (are those whose service is used by Christ in extending and advancing his cause among men: used of apostles) and deacons (one who, by virtue of the office assigned him by the church, cares for the poor and has charge of and distributes the money collected for their use): 2Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
3I thank my God in all my remembrance of you, 4always offering prayer with joy in my every prayer for you all, 5in view of your participation (used of the intimate bond of fellowship which unites Christians) in the gospel from the first day until now. 6For I am confident of this very thing, that He who began a good (the saving work of God, i. e. substantially, the Christian life, due to divine efficiency) work in you will perfect (to bring to an end, accomplish, perfect, execute, complete. NASB: It is God who initiates salvation, who continues it and who will one day bring it to its consummation.) it until the day of Christ Jesus. 7For it is only right for me to feel this way about you all, because I have you in my heart, since both in my imprisonment and in the defense (verbal defense, speech in defense) and confirmation (stabiliment [support, firm]) of the gospel, you all are partakers (joint partners) of grace (but the N. T. writers use χάρις pre-eminently of that kindness by which God bestow: favors even upon the ill-deserving, and grants to sinners the pardon of their offences, and bids them accept of eternal salvation through Christ; acceptable, benefit, favour, gift, grace(-ious), joy, liberality, pleasure) with me. 8For God is my witness, how I long for you all with the affection of Christ Jesus. 9And this I pray, that your love may abound (to abound, overflow, i. e. to be abundantly furnished with, to have in abundance) still more and more in real knowledge (precise and correct knowledge; used in the N. T. of the knowledge of things ethical and divine. NASB: The way love grows [cf. Col 1:9]) and all discernment (– properly, the brand of sense-discernment which “cuts through” hazy ethical (moral) matters to really “size things up”; perception, not only by the senses but also by the intellect; cognition, discernment), 10so that you may approve (analyze, examine) the things that are excellent (“For the purpose of you continuously approving the things that differ (/diaphérō), so that you may be found brightly-pure [transparent] and unoffensive into [unto, /eis the day of Christ.”]; to test, prove, the things that differ, i. e. to distinguish between good and evil, lawful and unlawful), in order to be sincere (/eilikrinḗs [“sincere because transparent”] describes something proven because well-examined [totally scrutinized] – therefore, certified as sincere [inwardly pure]. naturally refers to something completely clear, free from hypocrisy [deceit, wickedness] which stands in the full light of God’s approval. This term is used twice in the NT [Phil 1:10; 2 Pet 3:1]; properly, sifted and cleansed by rapid movement or rolling to and fro), pure, unsullied, sincere; of the soul, an εἰλικρινής [originally: unmixed), pure, uncontaminated] man) and blameless (metaphorically, not led into sin) until the day of Christ; 11having been filled (to cause to abound, to furnish or supply liberally; liberally supplied, of spiritual possessions) with the fruit (work, act, deed) of righteousness (“integrity, virtue, purity of life, uprightness, correctness in thinking, feeling, and acting; equity [of character or act]) which comes through Jesus Christ, to the glory and praise of God.

The Gospel Is Preached

12Now I want you to know, brethren, that my circumstances have turned out for the greater progress of the gospel, 13so that my imprisonment in the cause of Christ has become well known throughout the whole praetorian guard (the camp of praetorian soldiers established by Tiberius) and to everyone else, 14and that most of the brethren, trusting in the Lord because of my imprisonment, have far more courage to speak the word of God without fear. 15Some, to be sure, are preaching Christ even from envy (ill-will (as detraction), i.e. jealousy (spite) — envy) and strife (a quarrel, i.e. [by implication] wrangling — contention, debate, variance), but some also from good will (prompted by good will; purpose — desire, good pleasure [will], seem good.); 16the latter do it out of love, knowing that I am appointed (to be [by God’s intent] set, i. e. destined) for the defense of the gospel; 17the former proclaim Christ out of selfish ambition rather than from pure motives, thinking to cause me distress (to increase the misery of my imprisonment by causing me anxiety) in my imprisonment. 18What then? Only that in every way, whether in pretense or in truth, Christ is proclaimed; and in this I rejoice.
Yes, and I will rejoice, 19for I know that this will turn out for my deliverance (salvation as the present possession of all true Christians) through your prayers and the provision (a supplying, supply) of the Spirit of Jesus Christ (NASB: Either Paul’s release from prison (see v. 25; 2:24) or, in view of the immediately following verses, the deliverance brought to the believer by death [cf. Rom 8:28]. Verse 25, however, seems to point to the former interpretation. Spirit of Jesus Christ: The Holy Spirit is not only the Spirit of God the Father [Rom 8:9, 14; 1 Cor 2:10-11, 14] but also the Spirit of Christ, the second person of the Trinity [Acts 16:7, Rom 8:9; Gal 4:6]. He is sent by the Father [John 14:16-17, 26; Gal 4:6] and by the Son [John 15:26; 16:7], 20according to my earnest expectation and hope, that I will not be put to shame (In the N. T. only passive; future; 1 aorist; to be suffused with shame, be made ashamed, be ashamed in anything), but that with all boldness, Christ will even now, as always, be exalted in my body, whether by life or by death.

To Live Is Christ

21For to me, to live is Christ and to die is gain. 22But if I am to live on in the flesh, this will mean fruitful labor for me; and I do not know which to choose (to take for oneself, to choose, prefer). 23But I am hard-pressed (I am hard pressed on both sides, my mind is impelled or disturbed from each side) from both directions, having the desire to depart and be with Christ, for that is very much better (NASB: While mysteries remain, this passage clearly teaches that when believers die they are with Christ, apart from the body); 24yet to remain on in the flesh is more necessary for your sake. 25Convinced of this, I know that I will remain and continue with you all for your progress and joy in the faith, 26so that your proud confidence in me may abound in Christ Jesus through my coming to you again.
27Only conduct yourselves in a manner worthy of the gospel of Christ, so that whether I come and see you or remain absent, I will hear of you that you are standing firm in one spirit, with one mind striving together for the faith of the gospel; 28in no way alarmed (to frighten, affright) by your opponents (an adversary; to lie opposite, i.e. oppose, withstand)—which is a sign of destruction (in particular, the destruction which consists in the loss of eternal life, eternal misery, perdition, the lot of those excluded from the kingdom of God. NASB: Persistent opposition to the church and the gospel is a sure sign of eventual destruction, since it involves rejection of the only way of salvation. By the same token, when Christians are persecuted for their faith, this is a sign of the genuineness of their salvation [see 2 Thes 1:5This is a plain indication of God’s righteous judgment so that you will be considered worthy of the kingdom of God, for which indeed you are suffering.]) for them, but of salvation for you, and that too, from God. 29For to you it has been granted (to give graciously, give freely, bestow: τίνι τί, aorist, indicative, passive: NASB: Christian suffering, as well as faith, is a blessing (cf. Matt 5:11-12; Acts 5:41; James 1:2; 1 Peter 4:14). The Christian life is to be a “not only …. but also” proposition: not only believing but also suffering.) for Christ’s sake, not only to believe in Him, but also to suffer for His sake, 30experiencing the same conflict which you saw in me, and now hear to be in me.

 
New American Standard Bible
Be Like Christ

Phil 2:1Therefore if there is any encouragement (a calling to one’s aid, i.e. encouragement, comfort) in Christ, if there is any consolation (exhortation, encouragement) of love, if there is any fellowship (the share which one has in anything, participation) of the Spirit, if any affection (heart, tender mercies, affections) and compassion (mercy, pity, emotions, longings), 2make my joy complete by being of the same mind, maintaining the same love, united in spirit, intent on one purpose. 3Do nothing from selfishness (in the N. T. “… a desire to put oneself forward, a partisan and factious spirit which does not disdain low arts; partisanship, factiousness”) or empty conceit (“a state of pride which is without basis or justification – ’empty pride, cheap pride, vain pride’ “; vain-glory, groundless self-esteem, empty pride), but with humility of mind (i.e. modesty — humbleness of mind; lowliness of mind) regard one another as more important than yourselves; 4do not merely look out for your own personal interests, but also for the interests of others. 5Have this attitude in yourselves which was also in Christ Jesus, 6who, although He existed in the form of God, did not regard equality with God a thing to be grasped (NASB: In the form of God: Affirming that Jesus is fully God. Form: Essential form, the sum of those qualities that make God specifically God. Equality with God: The status and privilege that inevitably follow from being in very nature of God.), 7but emptied Himself (NASB: Emptied Himself: He did this, not by giving up deity, but by laying aside His glory [see John 17:5] and submitting to the humiliation of becoming man [see 2 Cor 8:9]. Jesus is truly God and truly man.), taking the form of a bond-servant, and being made in the likeness of men. 8Being found in appearance as a man, He humbled Himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross (This is the “Kenosis”, please see the second post). 9For this reason also, God highly exalted (to exalt to the highest rank arid power, raise to supreme majesty) Him, and bestowed (to give graciously, give freely) on Him the name which is above every name (the name superior to every (other) name; Bible Knowledge Commentary: Christ’s exaltation and His receiving a name that is above every name was the answer to His high-priestly prayer [John 17:5] . The exaltation refers to His resurrection, ascension, and glorification at the Father’s right hand [Acts 2:33; Heb 1:3]. His name is not merely a title; it refers to His person and to His position of dignity and honor.), 10so that at the name (in devout recognition of the title conferred on him by God) of Jesus EVERY KNEE (in honor of one) WILL BOW (in devout recognition of the name [of κύριος, Lord] which Jesus received from God), of those who are in heaven (the heavenly beings, the inhabitants of heaven: of angels, in opposition etc) and on earth (men) and under the earth (subterranean; plural, of those who dwell in the world below, i. e. departed souls etc) 11and that every tongue will confess (to profess i. e. to acknowledge openly and joyfully; by implication, of assent) agree fully) that Jesus Christ is Lord (to Jesus as the Messiah, since by his death he acquired a special ownership in mankind, and after his resurrection was exalted to a partnership in the divine administration), to the glory of God the Father.
12So then, my beloved, just as you have always obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now much more in my absence, work (to do that from which something results; of man: make every effort to obtain salvation) out (deliverance, preservation, safety, salvation: the time in which the offer of salvation is made) your salvation with fear (unto [that ye may] fear) and trembling (a trembling, quaking with fear: with fear and trembling, used to describe the anxiety of one who distrusts his ability completely to meet all requirements, but religiously does his utmost to fulfill his duty. NASB: Not because of doubt to anxiety; rather, the reference is to an active reverence and a singleness of purpose in response to God’s grace.); 13for it is God who is at work (to effect; properly, energize, working in a situation which brings it from one stage [point] to the next, like an electrical current energizing a wire, bringing it to a shining light bulb.) in you, both to will ( by implication, to wish, i.e. be inclined) and to work for His good pleasure (good-will, kindly intent, benevolence). (Comments by Dr. Robert Saucy: The issue involved in the doctrine of perseverance is, Can a truly saved person ever be lost? There are various answers to this question. Some denominations in Christendom hold that a believer can lose his salvation, such as Catholicism and Arminianism. The Reformed or Calvinism says that a truly saved person would persevere until the end, and therefore cannot be lost. The concepts of perseverance and eternal security ultimately say the same thing in the end, but the Reformed tend to use perseverance because it speaks of Christians persevering rather than just being secure, which some people feel give Christians the right to say no matter what believers do they are secure. Calvinism puts the emphasis on perseverance, the P in TULIP. The true biblical teaching is not that, it is God preserves you persevere. Bible Knowledge Commentary: …. This outworking was to be done “with fear and trembling,” with a complete trust in God and not in themselves. The only way this could be realized was through God who would enable them to do it [v. 13]. Paul told the Philippian saints that God worked in them so that they could do His good pleasure and accomplish His good purposes. Both divine enablement and human responsibility are involved in getting God’s work done. Believers are partners with God, laboring together with Him. The verb “works” [v. 13] means “energize” or “provide enablement.” God makes His own both wiling and desirous to do His work.) (Paul is addressing believers, and not unbelievers.)
14Do all things without grumbling or disputing; 15so that you will prove yourselves to be blameless and innocent, children of God above reproach in the midst of a crooked (perverse, wicked) and perverse (corrupt, wicked) generation, among whom you appear as lights in the world, 16holding fast the word of life, so that in the day of Christ I will have reason to glory because I did not run in vain nor toil in vain. 17But even if I am being poured out as a drink offering (spéndō – properly, to make a libation (drink-offering). A libation (a liquid offering) is poured out to symbolize total surrender (even unto death). (spéndō) means “to pour out as a drink-offering, make a libation; figuratively, ‘I am poured out or offered as a libation’ (in the shedding of my life-blood), Phil 2:17″; that is, the ” ‘outpouring’ of one’s life blood in service and suffering”; is figuratively used of one whose blood is poured out in a violent death for the cause of God) upon the sacrifice (in the work of exciting, nourishing, increasing, your faith, as if in providing a sacrifice to be offered to God) and service of your faith, I rejoice and share my joy with you all. 18You too, I urge you, rejoice in the same way and share your joy with me.

 

 

New American Standard Bible
The Goal of Life

Phil 3:1Finally, my brethren, rejoice in the Lord. To write the same things again is no trouble to me, and it is a safeguard (suited to confirm) for you.
2Beware of the dogs (a man of impure mind, an impudent man; a spiritual predator who feeds off others.), beware of the evil (of a mode of thinking, feeling, acting; base, wrong, wicked; inner malice flowing out of a morally-rotten character) workers (those who as teachers labor to propagate and promote Christianity among men), beware of the false circumcision (Keep your eye on that boasted circumcision, or to call it by its true name ‘concision’ or ‘mutilation.’); 3for we are the true circumcision (of Christians: separated from the unclean multitude and truly consecrated to God), who worship (with the spirit or soul, prompted by, filled with, the Spirit of God) in the Spirit of God and glory (to glory in God, i. e. the knowledge of God, intimacy with him, his favors, etc.) in Christ Jesus and put no confidence (to trust in, put confidence in a person or thing) in the flesh (in things pertaining to the flesh (body), such as circumcision, descent, etc. NASB: Although the term “flesh” in Paul’s letters often refer to sinful human nature, it speaks here of the frailty of human nature. It is not worthy of our confidence; it cannot save.), 4although I myself might have confidence even in the flesh. If anyone else has a mind to put confidence in the flesh, I far more: 5circumcised the eighth day, of the nation of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; as to the Law, a Pharisee (see definition at the end of the chapter); 6as to zeal, a persecutor of the church; as to the righteousness which is in the Law, found blameless.
7But whatever things were gain to me, those things I have counted as loss for the sake of Christ. 8More than that, I count all things to be loss in view of the surpassing value (a substantive, the excellency, surpassing worth) of knowing Christ Jesus my Lord, for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and count them but rubbish (refuse, what is good-for-nothing except to be discarded; worthless and detestable) so that I may gain (to gain Christ’s favor and fellowship) Christ, 9and may be found in Him (NASB: In Paul’s teaching, this personal union is the basic reality of salvation. To be in Christ is to be saved. It is to be in intimate personal relationship with Christ the Savior. From this relationship flow all the particular benefits and fruits of salvation, like encouragement (see, e.g., 3:8-10; Rom 8:1 Therefore there is now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.; 2 Cor 5:17 Therefore if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creature; the old things passed away; behold, new things have come. ; Gal 2:20 “I have been crucified with Christ; and it is no longer I who live, but Christ lives in me; and the life which I now live in the flesh I live by faith in the Son of God, who loved me and gave Himself up for me.), not having a righteousness of my own derived (that comes from God, i. e. is adjudged by him) from the Law ( law [through the idea of prescriptive usage), but that which is through (through, on account of, because of) faith in Christ, the righteousness (which comes from God, i. e. is adjudged, imputed) which comes from God on the basis of faith, 10that I may know Him (his blessings; to come to know, recognize, perceive) and the power (the power which the resurrection of Christ has, for instructing, reforming, elevating, tranquilizing, the soul; for the believer, power to achieve by applying the Lord’s inherent abilities. “Power through God’s ability” (/dýnamis) is needed in every scene of life to really grow in sanctification and prepare for heaven [glorification]) of His resurrection and the fellowship (the share which one has in anything, participation) of His sufferings (Under God, /páthēma [“strong feeling”] is redemptive, preparing us to know the Lord better now and forever in glory [cf. Ro 8:18; Phil 3:10; 1 Pet 5:1]. [páthēma] is not inherently negative; indeed, it is only negative when experienced outside of [apart from] faith.), being conformed to His death (properly, the death of the body, i. e. that separation [whether natural or violent] of the soul from the body by which the life on earth is ended; is used of the punishment of Christ); 11in order that I may attain to the resurrection from the dead (NASB: Not an indication of doubt or uncertainty, but of intense concern and involvement. Resurrection is the great personal anticipation of every believer (see Daniel 12:2; John 5:29; Acts 24:15; 1 Cor 15:23; 1 Thess 4:16).
12Not that I have already obtained (i. e. to get possession of, obtain, a thing) it or have already become perfect (I am already made perfect), but I press (of one who in a race runs swiftly to reach the goal; pursue with all haste (“chasing” after), earnestly desiring to overtake (apprehend).) on so that I may lay hold (to lay hold of so as to make one’s own, to obtain, attain to the prize of victory: NASB: Paul’s goal is Christ’s goal for him, and Christ supplies the resources for him to “press on toward the goal” [v. 14; cf. 2:12-13].) of that for which also I was laid hold of by Christ Jesus. 13Brethren, I do not regard myself as having laid hold of it yet; but one thing I do: forgetting (NASB: Not losing all memory of his sinful past [see vv. 4-6], but leaving it behind him as done with and settled) what lies behind and reaching forward to what lies ahead, 14I press on toward the goal for the prize of the upward call of God in Christ Jesus (NASB: The Christian receives an award of everlasting glory. Paul’s ultimate aspirations are found not in this life, but in heaven, because Christ is there [see Col 3:1-2 Therefore if you have been raised up with Christ, keep seeking the things above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God. Set your mind on the things above, not on the things that are on earth.]). 15Let us therefore, as many as are perfect, have this attitude; and if in anything you have a different attitude, God will reveal that also to you; 16however, let us keep living by that same standard to which we have attained.
17Brethren, join in following my example, and observe those who walk according to the pattern you have in us. 18For many walk, of whom I often told you, and now tell you even weeping, that they are enemies (who given up to their evil passions evade the obligations imposed upon them by the death of Christ) of the cross (the saving power of his crucifixion) of Christ, 19whose end is destruction (in particular, the destruction which consists in the loss of eternal life, eternal misery, perdition, the lot of those excluded from the kingdom of God. NASB: Destruction: The opposite of salvation. Appetite: A deep self-centeredness; their appetites and desires come first. Earthly things: They have set their minds on the things of this life; they are antinomians [libertines], the opposite of the legalists of v. 2.), whose god is their appetite, and whose glory is in their shame (which ought to arise from guilt), who set their minds on earthly things. 20For our citizenship (the commonwealth whose citizens we are) is in heaven, from which also we eagerly wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ; 21who will transform (to change in fashion or appearance) the body of our humble state into conformity ( jointly formed, i.e. (figuratively) similar — conformed to, fashioned like unto) with the body of His glory (the body in which his glorious condition is manifested), by the exertion of the power that He has even to subject all things to Himself.
(Pharisee: The first and feeble beginnings of this sect seem to be traceable to the age immediately succeeding the return from exile. In addition to the books of the O. T. the Pharisees recognized in oral tradition a standard of belief and life [Josephus, Antiquities 13, 10, 6; Matthew 15:1; Mark 7:3]. They sought for distinction and praise by the observance of external rites and by the outward forms of piety, such as ablutions, fastings, prayers, and alms-giving; and, comparatively negligent of genuine piety, they prided themselves on their fancied good works. They held strenuously to a belief in the existence of good and evil angels, and to the expectation of a Messiah; and they cherished the hope that the dead, after a preliminary experience either of reward or of penalty in Hades, would be recalled to life by him and be requited each according to his individual deeds. In opposition to the usurped dominion of the Herods and the rule of the Romans, they stoutly upheld the theocracy and their country’s cause, and possessed great influence with the common people. According to Josephus [Antiquities 17, 2, 4] they numbered more than 6,000. They were bitter enemies of Jesus and his cause; and were in turn severely rebuked by him for their avarice, ambition, hollow reliance on outward works, and affectation of piety in order to gain notoriety: Matthew 3:7; Matthew 5:20; Matthew 7:29.)

Timothy and Epaphroditus

19But I hope in the Lord Jesus to send Timothy to you shortly, so that I also may be encouraged when I learn of your condition. 20For I have no one else of kindred spirit (equal in soul [like-minded]) who will genuinely be concerned ([merimnáō] is used of effectively distributing concern, in proper relation to the whole picture; providing for) for your welfare. 21For they all seek (aim at, strive after: to seek to further the profit or advantage of one) after their own interests, not those of Christ Jesus. 22But you know of his proven worth (approvedness, tried character), that he served with me in the furtherance of the gospel like a child serving his father. 23Therefore I hope to send him immediately, as soon as I see how things go with me; 24and I trust in the Lord that I myself also will be coming shortly. 25But I thought it necessary to send to you Epaphroditus, my brother and fellow worker and fellow soldier, who is also your messenger and minister to my need; 26because he was longing for you all and was distressed because you had heard that he was sick. 27For indeed he was sick to the point of death, but God had mercy on him, and not on him only but also on me, so that I would not have sorrow upon sorrow. 28Therefore I have sent him all the more eagerly so that when you see him again you may rejoice and I may be less concerned about you. 29Receive him then in the Lord with all joy, and hold men like him in high regard; 30because he came close to death for the work of Christ, risking his life to complete what was deficient (your absence, owing to which something was lacking in the service conferred on me [by you]) in your service to me.

 
New American Standard Bible
Think of Excellence

Phil 4:1Therefore, my beloved brethren whom I long to see, my joy and crown, in this way stand firm in the Lord, my beloved.
2I urge Euodia and I urge Syntyche to live in harmony in the Lord. 3Indeed, true companion, I ask you also to help these women who have shared my struggle in the cause of the gospel, together with Clement also and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life (the book in which the names of those are recorded to whom eternal life has been decreed).
4Rejoice in the Lord always; again I will say, rejoice! 5Let your gentle (equitable, fair, mild) spirit be known to all men. The Lord is near (of Christ’s return from heaven). 6Be anxious (to be troubled with cares; “a part, as opposed to the whole”) – properly, drawn in opposite directions; “divided into parts”; “to go to pieces” because pulled apart (in different directions), like the force exerted by sinful anxiety (worry).) for nothing, but in everything by prayer and supplication (any pious address to God) with thanksgiving let your requests be made known to God. 7And the peace (wholeness, i.e. when all essential parts are joined together; peace (God’s gift of wholeness) of God, which surpasses all comprehension (the intellective faculty, the understanding), will guard (to guard (keep watch) like a military sentinel; (figuratively) to actively display whatever defensive and offensive means are necessary to guard; to protect by guarding, to keep, i. e. in close connection with Christ) your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus.
8Finally, brethren, whatever is true, whatever is honorable (august, venerable, reverend; to be venerated for character), whatever is right (that which regard for duty demands), whatever is pure (pure from every fault, immaculate), whatever is lovely (worthy of personal affection; hence, dearly prized, i.e. worth the effort to have and embrace), whatever is of good repute (things spoken in a kindly spirit, with good-will to others), if there is any excellence (any particular moral excellence, as modesty, purity) and if anything worthy of praise (approbation, commendation), dwell (by reckoning up all the reasons to gather or infer; i. e., to consider, take account, weigh, meditate on: a thing, with a view to obtaining it; compute, “take into account”; reckon [come to a “bottom-line”], i.e. reason to a logical conclusion [decision]) on these things. 9The things you have learned and received and heard and seen in me, practice these things, and the God of peace will be with you.
God’s Provisions

10But I rejoiced in the Lord greatly, that now at last you have revived your concern for me; indeed, you were concerned before, but you lacked opportunity. 11Not that I speak from want, for I have learned (to learn by use and practice; to be in the habit of, accustomed to) to be content ([“sufficiency within”] occurs only in Phil 4:11 where it refers to positive self-sufficiency [inward adequacy] – i.e. that comes through the indwelling power of Christ; Subjectively, contented with one’s lot, with one’s means, though the slenderest) in whatever circumstances I am. 12I know how to get along with humble means, and I also know how to live in prosperity; in any and every circumstance I have learned the secret (to every condition and to all the several circumstances of life have I become accustomed; I have been so disciplined by experience that whatsoever be my lot I can endure; shutting the eyes and mouth to experience mystery; (figuratively) initiated into the wonderful “mystery revelation” of learning to be content in Christ in every scene of life – no exceptions![Note: Reflection: Experiencing the revelation of the Holy Spirit enables the believer to learn God’s “open secrets.” By experiencing faith (“God’s inworked persuasions”), every decision (action) of life becomes equally, eternally meaningful) of being filled and going hungry, both of having abundance and suffering need. 13I can do all things through Him who strengthens (to make strong, endue with strength, strengthen; to impart ability [make able]; empowered) me. 14Nevertheless, you have done well to share with me in my affliction.
15You yourselves also know, Philippians, that at the first preaching of the gospel, after I left Macedonia, no church shared with me in the matter of giving and receiving but you alone; 16for even in Thessalonica you sent a gift more than once for my needs. 17Not that I seek the gift itself, but I seek for the profit which increases to your account. 18But I have received everything in full and have an abundance; I am amply supplied, having received from Epaphroditus what you have sent, a fragrant aroma, an acceptable sacrifice, well-pleasing to God. 19And my God will supply all your needs according to His riches (the fullness of all things in store for God’s uses; abundance, possessions of many kinds; riches) in glory (as accords with his divine perfection) in Christ Jesus. 20Now to our God and Father be the glory forever and ever. Amen.
21Greet every saint in Christ Jesus. The brethren who are with me greet you. 22All the saints greet you, especially those of Caesar’s household.
23The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit (is the rational part of man, the power of perceiving and grasping divine and eternal things, and upon which the Spirit of God exerts its influence; (πνεῦμα, says Luther, “is the highest and noblest part of man, which qualifies him to lay hold of incomprehensible, invisible, eternal things; in short, it is the house where Faith and God’s word are at home”; [where instead of μία ψυχή Paul according to his mode of speaking elsewhere would have said more appropriately μία καρδία: the heart; mind, character, inner self, will, intention, center; “the affective center of our being” and the capacity of moral preference (volitional desire, choice); “desire-producer that makes us tick, i.e our “desire-decisions” that establish who we really are]).

 
New American Standard Bible
Colossians
Thankfulness for Spiritual Attainments

Col 1:1Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Timothy our brother,
2To the saints and faithful brethren in Christ who are at Colossae: Grace to you and peace from God our Father.
3We give thanks to God, the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, praying always for you, 4since we heard of your faith in Christ Jesus and the love which you have for all the saints; 5because of the hope laid up for you in heaven (or the salvation awaiting them is said to be laid up for them in heaven), of which you previously heard in the word of truth, the gospel 6which has come to you, just as in all the world also it is constantly bearing fruit and increasing, even as it has been doing in you also since the day you heard (what is taught you secret; to hear God’s voice which prompts Him to birth faith within [cf. Ro 10:17]) of it and understood (properly, apt, experiential knowing, through direct relationship; to become thoroughly acquainted with, to know thoroughly; to know accurately, know well) the grace of God in truth; 7just as you learned it from Epaphras, our beloved fellow bond-servant, who is a faithful servant of Christ on our behalf, 8and he also informed us of your love in the Spirit (love which the Spirit begets).
9For this reason also, since the day we heard of it, we have not ceased to pray for you and to ask that you may be filled (to make full, to fill, to fill up: of spiritual possessions) with the knowledge (in the N. T. of the knowledge of things ethical and divine) of His will (of the purpose of God to bless mankind through Christ) in all spiritual (in reference to things; emanating from the Divine Spirit, or exhibiting its effects and so its character) wisdom (the wisdom or instruction with which John the Baptist and Jesus taught men the way to obtain salvation, [on these hence, all the treasures of wisdom are said to be hidden in Christ, πνευματικῇ: spiritual; relating to the realm of spirit, i.e. the invisible sphere in which the Holy Spirit imparts faith, reveals Christ, etc.) and understanding (For the believer, this “connects the dots” through sanctified, inductive reasoning [done under God]. The positive use of /sýnesis [“synthesized understanding”]), 10so that you will walk (Hebraistically, to live, i. e. α. to regulate one’s life, to conduct oneself) in a manner worthy of the Lord, to please Him in all respects, bearing fruit (to bear, bring forth, deeds: thus of men who show their knowledge of religion by their conduct) in every good work (or every good work springing from piety) and increasing in the knowledge of God (of God, especially the knowledge of his holy will and of the blessings which he has bestowed and constantly bestows on men through Christ); 11strengthened (to make strong, confirm) with all power (moral power and excellence of soul), according to His glorious (the might in which His majesty excels) might (the might of his strength), for the attaining of all steadfastness (steadfastness, constancy, endurance (in the N. T. the characteristic of a man who is unswerved from his deliberate purpose and his loyalty to faith and piety by even the greatest trials and sufferings) and patience; joyously 12giving thanks to the Father, who has qualified (to make sufficient, render fit; with two accusatives, one of the objects [us], the other of the predicate [to share in the inheritance of the saints]: to equip one with adequate power to perform the duties of one) us to share in the inheritance of the saints in Light (used of that heavenly state, consummate and free from every imperfection, to which the true disciples of Christ will be exalted, equivalent to the kingdom of light).

The Incomparable Christ

13For He rescued us from the domain of darkness (the leading and more powerful among created beings superior to man, spiritual potentates), and transferred us to the kingdom of His beloved Son, 14in whom we have redemption (everywhere in the N. T. metaphorically, viz. deliverance effected through the death of Christ from the retributive wrath of a holy God and the merited penalty of sin), the forgiveness of sins.
15He is the image (/eikṓn) then exactly reflects its source (what it directly corresponds to). For example, Christ is the very image, supreme expression of the Godhead [see 2 Cor 4:4]; to Christ, on account of his divine nature and absolute moral excellence) of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation (NASB: Image: Christ is called the “Image of God” here and in 2 Cor 4:4. In Heb 1:3 He is described as the “radiance of His glory and the exact representation of His nature.” This figure of the image suggests two truths: (1) God is invisible (“No one has seen God at any time”, John 1:18; (2) Christ, who is the eternal Son of God and who became the God-man, reflects and reveals Him (see also John 1:18; 14:9). Firstborn of all creation: Just as the firstborn son had certain privileges and rights in the Biblical world, so also Christ has certain rights in relation to all creation – priority, preeminence and sovereignty (vv. 16-18). Bible Knowledge Commentary: eikōn means the very substance or essential embodiment of something or someone. Firstborn denotes two things of Christ: He precedes the whole Creation, and He is Sovereign over all Creation.) 16For by Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones (is used by metonymy, of one who holds dominion or exercises authority; thus in plural of angels) or dominions (in the N. T. one who possesses dominion) or rulers or authorities—all things have been created through Him and for Him. 17He is before (prior to all created things) all things, and in Him all things hold together (to cohere). 18He is also head of the body, the church; and He is the beginning (the person or thing that commences, the first person or thing in a series, the leader), the firstborn from the dead, so that He Himself will come to have first place in everything. 19For it was the Father’s good pleasure for all the fullness (“sum total, fulness, even (super) abundance” [BAGD]) to dwell (divine powers, influences, etc., are said to dwell in his soul, to pervade, prompt, govern it) in Him, 20and through Him to reconcile all things to Himself, having made peace through the blood of His cross; through Him, I say, whether things on earth or things in heaven.
21And although you were formerly alienated and hostile in mind, engaged in evil deeds, 22yet He has now reconciled you in His fleshly (the body compacted of flesh) body through death, in order to present you before Him holy (of sacrifices and offerings; prepared for God with solemn rite, pure, clean) and blameless and beyond reproach(that cannot be called to account, unreprovable, unaccused, blameless) — 23if indeed you continue in the faith firmly established (to make stable, establish [ground]: of the soul) and steadfast, and not moved away from the hope of the gospel that you have heard, which was proclaimed in all creation under heaven (NASB: Hyperbole, to dramatize the rapid spread of the gospel into every quarter of the Roman empire within three decades of Pentecost), and of which I, Paul, was made a minister.
24Now I rejoice in my sufferings for your sake, and in my flesh I do my share on behalf of His body, which is the church, in filling up (antanaplēroō) only occurs in Col 1:24 where it refers to believers “filling up” the remaining sufferings of Christ – i.e. when Christians experience wrath from unbelievers who are really still persecuting Christ. That is, venting their rejection of Christ on His followers because they can no longer directly “pull Christ’s beard or spit on His face.” So they do the “next best thing”: persecute the people in whom Christ lives [cf. 1 Jn 4:17 By this, love is perfected with us, so that we may have confidence in the day of judgment; because as He is, so also are we in this world.].) what is lacking in Christ’s afflictions. 25Of this church I was made a minister according to the stewardship (the office of administrator intrusted by God) from God bestowed on me for your benefit, so that I might fully carry out the preaching of the word of God, 26that is, the mystery which has been hidden from the past ages and generations, but has now been manifested to His saints, 27to whom God willed (to be resolved or determined, to purpose) to make known what is the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles, which is CHRIST IN YOU, THE HOPE OF GLORY. 28We proclaim Him, admonishing (warn, exhort) every man and teaching every (any and every, of every kind [often all manner of]) man with all wisdom (skill and discretion in imparting Christian truth), so that we may present every man (NASB: … in Christ every believer is one of the complete) complete (the perfect, i. e. the more intelligent, ready to apprehend divine things [full-grown]) in Christ. 29For this purpose also I labor, striving according to His power, which mightily works within me.

 
New American Standard Bible
You Are Built Up in Christ

Col 2:1For I want you to know how great a struggle I have on your behalf and for those who are at Laodicea, and for all those who have not personally seen my face, 2that their hearts may be encouraged, having been knit together in love, and attaining to all the wealth ( fullness, abundance, plenitude: with a genitive of the excellence in which one abounds) that comes from the full assurance (entire confidence) of understanding, resulting in a true knowledge (in the N. T. of the knowledge of things ethical and divine) of God’s mystery (the secret counsels which govern God in dealing with the righteous, which are hidden from ungodly and wicked men but plain to the godly. In the N. T., God’s plan of providing salvation for men through Christ, which was once hidden but now is revealed: which God formed), that is, Christ Himself, 3in whom are hidden (stored up) all the treasures (something precious) of wisdom (In Paul’s Epistles: a knowledge of the divine plan, previously hidden, of providing salvation for men by the expiatory death of Christ, hence, all the treasures of wisdom are said to be hidden in Christ) and knowledge (what is known concerning divine things and human duties). 4I say this so that no one will delude (to deceive, circumvent) you with persuasive argument (specious discourse leading others into error). 5For even though I am absent in body, nevertheless I am with you in spirit, rejoicing to see your good discipline (orderly condition) and the stability (strength [solidity], making one immoveable because solid) of your faith in Christ.
6Therefore as you have received (by the narration of others, by the instruction of teachers) Christ Jesus the Lord, so walk in Him, 7having been firmly rooted (in communion with Christ) and now being built (with the passive, in fellowship with Christ to grow in spiritual life) up in Him and established (to stabilitate, to confirm, secure; of men made steadfast and constant in soul) in your faith, just as you were instructed, and overflowing with gratitude.
8See to it that no one takes you captive (to carry off like a predator with its prey; to spoil) through philosophy (a friend [lover] of wisdom; in Col 2:8 refers to secular philosophy – elevating human wisdom over the wisdom of God. Such (philosophía) is loving one’s own thoughts [secular wisdom] at the expense of God’s Word [true wisdom]; Once in the N. T. of the theology, or rather theosophy, of certain Jewish-Christian ascetics, which busied itself with refined and speculative inquiries into the nature and classes of angels, into the ritual of the Mosaic law and the regulations of Jewish tradition respecting practical life.) and empty (vain; devoid of truth) deception, according to the tradition (used of the body of precepts, especially ritual, which in the opinion of the later Jews were orally delivered by Moses and orally transmitted in unbroken succession to subsequent generations, which precepts, both illustrating and expanding the written law, as they did, were to be obeyed with equal reverence: with added, as opposed to the divine teachings.) of men, according to the elementary principles (the heavenly bodies, either as parts of the heavens, or (as others think) because in them the elements of man’s life and destiny were supposed to reside; so in the earlier ecclesiastical writings: Hence, some interpreters infelicitously understand Paul’s phrase τά στοιχεῖα τοῦ κόσμου, Galatians 4:3, 9; Colossians 2:8, 20, of the heavenly bodies, because times and seasons, and so sacred seasons, were regulated by the course of the sun and moon; yet in unfolding the meaning of the passage on the basis of this sense they differ widely.) of the world, rather than according to Christ. 9For in Him all (in their whole compass and extent) the fullness (fullness, abundance) of Deity (theótēs (a derived from /theós, “God”) – the personal God revealed in the Bible who is triune and infinitely relational as demonstrated by the embodiment of the Godhead in the incarnated Christ [used only in Col 2:9]; deity i. e. the state of being God, Godhead) dwells (divine powers, influences, etc., are said to dwell in his [Christ] soul, to pervade, prompt, govern it) in bodily (bodily [used only in Col 2:9]. It refers to “Christ’s complete embodiment of the plērōma [‘fullness of God’) form, 10and in Him you have been made complete (to fill, diffuse throughout one’s soul: Christians are said simply, as those who are pervaded [i. e. richly furnished] with the power and gifts of the Holy Spirit: rooted as it were in Christ, i. e. by virtue of the intimate relationship entered into with him.), and He is the head over all rule (the first place, principality, rule, magistracy (cf. English ‘authorities’): Hence, the term is transferred by Paul to angels and demons holding dominions entrusted to them in the order of things) and authority (the leading and more powerful among created beings superior to man, spiritual potentates; used in the plural of a certain class of angels); 11and in Him you were also circumcised with a circumcision made without hands, in the removal (a putting off, laying aside) of the body of the flesh (a body given up to the control of the flesh, i. e. a body whose members our nature, estranged from God, used as its instruments) by the circumcision (the extinction of the passions and the removal of spiritual impurity) of Christ; 12having been buried (to bury together with; For all who in the rite of baptism are plunged under the water thereby declare that they put faith in the expiatory death of Christ for the pardon of their past sins; therefore Paul likens baptism to a burial by which the former sinfulness is buried, i. e. utterly taken away.) with Him in baptism (of Christian baptism [spiritual baptism]; this, according to the view of the apostles, is a rite of sacred immersion, commanded by Christ [He is the baptizer], by which men confessing their sins and professing their faith in Christ are born again by the Holy Spirit unto a new life, come into the fellowship of Christ and the church (1 Corinthians 12:13 For by one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whether Jews or Greeks, whether slaves or free, and we were all made to drink of one Spirit), and are made partakers of eternal salvation. NASB: By one body…all baptized into one body [1 Corinthians 12:13]: Spiritually baptized, regeneration by the Holy Spirit (John 3:3, 5) and united with Christ as part of His body. [Comment by Dr. Saucy: Saucy adds, it never says in the Bible believe and you will be regenerated. It says believe and you will be saved. Regeneration precedes faith: Jn. 3:3 Jesus answered and said unto him, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God. One is not fully regenerated until he comes to be in Christ. One must face what the New Testament says, I have new life in Christ, and I come to be in Christ through faith. Man has no active role in the act of regeneration. So there is a sense in which faith is a little bit prior to actually being in Christ. It is the means to coming into union with Christ, into His life. A person would not want to say that regeneration is complete until he comes into Christ. The whole process of making someone over is the process from turning a person from not seeking God to actually coming into Christ; that would be regeneration, the re-creating of one who is spiritually dead through the life-giving power of the Holy Spirit.] Circumcision… baptism: in the Israelite faith, circumcision was a sign that the individual stood in covenant relation with God. While this is the only reference where circumcision is associated with baptism, some see the passage as implying that, for the Christian, water baptism is the parallel sign of the conversion relationship. Bible Knowledge Commentary: The Gentile Christians in Colosse [sic] had no need to conform to Jewish rules and regulations, such as circumcision. For in Christ they had been circumcised. This spiritual “circumcision” was done by Christ, not by man. It was in fact a crucifixion or putting off of the body, a circumcision of the heart [cf. Rom 2:29; Eph 2:11]. Their sinful nature [lit… “the mind of the flesh,” Col 2:18] was decisively put off by Christ’s death and resurrection. What people were in Adam-sinful, fallen, and corrupt-was destroyed by Christ. Now “in Christ” a believer is a new creation [2 Cor 5:17]. And having a new Head a believer has a new authority for his life-not the Law of Moses but the life of Christ. This putting off of the old life occurs at the moment of salvation, when a believer is buried with Christ in baptism by the Spirit [cf. 1 Cor 12:13] and is raised with Him to a new life. This co-burial and co-resurrection is pictured in baptism. In water baptism, immersion portrays burial with Christ, and coming out of the water depicts the resurrection by the power of God to “live a new life” [Rom 6:4.]), in which you were also raised up with Him through faith in the working of God, who raised Him from the dead. 13When you were dead ((spiritually dead, i. e.) “destitute of a life that recognizes and is devoted to God, because given up to trespasses and sins; inactive as respects doing right”) in your transgressions and the uncircumcision of your flesh, He made you alive together with Him ([tense: aorist, mood: indicative, voice: active] to make one alive together with another: Christians, with Christ [Ephesians 2:5, Colossians 2:13], in both of these passages new moral life is referred to), having forgiven us all our transgressions, 14having canceled out the certificate of debt (metaphorically, applied in Colossians 2:14 ((where R. V. bond)) to the Mosaic law, which shews [sic] men to be chargeable with offences for which they must pay the penalty.) consisting of decrees (of the rules and requirements of the law of Moses carrying a suggestion of severity, and of threatened punishment, the law containing precepts in the form of decrees [A. V. the law of commandments contained in ordinances], Ephesians 2:15; by the bond against us by its decrees, Colossians 2:14) against us, which was hostile (opposed to, contrary to) to us; and He has taken it out of the way, having nailed it to the cross. 15When He had disarmed (wholly to strip off for oneself [for one’s own advantage], despoil, disarm) the rulers (angels and demons holding dominions entrusted to them in the order of things) and authorities (used also of demons: in the plural), He made a public (before the public, in view of all) display (to expose one to disgrace) of them, having triumphed over (to triumph, to celebrate a triumph over one: Colossians 2:15 [where it signifies the victory won by God over the demoniacal powers through Christ’s death].) them through Him (NASB: The picture is of conquered soldiers stripped of their clothes as well as their weapons to symbolize their total defeat. Having triumphed over them: lit. “leading them in a triumphal procession.” The metaphor recalls a Roman general leading his captives through the streets of his city for all the citizens to see as evidence of his complete victory (see 2 Cor 2:14). That Christ triumphed over the devil and his cohorts is seen in Matt 12:29; Luke 10:18; Rom 16:20.)
16Therefore no one is to act as your judge in regard to food or drink or in respect to a festival or a new moon or a Sabbath day— 17things which are a mere shadow of what is to come; but the substance belongs to Christ (NASB: Shadow… substance: The ceremonial laws of the OT are here referred to as shadows (cf. Heb 8:5; 10:1) because they symbolically depicted the coming of Christ; so any insistence on the observance of such ceremonies is a failure to recognize that their fulfillment has already taken place. This element of the Colossians heresy was combined with a rigid asceticism, as vv. 20-21 reveal.). 18Let no one keep defrauding you of your prize (properly, a judge (arbiter) making the wrong call, depriving someone of their rightful prize and reward [used only in Col 2:18]; “to decide as umpire against one, to declare him unworthy of the prize; to defraud of the prize of victory”: to deprive of salvation) by delighting in self-abasement (lowliness of mind, humility) and the worship of the angels, taking his stand on visions he has seen, inflated without cause by his fleshly mind (when either expressly or tacitly opposed to τό πνεῦμα (τοῦ Θεοῦ), has an ethical sense and denotes “mere human nature, the earthly nature of man apart from divine influence, and therefore prone to sin and opposed to God”; accordingly it includes whatever in the soul is weak, low, debased, tending to ungodliness and vice (“Thou must not understand ‘flesh’, therefore, as though that only were ‘flesh’ which is connected with unchastity, but St. Paul uses ‘flesh’ of the whole man, body and soul, reason and all his faculties included, because all that is in him longs and strives after the flesh); note that ‘flesh’ signifies the entire nature of man, sense and reason, without the Holy Spirit”.) (NASB: Self-abasement: Humility in which one delights is of necessary mock humility. Paul may refer to a professed humility in view of the absolute God, who was believed to be so far above man that he could only be worshiped in the form of angles He had created. Second-century Gnosticism conceived of a list of spirit beings who had emanated from God and through whom God may be approached. He has seen: Probably refers to professed visions by the false teachers.), 19and not holding fast to the head (of the church [Christ]), from whom the entire body, being supplied (passive, ministered unto, assisted ) and held together (passive, of the parts of the body ‘knit together’ into one whole, compacted together) by the joints (bond, connection) and ligaments (that which binds together, a band, bond), grows with a growth which is from God. (Bible Knowledge Commentary: True spirituality does not come by compliance with laws [which are only a shadow] but by connection with the Life [who is the reality]. Without a vital connection to the Head, the body of Christ cannot grow.)
20If you have died with Christ to the elementary principles of the world, why, as if you were living in the world, do you submit yourself to decrees, such as, 21“Do not handle, do not taste, do not touch!” 22(which all refer to things destined to perish with use)—in accordance with the commandments and teachings of men? 23These are matters which have, to be sure, the appearance of wisdom in self-made religion and self-abasement and severe treatment of the body, but are of no value against fleshly indulgence.

 
New American Standard Bible
Put On the New Self

Col 3: 1Therefore if you have been raised (in the N. T. tropically, to raise up together from moral death to a new and blessed life devoted to God: risen from the dead, because the ground of the new Christian life lies in Christ’s resurrection) up with Christ, keep seeking (seek for, aim at, strive after) the things above (heavenly things), where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God (NASB: In summary, he [the believer] is called upon to become in daily experience what he is positionally in Christ (cf. Rom 6:1-13). 2Set your mind on the things above, not on the things that are on earth. 3For you have died (as having put off all sensibility to worldly things that draw them away from God) and your life (the blessing of real life after the resurrection) is hidden (is kept laid up with God in heaven) with Christ in God [YHVH]. 4When Christ, who is our life (life real and genuine, vita quae sola vita nominanda, “a life active and vigorous, devoted to God, blessed, the portion even in this world of those who put their trust in Christ, but after the resurrection to be consummated by new accessions [among them a more perfect body], and to last forever”), is revealed (of Christ now hidden from sight in heaven but hereafter to return visibly), then you also will be revealed with Him in glory (“the glorious condition of blessedness into which it is appointed and promised that true Christians shall enter after their Saviour’s return from heaven”).
5Therefore consider the members (a member [part] belonging to the whole; [figuratively] any function of human personality, such as “sanctified imagination”) of your earthly body as dead (to view as a corpse, i.e. without life; to regard [but not “make”] as dead, inoperative; to mortify, deprive of life or energizing power; [figuratively] to cut off [sever] everything that energizes [especially sin in Col 3:5]; to deprive of power, destroy the strength of: τά μέλη, i. e. the evil desire lurking in the members [of the body]) to immorality (fornication, prostitution; properly, of illicit sexual intercourse in general), impurity (in a moral sense, the impurity of lustful, luxurious, profligate living), passion (In the N. T. in a bad sense, depraved passion), evil ([morally, i. e.] of a mode of thinking, feeling, acting; base, wrong, wicked) desire (desire for what is forbidden, lust), and greed (greedy desire to have more, covetousness, avarice), which amounts to idolatry (the worship of false gods, idolatry: of avarice, as a worship of Mammon). 6For it is because of these things that the wrath (the wrath of God cometh upon one in the infliction of penalty. NASB: God is unalterably opposed to sin and will invariably make sure that it is justly punished.) of God will come upon the sons of disobedience, 7and in them you also once walked, when you were living in them. 8But now you also, put them all aside: anger (wrath, indignation), wrath (passion, angry heat, anger forthwith boiling up and soon subsiding again, on the other hand, denotes indignation which has arisen gradually and become more settled), malice (malignity, ill-will, desire to injure), slander (detraction, speech injurious to another’s good name), and abusive speech (foul speaking, low and obscene speech, (R. V. shameful speaking) from your mouth. 9Do not lie to one another, since you laid aside the old self with its evil practices, 10and have put on the new self who is being renewed (“to renew”, only occurs in 2 Cor 4:16 and Col 3:10, both times referring to God ever-transforming the believer – by renewing “the new man” in Christ; a word peculiar to the apostle Paul; properly, “to cause to grow up new, to make new”; passive, new strength and vigor is given to me, 2 Corinthians 4:16; to be changed into a new kind of life, opposed to the former corrupt state, Colossians 3:10) to a true knowledge (in the N. T. of the knowledge of things ethical and divine) according to the image (“(eikṓn) assumes a prototype, of which it not merely resembles, but from which it is drawn”. (eikṓn) then is more than a “shadow”; rather it is a replication) of the One who created him— 11a renewal in which there is no distinction between Greek and Jew, circumcised and uncircumcised, barbarian, Scythian, slave and freeman, but Christ is all, and in all (NASB: Christ transcends all barriers and unifies people from all cultures, races, and nations.).
12So, as those who have been chosen (chosen by God, to obtain salvation through Christ; hence, Christians are called the chosen or elect of God. NASB: Israel was called this [Deut 4:37], and so is the Christian community [1 Pet 2:9]. Divine election is a constant theme in Paul’s letters, but the Bible never teaches that it dulls human responsibility. On the contrary, as this verse shows, it is precisely because the Christian has been elected to eternal salvation that he must put forth every effort to live the godly life. For Paul, divine sovereignty and human responsibility go hand in hand.) of God, holy (in a moral sense, pure, sinless, upright, holy[imputed righteousness]) and beloved (to have a preference for, wish well to, regard the welfare of; to love [in a social or moral sense]), put on a heart (the seat of the tenderer affections, especially kindness, benevolence, compassion, a heart in which mercy resides [heart of mercy]) of compassion (ἰκτιρμοῦ, ὁ (compassion, pity, mercy: bowels in which compassion resides, a heart of compassion), kindness (benignity, kindness), humility ( humiliation of mind, i.e. modesty — humbleness of mind, humility [of mind, loneliness (of mind)]), gentleness ( gentleness, by implication, humility — meeknes) and patience (forbearance, long-suffering, slowness in avenging wrongs); 13bearing with one another, and forgiving each other, whoever has a complaint against anyone; just as the Lord forgave you, so also should you. 14Beyond all these things put on love (love which centers in moral preference; love, i.e. affection or benevolence; specially (plural) a love-feast – [feast of] charity(-ably), dear, love), which is the perfect bond of unity (that in which all the virtues are so bound together that perfection is the result, and not one of them is lacking to that perfection). 15Let the peace (according to a conception distinctly peculiar to Christianity, “the tranquil state of a soul assured of its salvation through Christ, and so fearing nothing from God and content with its earthly lot, of whatsoerer sort that is”: which comes, from Christ) of Christ rule (/brabeúō [“decide as an umpire”] means to arbitrate, i.e. “making the call” in “a conflict between contending forces” (Souter), used only in Col 3:15) in your hearts, to which indeed you were called in one body; and be thankful. 16Let the word of Christ richly dwell within you, with all wisdom teaching and admonishing (warn, exhort) one another with psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing with thankfulness in your hearts to God. 17Whatever you do in word or deed, do all in the name (relying or resting on the name of Christ, rooted [so to speak] in his name, i. e. mindful of Christ) of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks through Him to God the Father (Yahweh).

Family Relations

18Wives, be subject (middle to subject oneself, to obey; to submit to one’s control; to yield to one’s admonition or advice) to your husbands, as is fitting (namely, ever since ye were converted to Christ) in the Lord. 19Husbands, love (to love [in a social or moral sense] — (be-)love(-ed)) your wives and do not be embittered (tropically, to embitter, exasperate, i. e. render angry, indignant; passive, to be embittered, irritated) against (of mental direction, with words denoting desires and emotions of the mind, to, toward) them. 20Children, be obedient (to hearken to a command, i. e. to obey, be obedient unto, submit to) to your parents in all things, for this is well-pleasing to the Lord. 21Fathers, do not exasperate (to stir up, excite, stimulate: to provoke) your children, so that they will not lose heart (to be spiritless, i.e. disheartened — be dismayed).
22Slaves, in all things obey (to hearken to a command, i. e. to obey, be obedient unto, submit to) those who are your masters on earth, not with external service (eye-service; “for the master’s eye usually stimulates to greater diligence; his absence, on the other hand, renders sluggish.”), as those who merely please men (studying to please men, courting the favor of men), but with sincerity of heart (singleness, simplicity, sincerity, mental honesty), fearing the Lord. 23Whatever you do, do your work heartily (from the heart), as for the Lord rather than for men, 24knowing that from the Lord you will receive (to take again or back, to recover: and to receive by way of retribution) the reward (recompense) of the inheritance (what is given to one as a possession: in the N. T., is used to denote “the eternal blessedness in the consummated kingdom of God which is to be expected after the visible return of Christ”.). It is the Lord Christ whom you serve. 25For he who does wrong will receive the consequences of the wrong (to act unjustly or wickedly, to sin) which he has done, and that without partiality (respect of persons). (NASB: Paul never condones slavery nor sanctions revolt against masters. Rather, he calls on both slaves and masters to attempt to change the institution from within.)
New American Standard Bible
Fellow Workers

Col 4:1Masters, grant (to exhibit or offer on one’s own part:) to your slaves justice (what is due to others) and fairness (equity, fairness, what is equitable, joined with, just; especially, just in the eyes of God; righteous), knowing that you too have a Master in heaven.
2Devote (to give constant attention to a thing) yourselves to prayer, keeping alert (to be watchful in, employ the most punctilious care in a thing) in it with an attitude of thanksgiving; 3praying at the same time for us as well, that God will open up to us a door (open to a teacher, i. e. the opportunity of teaching others) for the word, so that we may speak forth the mystery of Christ, for which I have also been imprisoned (literally); 4that I may make it clear (to make known by teaching) in the way I ought to speak.
5Conduct yourselves with wisdom (a devout and proper prudence in contact with men not disciples of Christ) toward outsiders, making the most (where the meaning seems to be to make a wise and sacred use of every opportunity for doing good, so that zeal and well-doing are as it were the purchase-money by which we make the time our own.) of the opportunity. 6Let your speech always be with grace (properly, that which affords joy, pleasure, delight, sweetness, charm, loveliness: grace of speech), as though seasoned (full of wisdom and grace and hence, pleasant and wholesome) with salt (wisdom and grace exhibited in speech), so that you will know how you should respond to each person.
7As to all my affairs, Tychicus, our beloved brother and faithful servant and fellow bond-servant in the Lord, will bring you information. 8For I have sent him to you for this very purpose, that you may know about our circumstances and that he may encourage (strengthen, comfort) your hearts; 9and with him Onesimus (Note NASB: The reason Paul writes more about slaves and masters than about wives, husbands, children, and fathers may be that the slave Onesimus is going along with Tychicus to deliver this Colossian letter and the letter to Philemon, Onesimus’s master, who also lived I Colossae.), our faithful and beloved brother, who is one of your number (transitive, to make known). They will inform you about the whole situation here.
10Aristarchus, my fellow prisoner, sends you his greetings; and also Barnabas’s cousin Mark (about whom you received instructions; if he comes to you, welcome him); 11and also Jesus who is called Justus; these are the only fellow workers for the kingdom of God who are from the circumcision (the circumcised, they of the circumcision, used of Jews; of Christians gathered from among the Jews), and they have proved to be an encouragement to me. 12Epaphras, who is one of your number, a bondslave of Jesus Christ, sends you his greetings, always laboring earnestly (to endeavor with strenuous zeal, strife) for you in his prayers, that you may stand perfect (as respects understanding and goodness) and fully assured (persuaded, fully convinced or assured) in all the will of God. 13For I testify for him that he has a deep concern for you and for those who are in Laodicea and Hierapolis. 14Luke, the beloved physician, sends you his greetings, and also Demas. 15Greet the brethren who are in Laodicea and also Nympha and the church that is in her house. 16When this letter is read among you, have it also read in the church of the Laodiceans; and you, for your part read my letter that is coming from Laodicea. 17Say to Archippus, “Take heed to the ministry which you have received in the Lord, that you may fulfill it.”
18I, Paul, write this greeting with my own hand. Remember my imprisonment. Grace be with you.
Note: Onesimus was a Bishop (Pastor) of the church of Ephesus. Read a letter from Ignatius, amazing! http://www.ccel.org/ccel/richardson/fathers.vi.ii.iii.i.html

 
New American Standard Bible
1 Thessalonians
Thanksgiving for These Believers

1 Thes 1:1Paul and Silvanus and Timothy,
To the church of the Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace.
2We give thanks to God always for all of you, making mention of you in our prayers; 3constantly bearing in mind your work of faith (wrought by faith, the course of conduct which springs from faith) and labor of love (the labor to which love prompts, and which voluntarily assumes and endures trouble and pains for the salvation of others) and steadfastness of hope (constancy, endurance, sufferance; in the N. T. the characteristic of a man who is unswerved from his deliberate purpose and his loyalty to faith and piety by even the greatest trials and sufferings) in our Lord Jesus Christ in the presence of our God and Father, 4knowing, brethren beloved by God, His choice (election, choice; the act of picking out, choosing: specifically used of that act of God’s free will by which before the foundation of the world he decreed his blessings to certain persons; the decree made from choice, the purpose according to election) of you; 5for our gospel did not come to you in word only, but also in power (strength, ability, power; universally, “inherent power, power residing in a thing by virtue of its nature, or which a person or thing exerts and puts forth”) and in the Holy Spirit and with full conviction (fullness, abundance; full assurance, most certain confidence); just as you know what kind of men we proved (of blessings) to be among you for your sake. 6You also became imitators (is always used positively in the NT (seven times) – of followers of Christ emulating a God-approved example. The supreme model is God Himself) of us and of the Lord, having received the word in much tribulation (persecution, affliction, distress) with the joy of the Holy Spirit(wrought by the Holy Spirit), 7so that you became an example to all the believers in Macedonia and in Achaia. 8For the word of the Lord has sounded forth from you, not only in Macedonia and Achaia, but also in every place your faith toward God (of mental direction, with words denoting desires and emotions of the mind) has gone forth, so that we have no need to say anything. 9For they themselves report about us what kind of a reception we had with you, and how you turned to God from idols to serve a living and true God, 10and to wait for His Son from heaven, whom He raised from the dead, that is Jesus, who rescues us from the wrath ([“Orgē comes from the verb oragō meaning, ‘to teem, to swell’; and thus implies that it is not a sudden outburst, but rather [referring to God’s] fixed, controlled, passionate feeling against sin . . . a settled indignation; vessels into which wrath will be poured [at the last day) to come. (NASB: Three marks of a true conversion: (1) turning from idols, (2) serving God [YHVH], and (3) waiting for Christ to return.)

New American Standard Bible
Paul’s Ministry

1 Thes 2:1For you yourselves know, brethren, that our coming to you was not in vain, 2but after we had already suffered and been mistreated in Philippi, as you know, we had the boldness (to grow confident, show assurance, assume a bold bearing: in reliance on one to take courage) in our God to speak to you the gospel of God amid much opposition (any struggle with dangers, annoyances, obstacles, standing in the way of faith, holiness, and a desire to spread the gospel). 3For our exhortation does not come from error or impurity or by way of deceit; 4but just as we have been approved (to test) by God to be entrusted (passive, πιστεύομαι τί, to be intrusted with a thing) with the gospel, so we speak, not as pleasing men, but God who examines our hearts. 5For we never came with flattering speech, as you know, nor with a pretext ([a pretext [alleged reason, pretended cause]: such as covetousness is accustomed to use [cloak of covetousness) the meaning being, that he had never misused his apostolic office in order to disguise or to hide avaricious designs]) for greed (greedy desire to have more, covetousness, avarice)—God is witness— 6nor did we seek glory (of God, to endeavor to promote the glory of God) from men, either from you or from others, even though as apostles of Christ we might have asserted our authority. 7But we proved to be gentle (mild) among you, as a nursing mother tenderly cares for her own children. 8Having so fond an affection for you, we were well-pleased to impart to you not only the gospel of God but also our own lives, because you had become very dear to us.
9For you recall, brethren, our labor and hardship, how working night and day so as not to be a burden (to be heavy upon, i.e. [pecuniarily] to be expensive to) to any of you, we proclaimed to you the gospel of God. 10You are witnesses, and so is God, how devoutly (divinely-sanctioned and therefore worthy of reverence [used only in 1 Thes 2:10]; piously, holily) and uprightly (uprightly, agreeably to the law of rectitude) and blamelessly (so that there is no cause for censure) we behaved toward you believers; 11just as you know how we were exhorting and encouraging and imploring (to conjure, beseech as in God’s name, exhort solemnly) each one of you as a father would his own children, 12so that you would walk (to regulate one’s life, to conduct oneself) in a manner worthy of the God who calls you into His own kingdom and glory.
13For this reason we also constantly thank God that when you received (to receive with the mind) the word of God which you heard (to hear [listen]; [figuratively] to hear God’s voice which prompts Him to birth faith within [cf. Ro 10:17].) from us, you accepted it not as the word of men, but for what it really is, the word of God, which also performs its work (to display one’s activity, show oneself operative, with the dative of person in whose mind a thing shows itself active) in you who believe. 14For you, brethren, became imitators of the churches of God in Christ Jesus that are in Judea, for you also endured the same sufferings at the hands of your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews, 15who both killed the Lord Jesus and the prophets, and drove us out. They are not pleasing to God, but hostile to all men, 16hindering us from speaking to the Gentiles so that they may be saved (Since salvation begins in this life [in deliverance from error and corrupt notions, in moral purity, in pardon of sin, and in the blessed peace of a soul reconciled to God], but on the visible return of Christ from heaven will he perfected in the consummate blessings of ὁ αἰών ὁ μέλλων [age], we can understand why τό σῴζεσθαι [to save] is spoken of in some passages as a present possession, in others as a good yet future: — as a blessing beginning [or begun] on earth.); with the result that they always fill up (make full) the measure of their sins (to have sin as though it were one’s odious private property, or to have done something needing expiation, equivalent to to have committed sin, very often in the plural). But wrath has come upon them to the utmost (to the [procurement of their] end, i. e. to destruction). (NASB: Wrath has come: The eschatological wrath, the final outpouring of God’s anger upon sinful mankind [see 1:10]. It is spoken of as already present, either because it had been partially experienced by the Jews or because of its absolute certainty. Bible Knowledge Commentary: An unbeliever who is willing to live and let live with respect to personal convictions regarding God is less dangerous than one who not only disbelieves himself but also tries to keep others from hearing the gospel. The unbelieving Jews in Thessalonica were of the latter variety. Such people’s actions hurt themselves as well as others because they heap up additional sins for which God will judge them. God will only allow an individual or a group of individuals to accumulate so much sin, and then He will judge. He does not judge before this limit, which He alone knows, has been reached (cf. Gen 15:16). The Thessalonians’ persecutors were hasting God’s judgment on themselves by their actions…. Why did Paul get so excited about the fate of the Thessalonians’ persecutors’? It was not out of personal hatred for them [Rom 9:1-5]. Rather it was to emphasize the seriousness of hindering the preaching of the gospel. This message was transforming the Thessalonian believers, and they were heralding it to others far and wide. These verses illustrate how important it is that the gospel reach everybody [Matt 28:19-20.]. [Alice: Please do not understand this to mean that if Paul did not witness to a certain person of group of people that God was unable to save them. Paul was hindered from going several places in scripture, and he wished to visit several churches, but God hindered him from doing so. That was not God’s plan for his life, cf. Acts 16:6; Acts 18:20-21.)
17But we, brethren, having been taken away from you for a short while—in person, not in spirit—were all the more eager with great desire to see your face. 18For we wanted to come to you—I, Paul, more than once—and yet Satan hindered us (Alice: this could not have happened without Yehoshua’s permissive will, cf. 1Cor 15:24; Eph 1:19-23). 19For who is our hope (at the end) or joy (of persons who are one’s ‘joy’) or crown (that which is an ornament and honor to one: so of persons) of exultation (a boasting)? Is it not even you, in the presence of our Lord Jesus at His coming? 20For you are our glory (persons whose excellence is to redound to the glory of others are called their) and joy (delight).

 
New American Standard Bible
Encouragement of Timothy’s Visit

1 Thes 3: 1Therefore when we (NASB: We: An editorial, “we,” referring to Paul alone) could endure it no longer, we thought it best to be left behind at Athens alone, 2and we sent Timothy, our brother and God’s fellow worker in the gospel of Christ, to strengthen and encourage you as to your faith, 3so that no one would be disturbed (to agitate, trouble; to wag the tail) by these afflictions (NASB: Afflictions: The opposition and persecution suffered by the Thessalonian converts. Christians must expect troubles [see Mark 4:17; John 16:33; Acts 14:22; 2 Tim 3:12; 1 Peter 4:12), but these are not disasters, for they advance God’s purposes [see Acts 11:19; Rom 5:3; 2 Cor 1:4; 14:17]); for you yourselves know that we have been destined for this (to be [by God’s intent] set, i. e. destined, appointed). 4For indeed when we were with you, we kept telling you in advance that we were going to suffer affliction; and so it came to pass, as you know. 5For this reason, when I could endure it no longer, I also sent to find out about your faith (assurance, belief, believe, faith, fidelity), for fear that the tempter (to try or test one’s faith, virtue, character, by enticement to sin; hence, to solicit to sin, to tempt: of the temptations of the devil. NASB: Satan is spoken of in every major division of the NT. He is supreme among evil spirits [see John 16:11; Eph 2:2]. His activities can affect the physical [see 2 Cor 12:7] and the spiritual (see Matt 13:39; Mark 4:15; 2 Cor 4:4]. He tempted Jesus [Matt 4:1-11], and he continues to temp Jesus’ servants ([see Luke 22:3; 1 Cor 7:5]. He hinders missionary work [2:18]. But he has already been defeated [see Col 2:15], and Christians need not be overwhelmed by him [see Eph 6:16]. His final overthrow is certain [see Rev 20:10].) might have tempted you, and our labor (the labor to which love prompts, and which voluntarily assumes and endures trouble and pains for the salvation of others: of toil in teaching) would be in vain (to no purpose).
6But now that Timothy has come to us from you, and has brought us good news of your faith and love, and that you always think kindly of us, longing to see us just as we also long to see you, 7for this reason, brethren, in all our distress and affliction we were comforted about you through your faith; 8for now we really live (in the sense of living and thriving), if you stand firm in the Lord. 9For what thanks can we render to God for you in return for all the joy with which we rejoice before our God on your account, 10as we night and day keep praying most earnestly that we may see your face, and may complete what is lacking in your faith? (NASB: What is lacking: Some of the things lacking were of a practical nature, such as moral [4:1-12] and disciplinary matters [5:12-24]. Others were doctrinal, such as confusion over Christ’s return [4:13-5:11].)
11Now may our God and Father Himself and Jesus our Lord direct our way to you; 12and may the Lord (NASBL The Lord: In Paul’s writing this usually means Jesus rather than the Father]) cause you to increase and abound in love for one another, and for all people, just as we also do for you; 13so that He may establish (to strengthen, make firm; tropically to render constant, confirm, one’s mind) your hearts (of the will and character) without blame (deserving no censure; free from fault or defect) in holiness (moral purity. NASB: The basic idea is set apart [for God].) before our God and Father at the coming of our Lord Jesus with all His saints (of persons whose services God employs; as for example, apostles, Ephesians 3:5; angels, 1 Thessalonians 3:13. NASB: Saints: Used of the saints [Christians] in many NT passages. Here it may mean the departed saints who will return with Jesus, or it may mean the angles or, probably, both.).

 

 

New American Standard Bible
Sanctification and Love

1 Thes 4:1Finally then, brethren, we request and exhort you in the Lord Jesus, that as you received from us instruction as to how you ought to walk and please God (just as you actually do walk), that you excel (to excel still more, to increase in excellence) still more. 2For you know what commandments (instructions; announcement, a proclaiming or giving a message to; hence, a charge, command: of particular directions relative to the same, 18) we gave you by the authority of the Lord Jesus. 3For this is the will (will, i. e., a. what one wishes or has determined shall be done: of what God wishes to be done by us, plural commands, precepts) of God, your sanctification (sanctification wrought by the Holy Spirit. It is opposed to lust in 1 Thessalonians 4:3f.); that is, that you abstain from sexual immorality; 4that each of you know how to possess his own vessel in sanctification (in sanctification and honor, i. e. to marry a wife) and honor (honorably), 5not in lustful [desire for what is forbidden] passion: In the N. T. in a bad sense, depraved passion: in the passion of lust), like the Gentiles who do not know God; 6and that no man transgress (to overstep the proper limits, i. e. to transgress, trespass, do wrong, sin, specifically, of one who defrauds another in business, overreaches) and defraud (to gain or take advantage of another, to overreach) his brother in the matter because the Lord is the avenger (exacting penalty from one; punisher) in all these things, just as we also told you before and solemnly warned you. 7For God has not called us for the purpose of impurity, but in sanctification. 8So, he who rejects (refuse, slight) this is not rejecting man but the God who gives His Holy Spirit to you (Bible Knowledge Commentary: Lest anyone feel that God is asking more than is reasonable of weak mortals, Paul concluded this exhortation with a reminder that God has also given believers His indwelling Spirit…. The indwelling Holy Spirit has power enough to enable any Christian to learn how to control his own body, even in a pagan, immoral climate. The exhortation is to avoid sexual immorality; the enablement comes from the Holy Spirit.)
9Now as to the love of the brethren, you have no need for anyone to write to you, for you yourselves are taught by God to love one another; 10for indeed you do practice it toward all the brethren who are in all Macedonia. But we urge you, brethren, to excel still more, 11and to make it your ambition to lead a quiet life (to lead a quiet life, said of those who are not running hither and thither, but stay at home and mind their business) and attend to your own business and work with your hands, just as we commanded you, 12so that you will behave (to regulate one’s life, to conduct oneself) properly (n a seemly manner, decently) toward outsiders and not be in any need.

Those Who Died in Christ

13But we do not want you to be uninformed (to be ignorant, not to know), brethren, about those who are asleep (the dead), so that you will not grieve as do the rest who have no hope ([of the heathen] having no hope [of salvation]). 14For if we believe (to trust in Christ [God]) that Jesus died and rose again, even so God will bring with Him those who have fallen asleep in Jesus. 15For this we say to you by the word of the Lord, that we who are alive and remain until the coming of the Lord, will not precede (we shall not get the start of those who have fallen asleep, i. e. we shall not attain to the fellowship of Christ sooner than the dead, nor have precedence in blessedness) those who have fallen asleep. 16For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven (this heaven is the abode to which Christ ascended after his resurrection, and from which he will hereafter return) with a shout (with a loud summons, a trumpet-call), with the voice (the awakening shout of the archangel, the leader of the angelic host, of the archangel (the awakening shout of the archangel, the leader of the angelic host) and with the trumpet of God (a trumpet which sounds at God’s command), and the dead in Christ will rise first. 17Then we who are alive and remain will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and so we shall always be with the Lord. 18Therefore comfort one another with these words.

 
New American Standard Bible
The Day of the Lord

1 Thes 5:1Now as to the times and the epochs, brethren, you have no need of anything to be written to you. (Bible Knowledge Commentary: Regarding 1 Thes 4:13-18: The death and resurrection of Jesus Christ are among the best-attested facts of history. Since Christians know these events took place, they can be equally certain, Paul said, that the souls of believers who have died will return with Christ when He comes for His living saints. The prophecy of the Rapture is as sure to be fulfilled as the prophecies of Christ’s death and resurrection. Regarding 1 Thes 5:1: Times and dates refers to the ages [chronōn] and events [kairōn] preceding the day of the Lord. Paul did not need to expound fully on this subject as he had done with the Rapture, since he had already instructed them about the day of the Lord. NASB: Regarding 1 Thes 4:13-18: … those believers who will be alive when Christ returns…. Elsewhere he says that God will raise “us” at that time [1 Cor 6:14; 2 Cor 4:14]. Regarding 1 Thes 5:1: Times and the epochs: See Acts 1:6-7. There have always been some Christians who try to fix the date of our Lord’s return, but apparently the Thessalonians were not among them. Note: There is much disagreement among Evangelical Christians about the times and epochs of Jesus’ second coming.) 2For you yourselves know full well that the day of the Lord (of the last day of the present age, the day in which Christ will return from heaven, raise the dead, hold the final judgment, and perfect his kingdom, the following expressions are used. NASB: See 1 Cor 5:5. The expression goes back to Amos 5:18. In the OT it is a time when God will come and intervene with judgment and/or blessings. In the NT the thought of judgment continues [see Rom 2:5; 2 Pet 2:9], but it is also the “day of redemption” [Eph 4:30]; the “day of the God” [2 Pet 3:12], or of Christ [1 Cor 1:8; Phil 1:6]; and the “last day” the [John 6:39], the “great Day” [Jude 6] or simply “that day” [2 Thes 1:10]. It is the consummation of all things. There will be some preliminary signs [e.g., 2 Thes 2:3], but the coming will be as unexpected as that of a thief in the night [cf. Matt 24:43-44; Luke 12:39-40; 2 Pet 3:10; Rev 3:3; 16:15].) will come just like a thief in the night. 3While they are saying, “Peace and safety!” (after the Hebrew שָׁלום, security, safety, prosperity, felicity, [because peace and harmony make and keep things safe and prosperous]) then destruction (a prolonged form); ruin, i.e. death, punishment — destruction.) will come upon them suddenly like labor pains upon a woman with child, and they will not escape. 4But you, brethren, are not in darkness (to be given up to the power of darkness), that the day would overtake (of the last day overtaking the wicked with destruction) you like a thief; 5for you are all sons of light (φῶς is used to denote truth and its knowledge, together with the spiritual purity congruous with it; light, a source of light, radiance) and sons of day (the ‘day’ is regarded as the time for abstaining from indulgence, vice, crime, because acts of the sort are perpetrated at night and in darkness). We are not of night (the time when the weary and also the drunken give themselves up to slumber, put for torpor [a state of physical or mental inactivity; lethargy] and sluggishness) nor of darkness (to be given up to the power of darkness); 6so then let us not sleep (to yield to sloth and sin, and be indifferent to one’s salvation) as others do, but let us be alert (to watch i. e. give strict attention to, be cautious, active: —or lest one fall into sin) and sober (in the N. T. everywhere tropically, to be calm and collected in spirit; to be temperate, dispassionate, circumspect). 7For those who sleep do their sleeping at night, and those who get drunk get drunk at night. 8But since we are of the day, let us be sober, having put on the breastplate (Eph 6:14 refers to “the breastplate of righteousness” [ton thōraka tēs dikaiosynēs] and 1 Thes 5:8 to “the breastplate [/thṓraks] of faith.” This indicates righteousness results from obeying the faith God births in the heart [this is confirmed in texts like Js 2:14-26]) of faith and love, and as a helmet, the hope (always in the N. T., in a good sense: expectation of good, hope; and in the Christian sense, joyful and confident expectation of eternal salvation; the bringing in of a better hope) of salvation (future salvation, the sum of benefits and blessings which Christians, redeemed from all earthly ills, will enjoy after the visible return of Christ from heaven in the consummated and eternal kingdom of God). 9For God has not destined (to appoint with oneself or in one’s mind: to decree one to be subject to wrath) us for wrath (unto wrath, i. e. to undergo punishment in misery), but for obtaining salvation through our Lord Jesus Christ, 10who died for us, so that whether we are awake (to live, be alive on earth) or asleep (to die), we will live together with Him (at the same time). 11Therefore encourage one another and build up (to promote growth in Christian wisdom, affection, grace, virtue, holiness, blessedness) one another, just as you also are doing.

Christian Conduct

12But we request of you, brethren, that you appreciate those who diligently labor among you, and have charge over you in the Lord and give you instruction, 13and that you esteem them very highly in love because of their work. Live in peace (to cultivate or keep peace, i. e. harmony; to be at peace, live in peace) with one another. 14We urge you, brethren, admonish (warn, exhort) the unruly (deviating from the prescribed order or rule), encourage the fainthearted (properly, an undeveloped soul, lacking in personhood [without a healthy identity, developed individuality]), help the weak (lacking in decision about things lawful and unlawful), be patient (“to be patient in bearing the offences and injuries of others; to be mild and slow in avenging; to be long-suffering, slow to anger, slow to punish”) with everyone. 15See that no one repays another with evil for evil, but always seek after that which is good (what is upright, honorable, and acceptable to God) for one another and for all people. 16Rejoice always; 17pray without ceasing; 18in everything give thanks; for this is God’s will (will, i. e., a. what one wishes or has determined shall be done [i. e. objectively, thing willed] for you in Christ Jesus. 19Do not quench (i. e. to suppress, stifle) the Spirit; 20do not despise (to make of no account, to despise utterly) prophetic utterances (Used in the N. T. — of the utterances of the O. T. prophets: — of the endowment and speech of the Christian teachers called προφῆται [prophets]: plural the gifts and utterances of these prophets, 1 Corinthians 13:8; 1 Thessalonians 5:20). 21But examine (to test, by impl. to approve) everything carefully; hold fast (keep secure, keep from possession of) to that which is good (genuine, approved); 22abstain from every form (that which is seen) of evil (that which is wicked; margin: appearance of evil).
23Now may the God of peace Himself sanctify (to purify internally by reformation of soul) you entirely (properly, wholly [holistically], “fully-layered” [all levels present] – describing someone reaching the end-goal of “entire sanctification.” /holotelḗs [“entirely”] is only used in 1 Thes 5:23.– again expressing the idea of “full continuity [unbroken, complete]); and may your spirit and soul and body be preserved (tēréō (from tēros, “a guard”) – properly, maintain [preserve]; [figuratively] spiritually guard [watch], keep intact; to watch over, to guard) complete (holóklēros [from /hólos, “whole” and /klḗros, “a lot, cast to better discern God’s preferred-will”] – properly, “all that is included [apportioned] through divine lot.” /holóklēros [“divinely-allotted wholeness”] occurs twice in the NT. 1 Thes 5:23: “Now may the God of peace Himself sanctify you entirely; and may your spirit (according to which τό πνεῦμα is the rational part of man, the power of perceiving and grasping divine and eternal things, and upon which the Spirit of God exerts its influence; [πνεῦμα, says Luther, “is the highest and noblest part of man, which qualifies him to lay bold of incomprehensible, invisible, eternal things; in short, it is the house where Faith and God’s word are at home”].) and soul (the breath of life; the vital force which animates the body and shows itself in breathing; psyxḗ [from psyxō, “to breathe, blow” which is the root of the English words “psyche,” “psychology”] – soul [psyche]; a person’s distinct identity [unique personhood], i.e. individual personality. [psyxē] corresponds exactly to the OT /phágō [“soul”]. The soul is the direct aftermath of God breathing [blowing] His gift of life into a person, making them an ensouled being.) and body (the living body) be preserved complete [ /holóklēros], without blame at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ”. Js 1:4: “And let endurance have its perfect result, so that you may be perfect and complete (/holóklēros), lacking in nothing”), without blame at the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ. 24Faithful is He who calls you, and He also will bring it to pass.
25Brethren, pray for us.
26Greet all the brethren with a holy (in a moral sense, pure, sinless, upright, holy; such a kiss as is a sign of the purest love) kiss. 27I adjure you by the Lord to have this letter read to all the brethren.
28The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you.

 
New American Standard Bible
2 Thessalonians
Thanksgiving for Faith and Perseverance

2 Thes 1:1Paul and Silvanus and Timothy,
To the church of the Thessalonians in God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ: (Note to whom the book is written.) 2Grace to you and peace from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
3We ought always to give thanks to God for you, brethren, as is only fitting, because your faith is greatly enlarged (to increase beyond measure; to grow exceedingly), and the love of each one of you toward one another grows ever greater (abounding in number [quantity]); 4therefore, we ourselves speak proudly of you among the churches of God for your perseverance (steadfastness, constancy; in the N. T. the characteristic of a man who is unswerved from his deliberate purpose and his loyalty to faith and piety by even the greatest trials and sufferings) and faith in the midst of all your persecutions and afflictions which you endure (Bible Knowledge Commentary [hitherto BKC]: They were particularly enduring… persecutions from enemies of the gospel who were hostile toward them [cf. 1 Thes 3:3-4].) . 5This is a plain indication of God’s righteous judgment so that you will be considered worthy of the kingdom of God, for which indeed you are suffering. 6For after all it is only just (it is agreeable to justice) for God to repay (in a bad sense, of penalty and vengeance) with affliction (pressure — afflicted(-tion), anguish, burdened, persecution, tribulation, trouble) those who afflict you (BKC: The trials they were undergoing were painful circumstances that came from both Jewish and Gentile acquaintances [cf. 1 Thes 1:6; 2:14; Acts 17:5-9]. Their persecutions and trials were numerous. Yet, in spite of them all, the Thessalonians kept on standing strong and stable in their faith.), 7and to give relief (rest, from persecutions) to you who are afflicted and to us as well when the Lord Jesus will be revealed (of the glory clothed with which he will return from heaven) from heaven with His mighty (ministering to his power) angels (a messenger) in flaming fire, 8dealing out retribution (to inflict punishment on [render vengeance to] one) to those who do not know God (NASB: Does not refer to those who have never heard of the true God but to those who refuse to recognize Him (cf. 2:10; 12; Rom 1:28) and to those who do not obey the gospel (NASB: The gospel invites acceptance, and rejection is disobedience to a royal invitation.) of our Lord Jesus. 9These will pay the penalty of eternal (without end, never to cease, everlasting) destruction (the loss of a life of blessedness after death, future misery), away from the presence (the refreshing which comes from the bright and smiling countenance of God to one seeking comfort) of the Lord and from the glory of His power (majesty which belongs to Christ; and α. the kingly majesty of the Messiah, to which belongs his kingly state, the splendor of His external appearance, the retinue of angels, and the like: the majesty of his Messianic power with which he will punish his adversaries), 10when He comes to be glorified in His saints (to glorify, adorn with glory”: that his glory may be seen in the saints, i. e. in the glory, blessedness, conferred on them. NASB: Not simply “among” but “in” them. His glory is seen in what they are.) on that day ([(even in the prophecies of the O. T.] the day of Jehovah is spoken of, in which Jehovah will execute terrible judgment upon his adversaries), and to be marveled (passive to be wondered at, to be had in admiration) at among all who have believed—for our testimony to you was believed. 11To this end also we pray for you always, that our God will count you worthy (to judge worthy, deem deserving) of your calling (is used of one whom God declares worthy of the calling which he has commanded to be given him, and therefore fit to obtain the blessings promised in the call), and fulfill (to make complete in every particular; to render perfect) every desire (God’s good pleasure [/eudokía] requires something is done through His work of inbirthing faith. 2 Thes 1:11: “for which [glorification, cf. 1:10], indeed each time we pray about [peri] you – for the purpose [hina] that our God may deem you worthy of the calling, and may fulfill every good-pleasure [/eudokía, of God] that comes from [His] goodness and [His] work of faith [ /pistis], in [His] ability.”) for goodness and the work of faith with power (powerfully), 12so that the name of our Lord Jesus will be glorified in you, and you in Him, according to (used of the cause; through, on account of, from, owing to [in accordance with i. e. in consequence of, by virtue of]) the grace (is used of “the merciful kindness by which God, exerting his holy influence upon souls, turns them to Christ, keeps, strengthens, increases them in Christian faith, knowledge, affection, and kindles them to the exercise of the Christian virtues”) of our God and the Lord Jesus Christ.

 
New American Standard Bible
Man of Lawlessness

2 Thes 2:1Now we request you, brethren, with regard to the coming (In the N. T. especially of the advent, i. e. the future, visible, return from heaven of Jesus, the Messiah, to raise the dead, hold the last judgment, and set up formally and gloriously the kingdom of God) of our Lord Jesus Christ and our gathering together (a gathering together, an assembly. NASB: The only place in the NT where “rapture” [from the Latin Vulgate rendering] is clearly referred to. Some hold that this will be secret, but Paul seems to be describing something open and public, with loud voices and a trumpet blast.) to Him, 2that you not be quickly shaken (to shake down, overthrow, i. e. tropically, to cast down from one’s [to move or agitate the mind, to disturb one: so as to throw him out of his sober and natural mental state) from your composure or be disturbed either by a spirit (“one in whom a spirit is manifest or embodied; hence, equivalent to actuated by a spirit, whether divine or demoniacal; one who either is truly moved by God’s Spirit or falsely boasts that he is”) or a message or a letter as if from us, to the effect that the day (of the last day of the present age, the day in which Christ will return from heaven, raise the dead, hold the final judgment, and perfect his kingdom) of the Lord has come ([properly, as it were to stand in sight, stand near] to be upon, impend, threaten). 3Let no one in any way deceive you, for it will not come unless the apostasy (a falling away, defection. NASB: At the last time there will be a falling away from the faith [see Matt 24:10-12; 1 Tim 4:1]. But here Paul is speaking of active rebellion, the supreme opposition of evil to the things of God.) comes first, and the man of lawlessness ( /anomía (“lawlessness”) includes the end-impact of law breaking – i.e. its negative influence on a person’s soul [status before God]. NASB: The leader of the forces of evil at the last time. Only here is he called by this name. John tells us of many “antichrist” [1 John 2:18], and this may be the worst of them-the antichrist of Rev 13- though Paul’s description of the man of lawlessness has some distinctive features. He is not Satan, because he is clearly distinguished from him in v. 9) is revealed (passages of persons, previously concealed, making their appearance in public: of Anti-christ, 2 Thessalonians 2:3, 6, 8. in N. T., Lugd. Bat., 1849. φανερόω is thought to describe an external manifestation, to the senses and hence, open to all, but single or isolated; ἀποκαλύπτω an internal disclosure, to the believer, and abiding. The ἀποκάλυψις or unveiling precedes and produces the φανέρωσις or manifestation; the former looks toward the object revealed, the latter toward the persons to whom the revelation is made. Others, however, seem to question the possibility of discrimination; Cf. 1 Corinthians 3:13. NASB: ), the son of destruction (in particular, the destruction which consists in the loss of eternal life, eternal misery, perdition, the lot of those excluded from the kingdom of God: a man doomed to eternal misery [of Antichrist]. NASB: For all his proud claims, his final overthrow is certain. The same Greek expression is used of Judas Iscariot in John 17:12, where it is translated “son of predition.”), 4who opposes (be adverse to, withstand, an adversary) and exalts himself above every so-called god (deities or divinities) or object of worship (whatever is religiously honored, an object of worship. NASB: He is not merely a political or military man, but claims a place above every god and everything associated with worship. He even claims to be God [YHVH].), so that he takes his seat in the temple (the Sept. for הֵיכָל, used of the temple at Jerusalem, but only of the sacred edifice [or sanctuary] itself, consisting of the Holy place and the Holy of holies) of God, displaying (to declare: to show, prove what kind of a person anyone is) himself as being God (a general appellation of deities or divinities). 5Do you not remember that while I was still with you, I was telling you these things? 6And you know what restrains (to restrain, hinder [the course or progress of]: absolutely, that which hinders, namely, Antichrist from making his appearance (see ἀντίχριστος: antichrist, either one who puts himself in the place of, or the enemy [opponent] of the Messiah. – properly, opposite to Christ; someone acting in place of [against] Christ; “Antichrist.”; the power of the Roman empire is meant; ὁ κατέχων, he that hinders, cheeks, namely, the advent of Antichrist, denotes the one in whom that power is lodged, the Roman emperor: 2 Thessalonians 2:6f. NASB: There have been many suggestions as to the identity of this restrainer: the Roman state with its emperor, Paul’s missionary work, the Jewish state, the principle of law and government embodied in the state, the Holy Spirit or the restraining ministry of the Holy Spirit through the church, and others.) him now, so that in his time he will be revealed. 7For the mystery (a hidden purpose or counsel; secret will: the mystery of lawlessness, the secret purpose formed by lawlessness, seems to be a tacit antithesis to God’s saving purpose) of lawlessness is already at work (to display one’s activity, show oneself operative); only he who now (at this time) restrains will do so until he is taken out of the way (to disappear). 8Then that lawless one will be revealed (passages of persons, previously concealed, making their appearance in public) whom the Lord will slay (kill) with the breath of His mouth (NASB: Despite the impressiveness (v. 4), the man of lawlessness will easily be destroyed by Christ [cf. Dan 11:45; Rev 19:20]) and bring to an end by the appearance (an appearing, appearance: In the N. T. the ‘advent’ of Christ — not only that which has already taken place and by which his presence and power appear in the saving light he has shed upon mankind, 2 Timothy 1:10; but also that illustrious return from heaven to earth hereafter to occur: 1 Timothy 6:14; 2 Timothy 4:1, 8; Titus 2:13 [i. e. the breaking forth]) of His coming; 9that is, the one whose coming is in accord (used of the cause; through, on account of, from, owing to [in accordance with i. e. in consequence of, by virtue of]) with the activity of Satan, with all power (specifically, the power of performing miracles) and signs (but time power διδόναι σημεῖα, by which men are deceived, is ascribed also to false teachers, false prophets, and to demons) and false ([A. V. lying wonders] exhibited for the treacherous purpose of deceiving men) wonders (a wonder, marvel), 10and with all the deception (deceit, deceitfulness) of wickedness (deceit which unrighteousness uses) for those who perish (those to whom it belongs to perish or to be consigned to eternal misery), because they did not receive ([(“warmly receptive, welcoming”] means receive with “ready reception what is offered” [Vine, Unger, White, NT, 7], i.e. “welcome with appropriate reception” [Thayer]. [The personal element is emphasized with [déxomai] which accounts for it always being in the Greek middle voice. This stresses the high level of self-involvement [interest] involved with the “welcoming-receiving.” with the accusative of the thing offered in speaking, teaching, instructing; to receive favorably, give ear to, embrace, make one’s own, approve, not to reject: namely, commended to them. NASB: Their unbelief was willing and intentional.) the love (love which embraces the truth) of the truth (“the truth, as taught in the Christian religion, respecting God and the execution of his purposes through Christ, and respecting the duties of man,” opposed alike to the superstitions of the Gentiles and the inventions of the Jews, and to the corrupt opinions and precepts of false teachers even among Christians: and absolutely ἡ ἀλήθεια (truth, but not merely truth as spoken; truth of idea, reality, sincerity, truth in the moral sphere, divine truth revealed to man, straightforwardness; truth [true to fact], reality.[In ancient Greek culture, synonymous for “reality” as the opposite of illusion, i.e. fact.]) so as to be saved (to make one a partaker of the salvation by Christ [Since salvation begins in this life (in deliverance from error and corrupt notions, in moral purity, in pardon of sin, and in the blessed peace of a soul reconciled to God), but on the visible return of Christ from heaven will he perfected in the consummate blessings of ὁ αἰών ὁ μέλλων[an age (era, “time-span”), characterized by a specific quality (type of existence).], we can understand why τό σῴζεσθαι is spoken of in some passages as a present possession, in others as a good yet future: — as a blessing beginning (or begun) on earth]). 11For this reason (NASB: because of their deliberate rejection of the truth [v. 10]) God will send upon them a deluding (In the N. T. metaphorically, mental straying, i. e. error, wrong opinion relative to morals or religion) influence (operative power) so that they will believe what is false, 12in order that they all may be judged (contextually, used specifically of the act of condemning and decreeing [or inflicting] penalty on one) who did not believe the truth, but took pleasure in wickedness.
13But we should always give thanks to God for you, brethren beloved by the Lord, because God has chosen (to take for oneself, to choose, prefer. NASB: For the connection between God’s love and election see Col 3:12Therefore, as God’s chosen people, holy and dearly loved, clothe yourselves with compassion, kindness, humility, gentleness and patience; 1 Thes 1:4 For we know, brothers and sisters loved by God, that he has chosen you; Eph 1:4For he chose us in him before the creation of the world to be holy and blameless in his sight. In love) you from the beginning (of the beginning of all things, i.e., before creation, cf. Gen 1:1; John 1:1) for salvation (in the technical biblical sense, the Messianic salvation) through sanctification (sanctification wrought by the Holy Spirit) by the Spirit and faith in the truth. 14It was for this He called (to invite one, to something i. e. to participate in it, enjoy it; used thus in the Epistles of Paul and Peter of God as inviting men by the preaching of the gospel, to the blessings of the heavenly kingdom) you through our gospel, that you may gain (the same in which Christ rejoices. “the glorious condition of blessedness into which it is appointed and promised that true Christians shall enter after their Saviour’s return from heaven”: which condition begins to be enjoyed even now through the devout contemplation of the divine majesty of Christ, and its influence upon those who contemplate it; and this condition will include not only the blessedness of the soul, but also the gain of a more excellent body, which God bestows, the same in which Christ rejoices, to render us partakers of δόξα), the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ. 15So then, brethren, stand firm and hold to the traditions (NASB: Until the NT was written, essential Christian teaching was passed on in the “traditions,” just as rabbinic law was; it could be either oral or written.) which you were taught, whether by word of mouth or by letter from us.
16Now may our Lord Jesus Christ Himself and God our Father, who has loved us and given us eternal comfort (consolation, comfort, solace) and good hope (always in the N. T., in a good sense: expectation of good, hope; and in the Christian sense, joyful and confident expectation of eternal salvation) by grace (good-will, loving-kindness, favor: the N. T. writers use χάρις pre-eminently of that kindness by which God bestow: favors even upon the ill-deserving, and grants to sinners the pardon of their offences, and bids them accept of eternal salvation through Christ. Cf. Eph 2:8-10), 17comfort and strengthen your hearts in every good work and word (NASB: The prayer is for inner strength that will produce results in both action and speech.).

 
New American Standard Bible
Exhortation

2 Thes 3:1Finally, brethren, pray for us that the word of the Lord will spread rapidly and be glorified (to make renowned, render illustrious, i. e. to cause the dignity and worth of some person or thing to become manifest and acknowledged: Christ, the Son of God and God the Father), just as it did also with you; 2and that we will be rescued from perverse (unrighteous, unreasonable) and evil men; for not all have faith. 3But the Lord is faithful (of God, abiding by his promises), and He will strengthen (to strengthen, make firm; tropically to render constant, confirm, one’s mind [establish]) and protect (to guard a person that he may remain safe) you from the evil one (hurtful, i.e. evil; toilsome, bad). 4We have confidence in the Lord concerning you, that you are doing and will continue to do what we command. 5May the Lord direct (to make straight, guide; go straight down by the most direct, efficient route; to go in a direct (straight) course – avoiding all unnecessary delays, without any undue loss of time or achievement) your hearts into the love (In the NT, typically refers to divine love (= what God prefers)) of God and into the steadfastness (a patient, steadfast waiting for the return of Christ from heaven) of Christ.
6Now we command you, brethren, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you keep away from every brother who leads (to regulate one’s life, to conduct oneself) an unruly (disorderly) life and not according to the tradition which you received from us. 7For you yourselves know how you ought to follow our example, because we did not act in an undisciplined manner among you, 8nor did we eat anyone’s bread without paying for it, but with labor and hardship we kept working night and day so that we would not be a burden to any of you; 9not because we do not have the right (power of choice, liberty of doing as one pleases; leave or permission) to this, but in order to offer ourselves as a model for you, so that you would follow our example. 10For even when we were with you, we used to give you this order: if anyone is not willing to work, then he is not to eat, either. 11For we hear that some among you are leading an undisciplined life, doing no work at all, but acting like busybodies (work all-around, i.e. to meddle, going beyond proper boundaries [where a person doesn’t belong]; to fixate on what others are doing, instead of doing what the person himself is supposed to do). 12Now such persons we command and exhort in the Lord Jesus Christ to work in quiet fashion and eat their own bread. 13But as for you, brethren, do not grow weary of doing good (doing good that inspires others to rise up and also do what is noble [admirable], i.e provoking others to “act with holy affections.” [“doing good that inspires”] can only happen through faith [“God’s inworked persuasion”]).
14If anyone does not obey our instruction in this letter, take special note of that person and do not associate with him, so that he will be put to shame. 15Yet do not regard him as an enemy (actively, hostile, hating and opposing another), but admonish (warn, exhort) him as a brother.
16Now may the Lord of peace Himself continually grant you peace in every circumstance. The Lord be with you all!
17I, Paul, write this greeting with my own hand, and this is a distinguishing mark in every letter; this is the way I write. 18The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all.

 
New American Standard Bible
1 Timothy
Misleadings in Doctrine and Living

1 Tim 1:1Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus according to the commandment (an injunction, mandate) of God our Savior, and of Christ Jesus, who is our hope,
2To Timothy, my true child (just as in Hebrew, Syriac, Arabic, Persian, so in the N. T., pupils or disciples are called children of their teachers, because the latter by their instruction nourish the minds of their pupils and mould their characters, in affectionate address) in the faith: Grace, mercy and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord.
3As I urged you upon my departure for Macedonia, remain on at Ephesus so that you may instruct certain men not to teach strange doctrines (to teach other or different doctrine i. e. deviating from the truth), 4nor to pay attention to myths (the fictions of the Jewish theosophists and Gnostics, especially concerning the emanations and orders of the aeons, are called μυθοι fables) and endless genealogies (in plural of the orders of aeons, according to the doctrine of the Gnostics), which give rise to mere speculation rather than furthering the administration (which furnish matter for disputes rather than the [knowledge of the] dispensation of the things by which God has provided for and prepared salvation, which salvation must be embraced by faith) of God which is by faith. 5But the goal of our instruction (Christ speaks His rhēma-word into the believer – giving a command [ /paraggelía] that passes on His preferred-will [cf. Ro 10:17, Gk text and /thélēma]. Accordingly, [paraggelía] and faith [ /pístis, “God’s inworked persuasions”] are directly connected. 1 Tim 1:5: “But the goal of our instruction ( /paraggelía) is love from a pure heart and a good conscience and a sincere faith (/pístis)” [NASU]. -announcement, a proclaiming or giving a message to; hence, a charge, command) is love from a pure (free from every admixture of what is false, sincere) heart (of things done from the heart i. e. cordially or sincerely, truly [without simulation or pretence]) and a good (a peaceful conscience, equivalent to consciousness of rectitude) conscience (free from guilt, consciousness of rectitude, of right conduc) and a sincere (unfeigned, undisguised) faith. 6For some men, straying (to deviate from, miss [the mark]) from these things, have turned aside (to turn away from one in order to follow another) to fruitless discussion, 7wanting to be teachers of the Law (/nomodidáskalos [“Scripture-lawyer”]. It suggests a highly accomplished teacher of God’s law, i.e. someone erudite in interpreting the Bible. -of those who among Christians also went about as champions and interpreters of the Mosaic law), even though they do not understand either what they are saying or the matters about which they make confident assertions.
8But we know that the Law is good (good in its substance and nature, and fitted to beget good), if one uses it lawfully, 9realizing the fact that law is not made for a righteous person (BKC: The Law is designed to show people their sinfulness. Thus the Law is not for one who had already recognized his sin and turned to Christ. That person is no longer under the Law but should now walk in the Spirit [Gal 5:13-26] The Law is intended for those who remain unconvinced of the sin.), but for those who are lawless (departing from the law, a violator of the law, lawless, wicked) and rebellious (that cannot be subjected to control, disobedient, unruly, refractory), for the ungodly (destitute of reverential awe toward God, contemning God, impious) and sinners (pre-eminently sinful, especially wicked;– properly, loss from falling short of what God approves, i.e. what is “wide of the mark”; a blatant sinner), for the unholy (unholy, impious, wicked; anósios – properly, utter disregard of what is sacred, i.e. willful [arrogant] disrespect of the things of God; “impious; wicked”) and profane (ungodly; bébēlos – properly, improper, unauthorized entry – literally, “crossing a threshold” which profanes because of improper entrance. /bébēlos [“profane because of improper entrance”] refers to people unfit to access [know] God, because they approach Him apart from faith.), for those who kill their fathers or mothers, for murderers 10and immoral men (a man who prostitutes his body to another’s lust for hire, a male prostitute; universally, a man who indulges in unlawful sexual intercourse, a fornicator) and homosexuals (a sodomite — abuser of [that defile] self with mankind) and kidnappers ([a slave] a man taken in war and sold into slavery, a slave-dealer, kidnapper, man-stealer, i. e. as well one who unjustly reduces free men to slavery, as one who steals the slaves of others and sells them) and liars (a person who falsifies, misrepresents [distorts, misleads]) and perjurers (a false swearer), and whatever else is contrary (to oppose, be adverse to, withstand) to sound (the sound i. e. true and incorrupt doctrine) teaching, 11according to the glorious (majesty in the sense of the absolute perfection of the deity: of the majesty of his saving grace) gospel of the blessed God, with which I have been entrusted.
12I thank Christ Jesus our Lord, who has strengthened (to make strong, endue with strength, strengthen; [from /en “in,” which intensifies /dynamóō, “sharing power-ability”] – properly, to impart ability [make able]; empowered.) me, because He considered me faithful, putting me into service (For the believer, /diakonía [“ministry”] specifically refers to Spirit-empowered service guided by faith [/pístis, “the Lord’s inbirthed persuasion”]. [Observe the close connection of faith ([/pistis] and [diakonía] in Ac 6:1-7,21:19,20; Ro 12:3,7; 1 Cor 16:13,15; Eph 4:12,13; 1 Tim 1:12,14; 2 Tim 4:5,7.]), 13even though I was formerly a blasphemer (speaking evil, slanderous, reproachful, railing, abusive; what is blasphemous [reverses spiritual and moral realities]) and a persecutor (one who pursues [“hunt down”]), and a violent aggressor (“an insolent man, ‘one who, uplifted with pride, either heaps insulting language upon others or does them some shameful act of wrong'”). Yet I was shown mercy (passive, specifically, of God granting even to the unworthy favor, benefits, opportunities, and particularly salvation by Christ) because I acted ignorantly (not to know) in unbelief (want of faith, unbelief: shown in withholding belief in the divine power: by opposition to the gospel); 14and the grace (in the N. T. writers use χάρις pre-eminently of that kindness by which God bestow: favors even upon the ill-deserving, and grants to sinners the pardon of their offences, and bids them accept of eternal salvation through Christ) of our Lord was more than abundant (/hyperpleonázō [“super-abounded beyond numbering”] is only used in 1 Tim 1:14. Here Paul testifies of the Lord’s grace, causing faith and love in his life to exceedingly increase [be very great in number]. As a strengthened form of /phrónēsis : knowledcje and holy love of the will of God [A. V. wisdom] [“more than”], /hyperpleonázō [“makes super-plentiful”] very emphatically expresses the continuous way God will inbirth faith, through divine love, in the yielded believer to a frequency that exceeds all description and expectation! [hyperpleonázō] means more than “make abundant,” but rather “super, exceedingly abundant” (Souter).]), with the faith and love which are found in Christ Jesus. 15It is a trustworthy statement, deserving full acceptance, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, among whom I am foremost of all. 16Yet for this reason I found mercy, so that in me as the foremost (first, chief), Jesus Christ might demonstrate His perfect (all, the whole) patience (forbearance, long-suffering, slowness in avenging wrongs) as an example for those who would (in general, of what is sure to happen: with an infinitive present) believe in Him for eternal life. 17Now to the King eternal (an age; by extension, perpetuity [also past]), immortal (undecaying, i.e. imperishable), invisible, the only God, be honor (honor which belongs or is shown to one: the honor of one who outranks others, pre-eminence) and glory forever and ever. Amen.
18This command I entrust (a thing to be religiously kept and taught to others) to you, Timothy, my son, in accordance with the prophecies previously made concerning you (NASB: In the early church God revealed His will in various matters through prophets [see Acts 13:1-3, where prophets had an active role in the sending of Paul and Barnabas on their missions to the Gentiles]. In Timothy’s case this prophecy may have occurred at the time of or before his ordination. [4:14], perhaps about 12 years earlier on Paul’s second missionary journey [see Acts 16:3]. Prophecies about Timothy seem to have pointed to the significant leadership role he was to have in the church.), that by them you fight (to fight (A. V. war): tropically, of the conflicts of the apostolic office) the good (praiseworthy, noble) fight (an expedition, campaign; military service, warfare: Paul likens his contest with the difficulties that oppose him in the discharge of his apostolic duties to a warfare), 19keeping faith and a good conscience, which some have rejected (to thrust away from oneself, to drive away from oneself, i. e. to repudiate, reject, refuse) and suffered shipwreck in regard to their faith. 20Among these are Hymenaeus and Alexander, whom I have handed over (to deliver one into the power of Satan to be harassed and tormented with evils) to Satan, so that they will be taught not to blaspheme.

 
New American Standard Bible
A Call to Prayer

1 Tim 2:1First of all, then, I urge that entreaties (in the N. T. requests addressed by men to God) and prayers, petitions (supplication) and thanksgivings, be made on behalf of all men, 2for kings and all who are in authority, so that we may lead a tranquil and quiet life in all godliness and dignity (in an ethical sense, gravity, honor, probity, purity). 3This is good and acceptable in the sight of God our Savior, 4who desires (to will, wish. BKC: God who is by nature a Savior, wants all men to be saved. Paul repeated the words “everyone” [1 Tim 2:1] and “all men” (vv. 3, 6)… God desires that no one perish [2 Peter 3:9], that the entire human race come to know the truth through a personal relationship with Jesus Christ, who is the Truth (John 14:6). (Of course not all do come to salvation; Paul was not teaching universalism.) all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth. 5For there is one God, and one mediator (a medium of communication, arbitrator: Christ is called the mediator, since he interposed by his death and restored the harmony between God and man which human sin had broken) also between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, 6who gave Himself as a ransom (what is given in exchange for another as the price of his redemption; a full ransom, referring to Christ paying the complete purchase-price to secure our freedom [redemption] – i.e. Christ exchanging His eternal righteousness for our sin) for all, the testimony ([that which (to wit, that Christ gave himself as a ransom] would be [the substance of] the testimony equivalent to was to be testified [by the apostles and the preachers of the gospel] in the times fitted for it,) given at the proper (at a time suitable to the matter in hand; in due season) time. 7For this I was appointed (passive, to make) a preacher and an apostle (With these apostles Paul claimed equality, because through a heavenly intervention he had been appointed by the ascended Christ himself to preach the gospel among the Gentiles, and owed his knowledge of the way of salvation not to man’s instruction but to direct revelation from Christ himself, and moreover had evinced his apostolic qualifications by many signal proofs) (I am telling the truth, I am not lying) as a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and truth.
8Therefore I want the men in every place to pray, lifting up holy hands, without wrath (anger, indignation) and dissension (a deliberating, questioning, about what is true, when in reference to what ought to be done, hesitation, doubting; intellectual rebellion against God; disputing).

Women Instructed

9Likewise, I want women to adorn themselves with proper (well-arranged, seemly) clothing, modestly (bashfulness, i.e. [towards men], modesty or [towards God] awe — reverence, shamefacedness) and discreetly (soundness of mind, i.e. [literally] sanity or [figuratively] self-control — soberness, sobriety), not with braided (what is woven, plaited, or twisted together; a web, plait, braid) hair and gold or pearls or costly garments (NASB: Not a total ban on wearing of jewelry or braided hair. Rather, Paul was expressing caution in a society where such things were signs of extravagant luxury and proud personal display), 10but rather by means of good works, as is proper for women making a claim to godliness (God-fearing [veneration]; godly respect, reverence). 11A woman must quietly (silence) receive instruction (to increase one’s knowledge) with entire submissiveness (obedience, subjection). 12But I do not allow a woman to teach (to hold discourse with others in order to instruct them, deliver didactic discourses) or exercise authority over (in later Greek writings one who does a thing himself the author”; one who acts on his own authority, autocratic, equivalent to αὐτοκράτωρ an absolute master. To govern one, exercise dominion over one: τινς, 1 Timothy 2:12. Note Dr. Essex points out that this letter is written to Paul regarding church governance, and how men and women should act when the local church is gathered. Women have various responsibilities in the church; they are not to govern a man while the congregation is gathered together. All believers received a gift from the Holy Spirit. See 1 Cor 12:4-7 Now there are varieties of gifts, but the same Spirit. And there are varieties of ministries, and the same Lord. There are varieties of effects, but the same God who works all things in all persons. But to each one is given the manifestation of the Spirit for the common good.) a man, but to remain quiet. 13For it was Adam who was first created (formed), and then Eve. 14And it was not Adam who was deceived (to cheat, beguile), but the woman being deceived, fell into transgression (the breach of a definite, promulgated, tariffed law: is wrong-doing which even a man ignorant of the law may be guilty of). 15But women will be preserved through the bearing of children (NASB: Three possible meanings of this verse are: (1) it speaks of the godly woman finding fulfillment in her role as a wife and mother in the home; (2) it refers to women being saved spiritually through the most significant birth of all; the incarnation of Christ; or (3) it refers to women being kept physically safe in childbirth. BKC adds a forth possible meaning: Kept from corruption of society by being at home raising children. Still a fifth definition: to save, i.e. deliver or protect — heal, preserve, save [self], do well, be [make] whole.) if they continue in faith and love and sanctity ( purification, i.e. [the state] purity; concretely (by Hebraism) a purifier — holiness, sanctification.) with self-restraint (self-control, sobriety).

 
New American Standard Bible
Overseers and Deacons

1 Tim 3:1It is a trustworthy statement (of things, that can be relied on): if any man aspires to the office of overseer (specifically, the office of a bishop [the overseer or presiding officer of a Christian church]), it is a fine (praiseworthy, noble) work he desires to do. 2An overseer, then, must be above reproach (not apprehended, that cannot be laid hold of; hence, that cannot be reprehended, not open to censure, irreproachable), the husband of one wife (NASB: A general principle that applies to any violation of God’s marriage law, whether in the form of polygamy or of marital unfaithfulness [see on Titus 1:6: Since elders, by definition, were chosen from among the older men of the congregation, Paul assumed they already would be married and have children. A qualified unmarried man was not necessarily barred. It is also important that the standard forbids an elder to remarry if his wife dies (cf. Rom 7:2-3; 1 Cor 7:39; 1 Tim 5:14). The most likely meaning is simply that a faithful monogamous married life must be maintained.]), temperate (sober, temperate; abstaining from wine, either entirely or at least from its immoderate use), prudent (curbing one’s desires and impulses, self-controlled, temperate, [soberminded]), respectable (orderly, i.e. decorous — of good behaviour, modest.; of a man living with decorum, a well-ordered life; well-arranged, seemly, modest), hospitable (hospitable, generous to guests [given to hospitality]), able to teach (apt and skillful in teaching), 3not addicted to wine or pugnacious (bruiser, ready with a blow; a pugnacious, contentious, quarrelsome person, [striker]), but gentle (equitable, fair, mild), peaceable (in the N. T. twice metaphorically, not contentious) free from the love of money (not loving money, not avaricios). 4He must be one who manages his own household well [well (usually morally], honestly; rightly, so that there shall be no room for blame), keeping his children under control (obedience, subjection) with all dignity (in an ethical sense, gravity, honor, probity, purity) 5(but if a man does not know how to manage (to stand before, i.e. (in rank) to preside, or (by implication) to practise — maintain, be over, rule) his own household, how will he take care of the church of God?), 6and not a new convert, so that he will not become conceited (to make proud, puff up with pride, render insolent; [passive] to be puffed up with haughtiness or pride) and fall into the condemnation incurred by the devil (Satan, the prince of demons, the author of evil, persecuting good men, estranging mankind from God and enticing them to sin, and afflicting them with diseases by means of demons who take possession of their bodies at his bidding; the malignant enemy of God and the Messiah). 7And he must have a good reputation (in an ethical sense, of testimony concerning one’s character) with those outside the church, so that he will not fall into reproach and the snare (the allurements to sin by which the devil holds one bound) of the devil.
8Deacons (a deacon, one who, by virtue of the office assigned him by the church, cares for the poor and has charge of and distributes the money collected for their use) likewise must be men of dignity (august, venerable, reverend; to be venerated for character, honorable: of persons [grave]), not double-tongued (“double-saying,” i.e. deceitful by saying one thing but meaning another – literally, “two-sayings”; double-tongued, double in speech, saying one thing with one person, another with another [with intent to deceive]), or addicted to much wine or fond of sordid gain (eager for base gain [greedy of filthy lucre]; greedy chasers after dishonest gain.), 9but holding to the mystery (the stewards of God’s mysteries, i. e. those intrusted with the announcement of God’s secret purposes to men, 1 Corinthians 4:1; used generally, of Christian truth as hidden from ungodly men: with the addition of τῆς πίστεως, τῆς εὐσεβείας, which faith and godliness embrace and keep, 1 Timothy 3:9) of the faith (doctrinal, the religious belief of Christians) with a clear conscience. 10These men must also first be tested (to test; by implication, to approve — allow, discern, examine, like, (ap-)prove, try); then let them serve as deacons if they are beyond reproach. 11Women must likewise be dignified (august, venerable, reverend; to be venerated for character, honorable: of persons [grave]), not malicious gossips (prone to slander, slanderous, accusing falsely), but temperate (sober, temperate; abstaining from wine, either entirely or at least from its immoderate use), faithful in all things. 12Deacons must be husbands of only one wife, and good managers of their children and their own households. 13For those who have served well as deacons obtain for themselves a high standing (a degree, rank, grade) and great confidence (free and fearless confidence, cheerful courage, boldness, assurance, resting on, reposed in Christ) that is in Christ Jesus.
14I am writing these things to you, hoping to come to you before long; 15but in case I am delayed, I write so that you will know how one ought to conduct (behave oneself, live) himself in the household of God, which is the church of the living God, the pillar and support (the base, which ultimately supports the foundation itself) of the truth.
16By common confession, great is the mystery of godliness:
He who was revealed in the flesh,
Was vindicated in the Spirit,
Seen by angels,
Proclaimed among the nations,
Believed on in the world,
Taken up in glory.
(the mystery which is held by godliness and nourishes it. BKC: This truth about godliness being a mystery means that it was hidden but now is revealed. Further, it is a great “mystery” in that it is overwhelmingly large in scope and sublimely important in significance [cf. Eph 5:32This mystery is great; but I am speaking with reference to Christ and the church. ]…. (1) Appeared in a body refers to the incarnation of Christ. (2) Was vindicated by the Spirit refers to God’s demonstration through the Resurrection [cf. Acts 2:24-36 “But God raised Him up again, putting an end to the agony of death, since it was impossible for Him to be held in its power. “For David says of Him, ‘I SAW THE LORD ALWAYS IN MY PRESENCE; FOR HE IS AT MY RIGHT HAND, SO THAT I WILL NOT BE SHAKEN. ‘THEREFORE MY HEART WAS GLAD AND MY TONGUE EXULTED; MOREOVER MY FLESH ALSO WILL LIVE IN HOPE; BECAUSE YOU WILL NOT ABANDON MY SOUL TO HADES, NOR ALLOW YOUR HOLY ONE TO UNDERGO DECAY. ‘YOU HAVE MADE KNOWN TO ME THE WAYS OF LIFE; YOU WILL MAKE ME FULL OF GLADNESS WITH YOUR PRESENCE.’ “Brethren, I may confidently say to you regarding the patriarch David that he both died and was buried, and his tomb is with us to this day. “And so, because he was a prophet and knew that GOD HAD SWORN TO HIM WITH AN OATH TO SEAT one OF HIS DESCENDANTS ON HIS THRONE, he looked ahead and spoke of the resurrection of the Christ, that HE WAS NEITHER ABANDONED TO HADES, NOR DID His flesh SUFFER DECAY. “This Jesus God raised up again, to which we are all witnesses. “Therefore having been exalted to the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, He has poured forth this which you both see and hear. “For it was not David who ascended into heaven, but he himself says: ‘THE LORD SAID TO MY LORD, “SIT AT MY RIGHT HAND, UNTIL I MAKE YOUR ENEMIES A FOOTSTOOL FOR YOUR FEET.”’ “Therefore let all the house of Israel know for certain that God has made Him both Lord and Christ—this Jesus whom you crucified.”], by the Holy Spirit [cf. Rom 8:11But if the Spirit of Him who raised Jesus from the dead dwells in you, He who raised Christ Jesus from the dead will also give life to your mortal bodies through His Spirit who dwells in you.], that the crucified Jesus is Lord and Messiah. (3) Was seen by angels refers to His exaltation before the heavenly realm [cf. Phil 2:9-11For this reason also, God highly exalted Him, and bestowed on Him the name which is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus EVERY KNEE WILL BOW, of those who are in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and that every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father. Col 2:15 When He had disarmed the rulers and authorities, He made a public display of them, having triumphed over them through Him. Heb 1:6 And when He again brings the firstborn into the world, He says, “AND LET ALL THE ANGELS OF GOD WORSHIP HIM.”]. (4) Was preached among the nations [cf. Col 1:23 if indeed you continue in the faith firmly established and steadfast, and not moved away from the hope of the gospel that you have heard, which was proclaimed in all creation under heaven, and of which I, Paul, was made a minister.] and (5) was believed on in the world refers to the progressive fulfillment of God’s redemptive plan through His preordained means [cf. 1 Cor 1:18-2:5 He is also head of the body, the church; and He is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead, so that He Himself will come to have first place in everything. For it was the Father’s good pleasure for all the fullness to dwell in Him, and through Him to reconcile all things to Himself, having made peace through the blood of His cross; through Him, I say, whether things on earth or things in heaven. And although you were formerly alienated and hostile in mind, engaged in evil deeds, yet He has now reconciled you in His fleshly body through death, in order to present you before Him holy and blameless and beyond reproach—if indeed you continue in the faith firmly established and steadfast, and not moved away from the hope of the gospel that you have heard, which was proclaimed in all creation under heaven, and of which I, Paul, was made a minister. Now I rejoice in my sufferings for your sake, and in my flesh I do my share on behalf of His body, which is the church, in filling up what is lacking in Christ’s afflictions. Of this church I was made a minister according to the stewardship from God bestowed on me for your benefit, so that I might fully carry out the preaching of the word of God, that is, the mystery which has been hidden from the past ages and generations, but has now been manifested to His saints, to whom God willed to make known what is the riches of the glory of this mystery among the Gentiles, which is Christ in you, the hope of glory. We proclaim Him, admonishing every man and teaching every man with all wisdom, so that we may present every man complete in Christ. For this purpose also I labor, striving according to His power, which mightily works within me. For I want you to know how great a struggle I have on your behalf and for those who are at Laodicea, and for all those who have not personally seen my face, that their hearts may be encouraged, having been knit together in love, and attaining to all the wealth that comes from the full assurance of understanding, resulting in a true knowledge of God’s mystery, that is, Christ Himself, in whom are hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. I say this so that no one will delude you with persuasive argument. For even though I am absent in body, nevertheless I am with you in spirit, rejoicing to see your good discipline and the stability of your faith in Christ.]. Ascension [Eph 4:10He who descended is Himself also He who ascended far above all the heavens, so that He might fill all things.]) (NASB: The mystery of godliness: The phrase means the “revealed secret of true piety,” i.e., the secret that produces piety in people. That secret, as the following words indicate, is none other than Jesus Christ. His incarnation, in all its aspects [particularly His saving work], is the source of genuine piety… Vindicated in the Spirit: The Holy Spirit enabled Jesus to drive out demons [see Matt 12:28“But if I cast out demons by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God has come upon you.] and perform miracles. Most importantly, the Spirit raised Jesus from the dead [see Rom 1:4 who was declared the Son of God with power by the resurrection from the dead, according to the Spirit of holiness, Jesus Christ our Lord… 1 Pet 3:18For Christ also died for sins once for all, the just for the unjust, so that He might bring us to God, having been put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit] and thereby vindicated Him, showing that He was indeed the Son of God. Seen by angels: At His resurrection [Matt 28:2And behold, a severe earthquake had occurred, for an angel of the Lord descended from heaven and came and rolled away the stone and sat upon it.] and ascension [Acts 1:10 And as they were gazing intently into the sky while He was going, behold, two men in white clothing stood beside them.].)

 
New American Standard Bible
Apostasy

1 Tim 4:1But the Spirit explicitly (expressly) says that in later (coming after) times (a fixed and definite time) some will fall away (to lead away, to depart from) from the faith (doctrinal, the religious belief of Christians), paying attention to deceitful (misleading, leading into error) spirits and doctrines (teachings, precepts) of demons (evil spirits or the messengers and ministers of the devil), 2by means of the hypocrisy (dissimulation) of liars (a liar passing on false conclusions because working with false premises) seared (to mark by branding) in their own conscience (“the soul as distinguishing between what is morally good and bad, prompting to do the former and shun the latter, commending the one, condemning the other; conscience”) as with a branding iron, 3men who forbid marriage and advocate abstaining from foods which God has created to be gratefully shared in by those who believe and know the truth (facts, reality). 4For everything created by God is good, and nothing is to be rejected if it is received with gratitude (the giving of thanks); 5for it is sanctified (to make holy, consecrate, sanctify) by means of the word (through prayer in which the language of the O. T. is employed [before NT]) of God and prayer.

A Good Minister’s Discipline

6In pointing out these things to the brethren, you will be a good servant (teachers of the Christian religion) of Christ Jesus, constantly nourished (in the state [condition] of being nourished, i.e. trained by “continuous instruction in the area of skill and practical knowledge”. This happens by receiving God’s inworkings [gift] of faith which has lasting effects; to educate, form the mind) on the words of the faith and of the sound doctrine which you have been following (BKC: One of the works of a good minister of Christ Jesus is that he is a faithful conduit of the truth to other Christians [cf. 2 Tim 2:2]. To do this, however, Timothy first had to keep himself “nourished” [not brought up] by (a) the object of truths of the faith which, as Jude 3 puts it, were “once for all entrusted to the saints,” and (b) the truths of the good teaching that you have followed.). 7But have nothing to do with worldly (profane) fables (a fiction, a fable; universally, an invention, falsehood: the fictions of the Jewish theosophists and Gnostics, especially concerning the emanations and orders of the aeons, are called μυθοι fables) fit only for old women (old-womanish, anile [senile] [old wives’]). On the other hand, discipline (to exercise vigorously, in any way, either the body or the mind: of one who strives earnestly to become godly) yourself for the purpose of godliness (reverence, respect; in the Bible everywhere piety toward God; someone’s inner response to the things of God which shows itself in godly piety [reverence]; piety; specially, the gospel scheme — godliness, holiness); 8for bodily discipline (/gymnasía (“bodily exercise”), used only in 1 Tim 4:8, refers to bodily disciplines used for extreme ascetic practices. That is, when physical exercise [like yoga] is viewed as “the necessary gateway to experience true spirituality.” Thus exercise per se is not discouraged here, only required bodily exercises in mystical-physical teachings like theosophy. This ancient [and current] philosophy contends the discipline of the body is one of life’s chief concerns and special physical exercises as necessary for spiritual advancment. [cf. Expositor’s Greek Testament]; the exercise of conscientiousness relative to the body, such as is characteristic of ascetics and consists in abstinence from matrimony and certain kinds of food) is only of little profit, but godliness is profitable for all things, since it holds promise (to have linked to it) for the present life and also for the life to come. 9It is a trustworthy statement deserving full acceptance. 10For it is for this we labor (looking to this [that piety has the promise of life]) and strive (to contend, struggle, with difficulties and dangers antagonistic to the gospel), because we have fixed our hope (to build hope on one, as on a foundation) on the living God, who is the Savior of all men (NASB: Obviously this does not mean that God saves every person from eternal punishment, for such universalism would contradict the clear testimony of Scripture. God is, however, the Savior of all in that He offers salvation to all and saves all who come to him. BKC: Again Paul stated that God is the Savior of “all men” [cf. 2:2, 4, 6] since He provided Christ as the ransom [2:6] to make that salvation possible. Yet God is the Savior of those who believe in a special way since only in them has His desire for their salvation come to fruition.), especially (chiefly, most of all, above all) of believers.
11Prescribe (God commands [/paraggéllō] believers to act as He authorizes them through the revelation of faith [His inworked persuasions]. Accordingly, [paraggéllō] and faith (/pístis) are closely connected in the NT – see 1 Tim 1:2-4,4:11,12, 5:7,8; to command, order, charge) and teach these things. 12Let no one look down on your youthfulness (NASB: Timothy was probably in his mid-30s or younger, and in that day, such an influential position was not usually held by a man so young.), but rather in speech, conduct, love, faith and purity, show yourself an example of those who believe. 13Until I come, give attention to the public reading of Scripture, to exhortation (admonition, encouragement:) and teaching. 14Do not neglect (to be careless of) the spiritual gift (in the technical Pauline sense χαρίσματα (A. V. gifts) denote “extraordinary powers, distinguishing certain Christians and enabling them to serve the church of Christ, the reception of which is due to the power of divine grace operating in their souls by the Holy Spirit”: specifically, the sum of those powers requisite for the discharge of the office of an evangelist) within you, which was bestowed on you through prophetic utterance (prophecy, i. e. discourse emanating from divine inspiration and declaring the purposes of God, whether by reproving and admonishing the wicked, or comforting the afflicted, or revealing things hidden; especially by foretelling future events. Used in the N. T. — of the utterances of the O. T. prophets: specifically, of the prognostication of those achievements which one set apart to teach the gospel will accomplish for the kingdom of Christ) with the laying on of hands ([1 Tim 4:14 shows how the “laying on of hands” helps spur people to receive God’s grace-gifts. These endowments bring great fruitfulness to the Lord’s Church.) by the presbytery (a body of elders). 15Take pains (to care for, attend to carefully, practise: be diligent in) with these things; be absorbed in them, so that your progress will be evident to all. 16Pay close attention to yourself and to your teaching; persevere in these things, for as you do this you will ensure salvation both for yourself and for those who hear you (NASB: God alone saves, but Christians can be God’s instruments to bring about the salvation of others. Salvation is both an event an d a process. We are saved at the time of conversion but are still being saved in the sense of being made more conformed to Christ’s image (1 Cor 1:18; see 1 Thes 3:8 for now we really live (Christ is living and operative in me, i. e. the holy mind and energy of Christ pervades and moves me [believers]), if you stand firm in the Lord.)

 

 

New American Standard Bible
Honor Widows

1 Tim 5:1Do not sharply rebuke (to chastise with words, to chide, upbraid) an older man, but rather appeal (to admonish, exhort) to him as a father, to the younger men as brothers, 2the older women as mothers, and the younger women as sisters, in all purity.
3Honor widows who are widows indeed (a widow that is a widow indeed, not improperly called a widow [as i. e., a virgin that has taken a vow of celibacy]) 4but if any widow has children or grandchildren, they must first learn to practice piety (to act piously or reverently” [toward God, one’s country, magistrates, relations, and all to whom dutiful regard or reverence is due]) in regard to their own family and to make some return (grateful requitals) to their parents; for this is acceptable in the sight of God. 5Now she who is a widow indeed and who has been left alone, has fixed her hope on God and continues in entreaties (supplications, request) and prayers night and day. 6But she who gives herself to wanton pleasure (to live luxuriously, lead a voluptuous life [give oneself to pleasure]) is dead (NASB: dead spiritually while they live physically) even while she lives. 7Prescribe these things as well, so that they may be above reproach. 8But if anyone does not provide for his own, and especially for those of his household, he has denied (to abnegate, abjure, by act to show estrangement from a thing) the faith (objectively, the substance of Christian faith or what is believed by Christians) and is worse than an unbeliever.
9A widow is to be put on the list (of those widows who held a prominent place in the church and exercised a certain superintendence over the rest of the women, and had charge of the widows and orphans supported at public expense) only if she is not less than sixty years old, having been the wife of one man, 10having a reputation for good works; and if she has brought up children, if she has shown hospitality to strangers, if she has washed the saints’ feet NASB: A menial task, but necessary because of dusty roads and the wearing of sandals [see John 13:14]), if she has assisted those in distress, and if she has devoted herself to every good work. 11But refuse to put younger widows on the list, for when they feel sensual desires in disregard of Christ, they want to get married, 12thus incurring condemnation (the one on whom God passes judgment), because they have set aside their previous pledge (fidelity, faithfulness, i. e. the character of one who can be relied on, of one who keeps his promises). 13At the same time they also learn to be idle (free from labor, at leisure), as they go around from house to house; and not merely idle, but also gossips (babbling) and busybodies (overly careful, curious, meddling; busy about trifles and neglectful of important matters, especially busy about other folks’ affairs), talking about things not proper to mention. 14Therefore, I want younger widows to get married, bear children, keep house, and give the enemy (an adversary) no occasion for reproach (railing, reviling); 15for some have already turned aside to follow Satan. 16If any woman who is a believer has dependent widows, she must assist them and the church must not be burdened, so that it may assist those who are widows indeed.

Concerning Elders

17The elders who rule (older; as noun, a senior; specially, an Israelite Sanhedrist [also figuratively, member of the celestial council] or Christian presbyter — elder(-est), old.) well are to be considered worthy of double honor, especially those who work hard at preaching and teaching. 18For the Scripture says, “YOU SHALL NOT MUZZLE (to stop the mouth, make speechless, reduce to silence) THE OX WHILE HE IS THRESHING,” and “The laborer (a workman) is worthy of his wages (dues paid for work).” 19Do not receive an accusation (charges) against an elder except on the basis of two or three witnesses. 20Those who continue in sin, rebuke (to reprehend severely, chide, admonish, reprove) in the presence of all, so that the rest also will be fearful of sinning. 21I solemnly charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus and of His chosen angels (as those whom God has chosen out from other created beings to be peculiarly associated with him, and his highest ministers in governing the universe), to maintain these principles without bias (pre-judging, bias [prejudice]; undue [unfair] preference shown by partiality), doing nothing in a spirit of partiality. 22Do not lay hands upon (NASB: Paul is speaking of the ordination of an elder, which should not be performed until the candidate has had time to prove himself.) anyone too hastily and thereby share responsibility for the sins of others (NASB: Do not ordain a person unworthy of the office of elder.); keep yourself free from sin (NASB: Probably refers to refusal to become involved in the ordination of an unworthy man).
23No longer drink water exclusively, but use a little wine for the sake of your stomach and your frequent ailments (NASB: A parenthetical comment in Paul’s discussion of elders. In view of Timothy’s physical ailments, and perhaps because safe drinking water was often difficult to find, Paul advised him to drink a little wine.).
24The sins of some men are quite evident (openly evident, known to all, manifest), going before them to judgment (i. e. opinion or decision given concerning anything, especially concerning justice and injustice, right and wrong); for others, their sins follow after (‘the sins of some men are manifest now, even before they are called to account, but the misdeeds of others are exposed when finally judgment is held’. NASB: Paul advises being alert to hidden sins as well as to good deeds in the lives of candidates for ordination.). 25Likewise also, deeds that are good are quite evident, and those which are otherwise cannot be concealed (to be hid, escape notice).
Slavery in Rome: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery_in_ancient_Rome

 
New American Standard Bible
Instructions to Those Who Minister

1 Tim 6:1All who are under the yoke as slaves are to regard their own masters as worthy of all honor so that the name of God and our doctrine will not be spoken against (to be evil spoken of, reviled, railed at: Specifically, of those who by contemptuous speech intentionally come short of the reverence due to God or to sacred things). 2Those who have believers as their masters must not be disrespectful to them because they are brethren, but must serve them all the more, because those who partake of the benefit are believers and beloved. Teach and preach these principles.
3If anyone advocates (to teach other or different doctrine, i. e. deviating from the truth) a different doctrine and does not agree with sound words, those of our Lord Jesus Christ, and with the doctrine conforming (tending to godliness) to godliness (the doctrine that promotes godliness), 4he is conceited (to blind with pride or conceit, to render foolish or stupid) and understands (with reference to what is said or is to be interpreted) nothing; but he has a morbid interest (to be taken with such an interest in a thing as amounts to a disease, to have a morbid fondness for) in controversial questions and disputes about words (dispute about words, war of words, or about trivial and empty things), out of which arise envy, strife, abusive language (slander, detraction, speech injurious to another’s good name), evil suspicions (an evil heart such as is revealed in distrusting), 5and constant friction (attrition; contention, wrangling) between men of depraved (to change for the worse, to corrupt: minds, morals; to destroy utterly, to spoil, corrupt) mind and deprived of the truth, who suppose that godliness (reverence, respect; in the Bible everywhere piety toward God, godliness) is a means of gain (a specific way [route] that brings gain or profit). 6But godliness actually is a means of great gain when accompanied by contentment (a mind contented with its lot, contentment). 7For we have brought nothing into the world, so we cannot take anything out of it either. 8If we have food and covering, with these we shall be content. 9But those who want to get rich fall into temptation (an internal temptation to sin) and a snare (of the allurements and seductions of sin) and many foolish (not understanding, unwise) and harmful desires (desire for what is forbidden, lust) which plunge (so that they began to sink [down]) men into ruin (ruination with its full, destructive results. /ólethros [“ruination”] however does not imply “extinction” [annihilation]. Rather it emphasizes the consequent loss that goes with the complete “undoing”; [a prolonged form] ruin, i.e. death, punishment — destruction) and destruction (ruin or loss [physical, spiritual or eternal] — damnable(-nation), destruction, die, perdition, perish, pernicious ways, waste. BKC: though not an end in itself, greed is actually a root of all kinds of evil). 10For the love of money is a root (cause, origin, source) of all sorts of evil, and some by longing (to stretch oneself out in order to touch or to grasp something, to reach after or desire something, to yearn for; to give oneself up to the love of money) for it have wandered away ([passive] to go astray, stray away from) from the faith (the substance of Christian faith or what is believed by Christians) and pierced (to torture one’s soul with sorrows) themselves with many griefs (pain, sorrow).
11But flee from these things, you man of God, and pursue (to seek after eagerly, earnestly endeavor to acquire) righteousness (righteousness, justice; equity [of character or act]), godliness (reverence, respect; in the Bible everywhere piety toward God), faith (instruction concerning the necessity of faith), love (love, i.e. affection or benevolence; specially [plural] a love-feast – [feast of] charity(-ably)), perseverance (steadfastness, constancy, endurance; in the N. T. the characteristic of a man who is unswerved from his deliberate purpose and his loyalty to faith and piety by even the greatest trials and sufferings; remaining under, endurance; steadfastness, especially as God enables the believer to “remain [endure] under” the challenges He allots in life.) and gentleness (meekness). 12Fight (to contend, struggle, with difficulties and dangers antagonistic to the gospel) the good (praiseworthy, noble) fight of faith (persuasion, i.e. credence; moral conviction; by extension, the system of religious (Gospel) truth itself — assurance, belief, believe, faith, fidelity.); take hold of (to seize upon, lay hold of, i. e. to struggle to obtain eternal life. NASB: Timothy had possessed eternal life since he had first been saved, but Paul urges him to claim its benefits in greater fullness [see vv. 17-19]) the eternal life to which you were called (to invite one, to something i. e. to participate in it, enjoy it; used thus in the Epistles of Paul and Peter of God as inviting men by the preaching of the gospel to the blessings of the heavenly kingdom), and you made the good (praiseworthy, noble) confession (acknowledgment — con-(pro-)fession, professed.) in the presence of many witnesses. 13I charge (to transmit a message, to order) you in the presence of God, who gives life to all things, and of Christ Jesus, who testified the good confession before Pontius Pilate, 14that you keep the commandment (collectively, of the whole body of the moral precepts of Christianity) without stain (free from censure, irreproachable) or reproach (that cannot be reprehended, not open to censure, irreproachable) until the appearing of our Lord Jesus Christ, 15which He will bring about at the proper time—He who is the blessed and only Sovereign (a potentate [someone mighty in power]), the King of kings and Lord of lords, 16who alone possesses (to have, hold) immortality (immortality [literally “without death, deathlessness”], referring to the unique glorification awarded to each believer by the Lord at His return [1 Cor 15:53,54] For this perishable must put on the imperishable, and this mortal must put on immortality. But when this perishable will have put on the imperishable, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then will come about the saying that is written, “DEATH IS SWALLOWED UP in victory.) and dwells (to inhabit) in unapproachable (inaccessible) light, whom no man has seen or can see. To Him be honor and eternal dominion (strength, might)! Amen.
17Instruct those who are rich in this present world not to be conceited or to fix their hope on the uncertainty of riches, but on God, who richly supplies (paréxō [from /pará, “from close-beside” and /éxō, “have”] have close beside, i.e. give [offer] in a “up-close-and-personal” way. Note the force of the prefix [para].) us with all things to enjoy. 18Instruct them to do good, to be rich in good works, to be generous and ready to share, 19storing up for themselves the treasure of a good foundation for the future, so that they may take hold of that which is life (more fully; zōḗ – life [physical and spiritual]. All life [/zōḗ], throughout the universe, is derived – i.e. it always [only] comes from and is sustained by God’s self-existent life [aseity]. The Lord intimately shares His gift of life with people, creating each in His image which gives all the capacity to know His eternal life. [Alice: all men will exist eternally, this was established when YHWH breather into man’s nostrils the breath of life and man became a living soul, but not all men will exist eternally with God, only the believers/saint’s of YHWH will do this.) indeed (truly).
20O Timothy, guard what has been entrusted to you, avoiding worldly and empty chatter and the opposing arguments of what is falsely called “knowledge” (NASB: A reference to an early form of the heresy of Gnosticism, which taught that one may be saved by knowledge. The term “Gnosticism” comes from the Greek word for knowledge) — 21which some have professed and thus gone astray from the faith. Grace be with you.

 
New American Standard Bible
2 Timothy
Timothy Charged to Guard His Trust

2 Tim 1:1Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will (choice)of God, according to the promise (to proclaim life in fellowship with Christ) of life ([life real and genuine], “a life active and vigorous, devoted to God, blessed, the portion even in this world of those who put their trust in Christ, but after the resurrection to be consummated by new accessions (among them a more perfect body), and to last forever” (the writers of the O. T. have anticipated the conception, in their way, by employing חַיִּים [life] to denote a happy life and every kind of blessing: to be obtained in fellowship with Christ.) in Christ Jesus,
2To Timothy, my beloved son: Grace, mercy and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord.
3I thank God, whom I serve with a clear conscience the way my forefathers (in the spirit and after the manner received from [my] forefathers) did, as I constantly remember you in my prayers night and day, 4longing to see you, even as I recall your tears, so that I may be filled with joy. 5For I am mindful of the sincere faith (persuasion, i.e. credence; moral conviction; by extension, the system of religious [Gospel] truth itself — assurance, belief, believe, faith, fidelity) within you, which first dwelt in your grandmother Lois and your mother Eunice, and I am sure that it is in you as well. 6For this reason I remind you to kindle afresh (stir up, to kindle up, inflame, one’s mind, strength, zeal) the gift of God which is in you through the laying on of my hands. 7For God has not given us a spirit of timidity (reticence, fearfullness, cowardice. BKC: Why Timothy need this reminder… is not clear…. But such timidity has no place in God’s service. Instead God gives a spirit of power [cf. Cor 2:4], of love, and of self-discipline. These three virtues, each characterize Timothy), but of power (inhering in godliness and operating upon souls) and love (properly, love which centers in moral preference. Love, i.e. affection or benevolence; specially [plural] a love-feast – [feast of] charity(-ably), dear, love. In the NT, typically refers to divine love [= what God prefers]) and discipline (self-control, moderation; safe-minded, issuing in prudent [“sensible”] behavior that “fits” a situation, i.e. aptly acting out God’s will by doing what He calls sound reasoning (used only in 2 Tim 1:7).
8Therefore do not be ashamed of the testimony of our Lord or of me His prisoner (bound, in bonds, a captive, a prisoner whom Christ, i. e. his truth which I have preached, has put in bonds), but join with me in suffering (/sygkakopathéō [“suffer together”] refers to sharing another’s ill treatment and the pains that go with it. It is only used in 2 Tim 1:8. To suffer hardships together with one: for the benefit of the gospel, to further it) for the gospel according (on account of righteousness proceeding from faith) to the power (is used of the divine power considered as acting upon the minds of men) of God, 9who has saved (to make one a partaker of the salvation by Christ: Since salvation begins in this life [in deliverance from error and corrupt notions, in moral purity, in pardon of sin, and in the blessed peace of a soul reconciled to God], but on the visible return of Christ from heaven will be perfected in the consummate blessings of ὁ αἰών ὁ μέλλων [the age], we can understand why τό σῴζεσθαι is spoken of in some passages as a present possession, in others as a good yet future: — as a blessing beginning (or begun) on earth) us and called (to invite one, εἰς τί, to something i. e. to participate in it, enjoy it; used thus in the Epistles of Paul and Peter of God as inviting men by the preaching of the gospel) us with a holy calling (because it is the invitation of God and claims us as his), not according to our works ( toil [as an effort or occupation]; by implication, an act — deed, doing, labour, work), but according to His own purpose (a setting forth, i.e. proposal [intention]) and grace (the idea of kindness which bestows upon one what he has not deserved: the N. T. writers use χάρις pre-eminently of that kindness by which God bestow: favors even upon the ill-deserving, and grants to sinners the pardon of their offences, and bids them accept of eternal salvation through Christ) which was granted (BKC: God saved us and called us to a holy life. This is an accomplished fact, not something yet to come…. Moreover, this salvation had nothing to do with a believer’s merits but was purely because of His own purpose and grace…. This is the very core of the gospel [cf. Eph 2:8-10]. Before the beginning of time Christians were granted this unmerited favor, but were only made aware of it through the appearing [see 2 Thes 2:8; 1 Tim 6:14; 2 Tim 4:1, 8; Titus 2:13] of our Savior, Chris Jesus…. Christ the Son embodied God the Father’s saving purpose and plan, by which death, the product of sin [cf. Gen 2:17; Rom 5:12; 6:23], would be destroyed [1 Cor 15:26], and life and immortality would be brought into view.) us in Christ Jesus from all eternity (NASBL Salvation is by grace alone and is based not on human effort but on God’s saving plan and the gracious gift of His Son [see Rom 3:28; Eph 2:8-9; Titus 3:5]. God’s plan to save lost sinners was made in eternity past [see Eph 1:4; 1 Pet 1:20; Rev 13:8]) 10but now has been revealed (to make manifest or visible or known what has been hidden or unknown, to manifest, whether by words, or deeds, or in any other way) by the appearing (In the NT, (epipháneia) occurs six times – always used of Christ’s coming [once of His first coming) of our Savior Christ Jesus, who abolished (to render idle, unemployed, inactive, inoperative:; to cause a person or a thing to have no further efficiency; to deprive of force, influence) death and brought life and immortality to light through the gospel, 11for which I was appointed a preacher and an apostle and a teacher. 12For this reason I also suffer these things, but I am not ashamed; for I know whom I have believed and I am convinced (The Lord persuades the yielded believer to be confident in His preferred-will (Gal 5:10; 2 Tim 1:12). (peíthō) involves “obedience, but it is properly the result of [God’s] persuasion”.) that He is able to guard (watch) what I have entrusted (a deposit, a trust or thing consigned to one’s faithful keeping: used of the correct knowledge and pure doctrine of the gospel, to be held firmly and faithfully, and to be conscientiously delivered unto others) to Him until that day (NASB: The day of judgment. BKC: … Yet he [Paul] was able to say, I am not ashamed. He was trusting his own destiny to the same One who had entrusted him with the stewardship of the gospel. Thus, even though he was suffering abuse and humiliation, he was confident of God’s complete vindication in the end [cf. 1:18; 4:8]). 13Retain the standard of sound words which you have heard from me, in the faith and love which are in Christ Jesus (Note where faith and love are.). 14Guard (to keep from being snatched away, preserve safe and unimpaired), through the Holy Spirit who dwells in us (Note how the treasure is guarded.), the treasure which has been entrusted to you.
15You are aware of the fact that all who are in Asia (NASB: All: Probably hyperbole, a deliberate exaggeration to express widespread desertion. Asia: Timothy was in Ephesus, the capital of the province of Asia, which is in the western Turkey today.) turned away from me, among whom are Phygelus and Hermogenes. 16The Lord grant mercy (the mercy of Christ, whereby at his return to judgment he will bless true Christians with eternal life) to the house of Onesiphorus, for he often refreshed me and was not ashamed of my chains; 17but when he was in Rome, he eagerly searched for me and found me— 18the Lord grant to him to find mercy from the Lord on that day (the day of judgement)—and you know very well what services he rendered at Ephesus.

 
New American Standard Bible
Be Strong

2 Tim 2:1You therefore, my son, be strong (passively, to receive strength, be strengthened, increase in strength) in the grace (Note where grace is.) that is in Christ Jesus. 2The things which you have heard from me in the presence of many witnesses, entrust these to faithful (worthy of trust; that can, be relied on) men who will be able to teach others also. 3Suffer hardship with me, as a good soldier (a champion of the cause of Christ) of Christ Jesus. 4No soldier in active service entangles (involve in) himself in the affairs of everyday life (life extensively, i. e. the period or course of life), so that he may please the one who enlisted (he that enrolled [him] as a soldier, of the commander) him as a soldier. 5Also if anyone competes as an athlete, he does not win the prize (to encircle with a crown, to crown: the victor in a contest) unless he competes according to the rules (lawfully, agreeably to the law, properly). 6The hard-working farmer ought to be the first to receive his share of the crops (NASB: The main lesson is that dedicated effort will be rewarded-not necessarily monetarily, but in enjoyment of seeing the gospel produce changed lives.). 7Consider what I say, for the Lord will give you understanding in everything.
8Remember Jesus Christ, risen from the dead, descendant of David, according to my gospel, 9for which I suffer hardship even to imprisonment as a criminal; but the word of God is not imprisoned. 10For this reason I endure all things for the sake of those who are chosen (Typically, /eklektós [“select, chosen”] describes people who choose to follow the Lord, i.e. become God’s choice by freely receiving faith [/pistis] from Him. Accordingly, these two terms are directly connected [see Tit 1:1Paul, a bond-servant of God and an apostle of Jesus Christ, for the faith of those chosen of God and the knowledge of the truth which is according to godliness; Lk 18:7-8 now, will not God bring about justice for His elect who cry to Him day and night, and will He delay long over them? “I tell you that He will bring about justice for them quickly. However, when the Son of Man comes, will He find faith on the earth?”]; Chosen by God, and a. to obtain salvation through Christ (see ἐκλέγω); hence, Christians are called οἱ ἐκλεκτοί τοῦ Θεοῦ, the chosen or elect of God; ἐκλεκτοί, those who have become true partakers of the Christian salvation are contrasted with κλητοί, those who have been invited but who have not shown themselves fitted to obtain it (others regard the ‘called’ and the ‘chosen’ here as alike partakers of salvation, but the latter [‘called’] as the ‘choice ones’), Matthew 20:16 “So the last shall be first, and the first last.”; finally, those are called ἐκλεκτοί who are destined for salvation but have not yet been brought to it, 2 Timothy 2:10), so that they also may obtain (to hit, hit upon, meet, happen) the salvation which is in Christ Jesus and with it eternal glory (Note where salvation and eternal glory are).
11It is a trustworthy statement:
For if we died with Him (to meet death as Christ did for the cause of God), we will also live with Him (to live a blessed life with him after death. BKC: (1) If we died with Him, we will also live with Him expresses the idea so powerfully portrayed in the rite of baptism and explained in Romans 6:2-23. The reference is not to martyrdom for Christ, but rather to a believer’s mystical identification with the death and life of Christ [cf. Col 3:3]. (2) If we endure, we will also reign with Him furthers the believer’s identification with Christ. In the previous couplet the focus is on the contrast between death and life; here the parallel contrast is between suffering and glorification [Rom 8:17]. Christ endured and will one day reign [1 Cor 15:25], and those saints who endure will one day reign with Him [Rev 3:21]);
12If we endure (to persevere: absolutely and emphatically, under misfortunes and trials to hold fast to one’s faith in Christ), we will also reign with Him (to possess supreme honor, liberty, blessedness, with one in the kingdom of God);
If we deny Him (followers of Jesus who, for fear of death or persecution, deny that Jesus is their master, and desert his cause [to disown], and on the other hand, of Jesus, denying that one is his follower), He also will deny us;
13If we are faithless (to betray a trust, be unfaithful), He remains faithful (trusty, faithful, of God, abiding by his promises), for He cannot deny Himself (NASB: The point to which Paul appeals is that suffering for Christ will be followed by glory.).

An Unashamed Workman

14Remind them of these things, and solemnly charge them in the presence of God not to wrangle (to contend about words; contextually, to wrangle about empty and trifling matters) about words, which is useless and leads to the ruin (of the extinction of a spirit of consecration to Christ [subverting] of the hearers. 15Be diligent to present yourself approved (universally, proved, tried: in the N. T. one who is of tried faith and integrity) to God as a workman who does not need to be ashamed, accurately handling (to make straight and smooth; to handle aright: i. e. to teach the truth correctly and directly) the word of truth. 16But avoid worldly (profane) and empty (empty discussion, discussion of vain and useless matters [babbling]) chatter, for it will lead to further ungodliness, 17and their talk will spread like gangrene. Among them are Hymenaeus and Philetus, 18men who have gone astray from the truth saying that the resurrection has already taken place, and they upset (to overthrow, overturn, destroy; ethically, to subvert) the faith of some. 19Nevertheless, the firm foundation of God stands, having this seal (NASB: Firm foundation of God: The church, which upholds the truth (1 Tim 3:15). In spite of the heresy of Hymenaeus and Philetus, Timothy should be heartened to know that the church is God’s solid foundation. There are two seals on it: One stresses the security of the church [“The Lord knows those who are His”; here “know,” as often in the Bible, means to be intimately acquainted with], while the other emphasizes human responsibility [“Everyone who names the name of the Lord is to abstain from wickedness”]. Seal: The church is owned and securely protected by God [see Eph 1:13 (In those days a seal denoted ownership)].), “The Lord knows those who are His,” and, “Everyone who names the name of the Lord is to abstain (to lead away, to depart from) from wickedness.”
20Now in a large house there are not only gold and silver vessels, but also vessels of wood and of earthenware, and some to honor and some to dishonor. 21Therefore, if anyone cleanses (to avoid defilement from one and so keep oneself pure) himself from these things, he will be a vessel for honor (a valuing, a price), sanctified (to make holy, consecrate; to separate from things profane and dedicate to God, to consecrate and so render inviolable), useful to the Master, prepared (prepared i. e. fit for accomplishing anything) for every good work. 22Now flee (to flee [to shun or avoid by flight] something abhorrent, especially vices) from youthful lusts (desire for what is forbidden) and pursue righteousness, faith, love and peace, with those who call on the Lord from a pure (free from every admixture of what is false, sincere) heart. 23But refuse foolish (dull, stupid) and ignorant (uninstructed) speculations (a search, questioning), knowing that they produce quarrels. 24The Lord’s bond-servant must not be quarrelsome, but be kind to all, able to teach, patient when wronged, 25with gentleness correcting those who are in opposition (to place oneself in opposition, to oppose: of heretics), if perhaps God may grant (to give) them repentance (a change of mind: to give one the ability to repent, or to cause him to repent, Acts 5:31 “He is the one whom God exalted to His right hand as a Prince and a Savior, to grant repentance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins. Acts 11:18 When they heard this, they quieted down and glorified God, saying, “Well then, God has granted to the Gentiles also the repentance that leads to life.” [Note who is the source of repentance; from whom does it come? How does one obtained or acquired?]) leading (εἰς , to or into [indicating the point reached or entered, of place, time]; εἰς ζωήν, to procure eternal life [namely, for those mentioned]) to the knowledge (recognition. BKC: epignōsin, “full knowledge”; cf. Col 1:9; 2 Tim 3:7 of the truth. The goal is always remedial, never punitive, when dealing with brethren [cf. 2 Thes 3:6, 15]. The purpose must always be to edify Christ’s body, not tear it down [cf. 1 Cor 14:26]. Thus when brethren fall into false teaching they must be treated with gentleness and Christian love in the hope that they will come to their senses and escape from the trap of the devil [cf. Gal 5:1; 1 Tim 3:7; 6:9] who had taken them captive to do his will. False teaching and all its negative consequences in the church are always the handiwork of Satan, but God in His grace often salvages the situation through the Christlike ministry of His servants.) of the truth (“the truth, as taught in the Christian religion, respecting God and the execution of his purposes through Christ, and respecting the duties of man,” opposed alike to the superstitions of the Gentiles and the inventions of the Jews, and to the corrupt opinions and precepts of false teachers even among Christians: εὐαγγελίου the truth which is the gospel or which the gospel presents), 26and they may come to their senses (to be set free from the snare of the devil and to return to a sound mind) and escape (tropically, a snare, i. e. whatever brings peril, loss, destruction: of a sudden and unexpected deadly peril: the allurements to sin by which the devil holds one bound) from the snare of the devil, having been held captive by him to do his will.

 
New American Standard Bible
“Difficult Times Will Come”

2 Tim 3:1But realize this, that in the last days (the last day [of all days], denotes that with which the present age which precedes the times of the Messiah or the glorious return of Christ from heaven will be closed; of the time nearest the return of Christ from heaven and the consummation of the divine kingdom) difficult (hard to bear, troublesome, dangerous [grievous]. NASB: The Messianic era, the time beginning with Christ’s first coming. That “the last days” in this passage does not refer only to the time just prior to Christ’s return is apparent from Paul’s command to Timothy to have nothing to do with the unbelieving and unfaithful people who characterize this time [v. 5] ) times will come. 2For men will be lovers of self (too intent on one’s own interests, selfish; describing someone preoccupied with their own selfish desires [self-interests]), lovers of money, boastful (vagabond, hence an impostor, an empty pretender), arrogant (showing oneself above others), revilers (slanderous, evil-speaking), disobedient to parents, ungrateful (unthankful), unholy (impious, wicked), 3unloving (without natural affection), irreconcilable (without libation, i.e. without truce, hence admitting of no truce), malicious gossips (slanderous, accusing falsely), without self-control (intemperate, powerless, impotent; in continent, i.e. lacking self-discipline, self-restraint), brutal (not tame, savage, fierce), haters of good (opposed to goodness and good men [no lover of good]), 4treacherous (a betrayer, traitor), reckless (falling forward, headlong; precipitate, rash), conceited (foolish, to blind with pride or conceit, to render foolish or stupid) lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God, 5holding to a form (the mere form, semblance) of godliness (reverence, respect; in the Bible everywhere piety toward God, godliness), although they have denied (by act to show estrangement from a thing) its [godliness] power ([miraculous] power, might, strength [cf. Titus 1:16 They profess to know God, but by their deeds they deny Him, being detestable and disobedient and worthless for any good deed.); Avoid (to turn away from, shun, avoid) such men as these. 6For among them are those who enter into households and captivate (to subjugate, bring under control, to take captive one’s mind) weak (a little woman; used contemptuously in 2 Timothy 3:6 [silly women]. NASB: Unstable women who are guilt-ridden because of their sins, torn by lust, and victims of various false teachers [“always learning,” v. 7, but never coming to a saving knowledge of Christ]) women weighed down (passive, to load one with the consciousness of many sins, burdened) with sins, led on by various (of divers sorts) impulses (desire for what is forbidden, lust), 7always learning and never able to come to the knowledge of the truth (BKC: They [false teachers] would worm their way into homes and gain control over those they knew were vulnerable and gullible. In the case of Ephesus the false teachers had crept in via a group of weak-willed women who were, literally, “heaped with sin and fed by various lusts.” Once more Paul connects false teaching with moral deficiency. Their carnality and immaturity rendered them easy targets for the false teachers [cf. Eph 4:14]. Out of a so-called “openness to learn” they evidently embraced as a fad whatever new heresy came along. Their problem was that they could not recognize the truth when they saw it. [To acknowledge the truth is, lit, “to come to a full knowledge of the truth”; cf. 2 Tim 2:25 with gentleness correcting those who are in opposition, if perhaps God may grant them repentance leading to the knowledge of the truth]. 8Just as Jannes and Jambres opposed (to set against, i.e. withstand, resist) Moses, so these men also oppose the truth, men of depraved (corrupted all the way down [thoroughly degenerated]; utterly corrupted; to despoil, bringing down to a lower [inferior] form) mind, rejected (not standing the test) in regard to the faith (they were outside the fold of the faithful [they would proceed only so far, as their Egyptian predecessors did]. BKC: … they opposed the truth and were therefore rejected [disapproved] by God in regard to any claim to be teaching the faith [biblical Christian doctrine, what believers believe] [cf. 1 Tim 3:9]. NASB: Jannes and Jambres: Neither of these men is mentioned in the OT, but according to Jewish tradition they were the Egyptian court magicians who opposed Moses [Ex 7:11]). 9But they will not make further progress; for their folly will be obvious (evident, clear, conspicuous [when their power will prove to be inadequate]) to all, just as Jannes’s and Jambres’s folly was also. 10Now you followed my teaching (instruction [the function or the information]), conduct (a carrying away, leading, guiding; the life led, way or course of life), purpose, faith, patience (long-suffering), love, perseverance (in the N. T. the characteristic of a man who is unswerved from his deliberate purpose and his loyalty to faith and piety by even the greatest trials and sufferings), 11persecutions, and sufferings, such as happened to me at Antioch, at Iconium and at Lystra; what persecutions I endured, and out of them all the Lord rescued me! 12Indeed, all who desire to live godly in Christ Jesus (NASB: Faith and love through union with Christ) will be persecuted (to harass, trouble, molest). 13But evil men and impostors will proceed from bad to worse, deceiving (to lead away from the truth, to lead into error) and being deceived. 14You, however, continue in the things you have learned and become convinced (to be firmly persuaded of; to be assured of) of, knowing from whom you have learned them, 15and that from childhood you have known the sacred (sacred Scriptures, because inspired by God, treating of divine things and therefore to be devoutly revered) writings which are able (to be able, to have power) to give you the wisdom that leads (the end which a thing is adapted to attain) to salvation (in the technical biblical sense, the Messianic salvation) through faith (Note how one is saved) which is in Christ Jesus (Note where faith is. If one is to be saved, Christ must impart to one His resurrection faith. Everything pertaining to salvation is “in Christ.”). 16All Scripture is inspired (God-breathed, referring to the divine inspiration (inbreathing) of Scripture. /theópneustos [“God-breathed”], likely a term coined by Paul, “expresses the sacred nature of the Scriptures [their divine origin] and their power to sanctify believers.”[Inbreathing /theópneustos) relates directly to God’s Spirit [Gk pneuma] which can also be translated “breath.”] 2 Tim 3:16: “Each-and-every [/pás, singular] Scripture [Gk, singular] is God-breathed [ /theópneustos] and profitable for teaching, for convincing, for correction, for training in righteousness.” The singular [anarthrous] use of /pás [“all”] underlines that each part of speech [every inflected word-form, “reflex”] used in the Bible is God-breathed, i.e. inscripturated [written] under divine inspiration. [G. Archer, ” (theópneustos) is better rendered ‘breathed out by God’ as the emphasis is upon the divine origin of the inscripturated revelation itself”) by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness; 17so that the man of God may be adequate, equipped for every good work. (See pic in comment.)

 
New American Standard Bible
“Preach the Word”

2 Tim 4:1I solemnly charge you in the presence of God and of Christ Jesus, who is to judge (by implication, to try, condemn, punish) the living and the dead, and by His appearing and His kingdom (kingdom, sovereignty, royal power): 2preach the word; be ready in season (opportunely — conveniently) and out of season ( inopportunely); reprove (by word; to reprehend severely, chide, admonish), rebuke (to tax with fault, rate, chide, rebuke, reprove, censure severely), exhort (to admonish), with great patience (patience, long-suffering) and instruction (doctrine, teaching). 3For the time will come when they will not endure (to listen) sound doctrine (true and incorrupt doctrine. NASB: Ears that want to be “satisfied” by words in keeping with one’s evil desires); but wanting to have their ears tickled (desirous of hearing something pleasant), they will accumulate (to heap together) for themselves teachers in accordance to their own desires (desire, passionate longing; a longing [especially for what is forbidden] — concupiscence, desire, lust [after]), 4and will turn away their ears from the truth and will turn aside to myths (a fiction, a fable; an invention, falsehood). 5But you, be sober (in the N. T. everywhere tropically, to be calm and collected in spirit; to be temperate, dispassionate, circumspect) in all things, endure hardship, do the work of an evangelist (a Biblical and ecclesiastical word, a bringer of good tidings, an evangelist. This name is given in the N. T. to those heralds of salvation through Christ who are not apostles), fulfill (to cause a thing to be shown to the full: i. e. to fulfil the ministry in every respect) your ministry (of the ministration or service of all who, endowed by God with powers of mind and heart peculiarly adapted to this end, endeavor zealously and laboriously to promote the cause of Christ among men, as apostles, prophets, evangelists, elders, etc.).
6For I am already being poured out as a drink offering (to pour out as a drink-offering, make a libation; in the N. T. σπένδεσθαι, to be offered as a libation, is figuratively used of one whose blood is poured out in a violent death for the cause of God. NASB: Paul views his approaching death as the pouring out of his life as an offering to Christ [see Phil 2:17 But even if I am being poured out as a drink offering upon the sacrifice and service of your faith, I rejoice and share my joy with you all.]), and the time of my departure (departure from life) has come (to set upon, set up, to stand upon, be present). 7I have fought (to contend, struggle, with difficulties and dangers antagonistic to the gospel) the good (good, excellent in its nature and characteristics, and therefore well adapted to its ends) fight (in the phrase (any struggle with dangers, annoyances, obstacles, standing in the way of faith, holiness, and a desire to spread the gospel), I have finished (to bring to an end, complete, fulfill) the course (the course of life or of office), I have kept (to hold firmly: anything as a mental deposit) the faith (in reference to Christ, it denotes “a strong and welcome conviction or belief that Jesus is the Messiah, through whom we obtain eternal salvation in the kingdom of God”) (NASB: In this verse Paul looks back over 30 years of labor as an apostle [C. A.D. 36-66]. Like an athlete who had engaged successfully in a contest [“fought the good fight”], he had “finished the course” and had “kept the faith”, i.e., had carefully observed the rules [the teachings] of the Christian faith [see 2:5]. Or, in view of the Pastoral’s emphasis on sound doctrines, perhaps “the faith” refers to the deposit of Christian truth. Paul has kept [guarded] it.); 8in the future (the rest, the remaining) there is laid up (reserved for one, awaiting him: hoped-for blessedness) for me the crown (the eternal blessedness which will be given as a prize to the genuine servants of God and Christ: the crown [wreath] which is the reward of righteousness) of righteousness (In a narrower sense, rendering to each his due; and that in a judicial sense, passing just judgment on others, whether expressed in words or shown by the manner of dealing with them: of Christ), which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will award (to requite, recompense) to me on that day (of the last day of the present age, the day in which Christ will return from heaven, raise the dead, hold the final judgment, and perfect his kingdom, the following expressions are used, as ἡ ἡμέρα ἐκείνῃ and ἐκείνῃ ἡ ἡμέρα even in the prophecies of the O. T. the day of Jehovah is spoken of, in which Jehovah will execute terrible judgment upon his adversaries); and not only to me, but also to all who have loved His appearing.
Personal Concerns

9Make every effort to come to me soon; 10for Demas, having loved this present world, has deserted me and gone to Thessalonica; Crescens has gone to Galatia, Titus to Dalmatia. 11Only Luke is with me. Pick up Mark and bring him with you, for he is useful to me for service. 12But Tychicus I have sent to Ephesus. 13When you come bring the cloak which I left at Troas with Carpus, and the books (a small book, a scroll), especially the parchments (i. e. parchment, first made of dressed skins at Pergamum, whence its name). 14Alexander the coppersmith did me much harm; the Lord will repay him according to his deeds. 15Be on guard (preserve by “having an eye on” (J. Thayer), referring to the uninterrupted vigilance shepherds show in keeping their flocks (/phylássō [“keep watch over, keep secure”] emphasizes the needed vigilance to keep what is entrusted. Thus [phylássō] is often used in the NT in the Greek middle voice meaning, “Personally be on guard against,” stressing the constant, personal interest involved with the guarding. [Examples: Lk 12:15, “Beware of,” (RV, “Keep yourselves from,” cf. Ac 21:25); 2 Tim 4:15, “Be thou aware”) against him yourself, for he vigorously opposed our teaching.
16At my first defense (verbal defense, speech in defense. NASB: The first court hearing of Paul’s present case, not his defense on the occasion of his first imprisonment [Acts 28].) no one supported (to be present with help [“to take one’s part]”) me, but all deserted (forsake) me; may it not be counted against them. 17But the Lord stood (to place beside, to present, stand by, appear) with me and strengthened (to make strong, endue with strength, to empower) me, so that through me the proclamation (message) might be fully accomplished, and that all the Gentiles might hear; and I was rescued out of the lion’s mouth (I was rescued out of the most imminent peril of death. NASB: Even in these dire circumstances Paul used the occasion to testify about Jesus Christ in the imperial court. Since, as a Roman citizen, Paul could not be thrown to the lions in the amphitheater, this must be a figurative way of saying that his first hearing did not result in an immediate guilty verdict.). 18The Lord will rescue me from every evil deed (Since Paul fully expected to die soon [v. 6], the rescue he speaks of here is spiritual, not physical.), and will bring me safely to His heavenly kingdom (heaven itself); to Him be the glory forever and ever. Amen.
19Greet Prisca and Aquila, and the household of Onesiphorus. 20Erastus remained at Corinth, but Trophimus I left sick at Miletus. 21Make every effort to come before winter. Eubulus greets you, also Pudens and Linus and Claudia and all the brethren.
22The Lord be with your spirit (according to which τό πνεῦμα is the rational part of man, the power of perceiving and grasping divine and eternal things, and upon which the Spirit of God exerts its influence; [πνεῦμα, says Luther, “is the highest and noblest part of man, which qualifies him to lay hold of incomprehensible, invisible, eternal things]; in short, it is the house where Faith and God’s word are at home”). Grace be with you.

(Note: The Logos (The Second Person of the Trinity) was “both the directive, intelligent principle in Yehoshua (Human name) Christos, and also the vivifying principle of His flesh” He was the second Adam.
Gen 2:7 Then the LORD God formed man of dust from the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living being.
Heb 10:5 Therefore, when He comes into the world, He says,
“SACRIFICE AND OFFERING YOU HAVE NOT DESIRED,
BUT A BODY YOU HAVE PREPARED FOR ME)

 
New American Standard Bible
Titus
Salutation

Titus 1:1Paul, a bond-servant (are those whose service is used by Christ in extending and advancing his cause among men: used of apostles) of God and an apostle of Jesus Christ, for the faith (in reference to Christ, it denotes “a strong and welcome conviction or belief that Jesus is the Messiah, through whom we obtain eternal salvation in the kingdom of God”) of those chosen (chosen by God, and a. to obtain salvation through Christ (see ἐκλέγω: a choosing out, selecting, choice [by God] ); hence, Christians are called οἱ ἐκλεκτοί τοῦ Θεοῦ, the chosen or elect of God) of God and the knowledge (precise and correct knowledge; used in the N. T. of the knowledge of things ethical and divine) of the truth (“the truth, as taught in the Christian religion, respecting God and the execution of his purposes through Christ, and respecting the duties of man,” opposed alike to the superstitions of the Gentiles and the inventions of the Jews, and to the corrupt opinions and precepts of false teachers even among Christians) which is according to godliness (the truth that leads to godliness), 2in the hope (always in the N. T., in a good sense: expectation of good, hope; and in the Christian sense, joyful and confident expectation of eternal salvation: relying on hope, having hope, in hope) of eternal life, which God, who cannot lie, promised long ages ago, 3but at the proper (at a time suitable to the matter in hand [in due season]) time manifested (to make known by teaching: of God giving instruction through the preachers of the gospel), even His word, in the proclamation with which I was entrusted according to the commandment of God our Savior,
4To Titus, my true child in a common faith (in reference to Christ, it denotes “a strong and welcome conviction or belief that Jesus is the Messiah, through whom we obtain eternal salvation in the kingdom of God”): Grace and peace from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Savior. (Note God the Father and Yehoshua the Son are both the believer’s Savior in vv. 3, 4)

Qualifications of Elders

5For this reason I left you in Crete, that you would set in order what remains and appoint elders in every city as I directed you, 6namely, if any man is above reproach (that cannot be called to account, unreprovable, unaccused, blameless), the husband of one wife NASB: Since elders, by definition, were chosen from among the older men of the congregation, Paul assumed they already would be married and have children. A qualified unmarried man was not necessarily barred. It is also improbable that the standard forbids an elder to remarry if his wife dies (cf. Rom 7:2-3; 1 Cor 7:39; 1 Tim 5:14). The most likely meaning is simply that a faithful monogamous married life must be maintained.), having children who believe, not accused of dissipation (ἀσωτίας, ἡ (incorrigibleness, an abandoned, dissolute, life; profligacy, prodigality [riot]) or rebellion () that cannot be subjected to control, disobedient, unruly, refractory). 7For the overseer (the superintendent, head or overseer of any Christian church) must be above reproach as God’s steward, not self-willed (self-pleasing, arrogant:), not quick-tempered (prone to anger and harbor resentment, nurturing long-standing anger [prejudice, bitterness]), not addicted to wine (given to wine, drunken), not pugnacious (bruiser, ready with a blow; a pugnacious, contentious, quarrelsome person), not fond of sordid gain (eager for base gain [greedy of filthy lucre]), 8but hospitable (generous to guests [given to hospitality]), loving what is good, sensible (curbing one’s desires and impulses, self-controlled, temperate [soberminded]), just (n a narrower sense, rendering to each his due; and that in a judicial sense, passing just judgment on others, whether expressed in words or shown by the manner of dealing with them), devout (righteous, pious, holy), self-controlled (literally, “mastered from within” (used only in Tit 1:8); “originally, ‘having power over; possessed of’; hence, ‘controlling, keeping in hand,’ . . . ‘temperance’ “; mastering, controlling, curbing, restraining: controlling oneself, temperate, continent), 9holding fast the faithful word which is in accordance with the teaching, so that he will be able both to exhort (to call to or for, to exhort, to encourage) in sound doctrine and to refute (to expose, convict, reprove) those who contradict.
10For there are many rebellious men, empty talkers (idle talkers)and deceivers ( deceivers, leading others into their delusions – especially exploiting those with a narrow mind [used only in Tit 1:10].), especially those of the circumcision (the circumcised, they of the circumcision, used of Jews: of Christians gathered from among the Jews), 11who must be silenced (to stop the mouth) because they are upsetting whole families, teaching things they should not teach for the sake of sordid gain. 12One of themselves, a prophet of their own (opposed to God’s requirements), said, “Cretans (an inhabitant of the island of Crete) are always liars, evil beasts, lazy gluttons.” 13This testimony is true. For this reason reprove them severely so that they may be sound in the faith, 14not paying attention to Jewish myths and commandments of men who turn away from the truth. 15To the pure (clean, pure, unstained, either literally or ceremonially or spiritually; guiltless, innocent, upright), all things are pure; but to those who are defiled (to defile, pollute, sully, contaminate, soil: in a moral sense, passive Titus 1:15) and unbelieving, nothing is pure, but both their mind and their conscience are defiled. 16They profess to know God, but by their deeds they deny Him, being detestable (abominable) and disobedient and worthless (not standing the test, rejected) for any good deed.
FOR AN EXCELLENT RESOURCE PLEASE LOOKUP Dr. Constable’s Expository (Bible Study) Notes: https://search.yahoo.com/yhs/search?p=Dr.+Constable%E2%80%99s+Expository+%28Bible+Study%29+Notes.%29&ei=UTF-8&hspart=mozilla&hsimp=yhs-004

 

 

New American Standard Bible
Duties of the Older and Younger

Titus 2:1But as for you, speak the things which are fitting for sound doctrine. 2Older men are to be temperate (NASB: Instead of being “lazy gluttons,” as were Cretans in general [1:12], these older believers were to be responsible and sensible.), dignified (to be venerated for character, honorable [grave]), sensible, sound in faith (in reference to Christ, it denotes “a strong and welcome conviction or belief that Jesus is the Messiah, through whom we obtain eternal salvation in the kingdom of God”. NASB: vv. 2-10 Sound doctrine demands right conduct of all believers, regardless of age, sex, or position. Older men, as leaders, were to be moral and spiritual examples.), in love, in perseverance (steadfastness, constancy, endurance; in the N. T. the characteristic of a man who is unswerved from his deliberate purpose and his loyalty to faith and piety by even the greatest trials and sufferings).
3Older women likewise (NASB: The same moral standards applied to women as to men. ) are to be reverent (befitting men [general use], places, actions or things sacred to God; reverent) in their behavior, not malicious gossips (slanderous, accusing falsely) nor enslaved (to enslave, bring under subjection) to much wine, teaching what is good, 4so that they may encourage (to recall one to his senses, admonish) the young women to love their husbands (NASB: Just as husbands are exhorted [Eph 5:25 love, to have a preference for, wish well to, regard the welfare of] to love their wives [though different Greek words for “love” are used in the two passages [love, special affection of a woman for her life-time mate [husband], embracing him as her “calling” [stewardship] from God [used only in Tit 2:4).]), to love their children, 5to be sensible (of sound mind, self-controlled), pure (free from ceremonial defilement, holy, sacred), workers at home, kind, being subject (to place or rank under, to subject, [middle] to obey) to their own husbands, so that the word of God will not be dishonored (to slander, hence to speak lightly or profanely of sacred things. NASB: Indicating Paul’s deep spiritual concern behind these ethical instructions. See also vv. 8, 10 dealing with his concern that Christian living should help rather than hinder the spread of the gospel.). (Note: One of the reasons Israel, as a nation, was rejected by God is because it projected an inaccurate image of Him to the nations around it; the people said YHWH was their God but their behavior was worse than the heathen nations around them.
6Likewise urge the young men to be sensible; 7in all things show yourself to be an example of good deeds (noble actions), with purity in doctrine, dignified, 8sound (teaching which does not deviate from the truth) in speech which is beyond reproach, so that the opponent will be put to shame, having nothing bad to say about us.
9Urge bondslaves (slave) to be subject to their own masters in everything, to be well-pleasing (acceptable in anything), not argumentative, 10not pilfering (to set apart, separate, divide; middle to set apart or separate for oneself, i. e. to purloin, embezzle, withdraw covertly and appropriate to one’s own use. Note Alice: In all situations YHWH takes care of His children, slave or free, and he is not a respecter of person; believers are to trust, obey, and persevere because God preserves them. Every believer, slave or free, has a spiritual gift and the indwelling power of God inside him by baptism of the Holy Spirit. Everyone must go through “that door,” [cf. John 10:7, 9] salve or free, to be in Christ. Yehoshua saves, and salvation is God’s business.), but showing all good faith (fidelity, faithfulness, i. e. the character of one who can be relied on) so that they will adorn (to embellish with honor, gain honor, in all things) the doctrine of God our Savior (the originator of the plan of salvation) in every respect. (NASB: Master: The Greek for this word, from which our English term “despot” is derived, indicated the owner’s absolute authority over his slave. Roman slaves had no legal rights, their fates being entirely in their master’s hands. Adorn the doctrine: Christian slaves could give a unique and powerful testimony to the gospel by their willing faithfulness and obedience to their masters.)
11For the grace of God has appeared (contains the idea of kindness which bestows upon one what he has not deserved, but the N. T. writers use χάρις pre-eminently of that kindness by which God bestow: favors even upon the ill-deserving, and grants to sinners the pardon of their offences, and bids them accept of eternal salvation through Chris), bringing salvation (saving, bringing salvation) to all men (this is not teaching universal salvation.), 12instructing us (NASB: The word translated “instructing” refers to more than instruction; it includes the whole process of training a child-instruction, encouragement, correction and discipline.) to deny ungodliness and worldly (having the character of this [present] corrupt age) desires and to live sensibly, righteously and godly in the present age, 13looking for the blessed (happy) hope and the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus (teaching the deity of Yehoshua), 14who gave Himself for us to redeem (to release by paying a ransom, to redeem) us from every lawless deed (contempt and violation of law, iniquity, wickedness), and to purify (to clean, to free from the guilt of sin) for Himself a people for His own possession (Note: Yehoshua did this for Himself. The Father and the Son are One in essence [cf. John 10:30; John 17:11].), zealous (most eagerly desirous of) for good deeds. (NASB vv. 2:11-14: Briefly describes the effect grace should have on believers. It encourages rejection of ungodliness and leads holier living-in keeping with Paul’s repeated insistence that profession of Christ be accompanied by godly living [vv. 1-2, 4-5, 10; 3:8].)
15These things (NASB: The content of the whole chapter) speak and exhort and reprove with all authority (an injunction, mandate, command: with every possible form of authority). Let no one disregard (think all-around by considering from all sides which results however in “over-thinking” [injecting personal bias, used only in Tit 2:15]; to set oneself in thought beyond [exalt oneself in thought above] a person or thing; to contemn, despise) you.

 
New American Standard Bible
Godly Living (There are lots of notes in this one)

Titus 3:1Remind them to be subject to rulers (the first place, principality, rule, magistracy; i.e. “the initial (starting) point”; (figuratively) what comes first and therefore is chief [foremost], i.e. has the priority because ahead of the rest [“preeminent”]), to authorities (one who possesses authority; [a ruler, human magistrate], to be obedient, to obey [a ruler or a superior]: magistrates [others take it here absolutely, to be obedient]; NASB: all forms and levels of human government.), to be ready for every good deed (NASB: NT teaching is not confined to the area of personal salvation but includes much instruction about practical living. Although believers are citizens of heaven [Phil 3:20], they must also submit themselves to earthly government [see Rom 13:1-7; 1 Pet 2:13-17]) and promote well-being of the community.), 2to malign (to speak reproachfully, rail at, revile, calumniate) no one, to be peaceable (in the N. T. twice, not contentious), gentle, showing every consideration (mildness, gentleness) for all men. 3For we also once were foolish (not understanding, unwise) ourselves, disobedient, deceived (especially through ignorance to be led aside from the path of virtue, to go astray, sin), enslaved (in a bad sense, of those who become slaves to some base power, to yield to, give oneself up to) to various lusts and pleasures, spending our life in malice (malignity, malice, ill-will, desire to injure) and envy (strong feeling [desire] that sours, due to the influence of sin; [figuratively] the miserable trait of being glad when someone experiences misfortune or pain. /phthónos [“the feeling of ill-will”] refers to the jealous envy that negatively “energizes” someone with an embittered mind. /phthónos [“ill-will”] conveys “displeasure at another’s good;. . . without longing to raise oneself to the level of him whom he envies, but only to depress the envied to his own level”), hateful (abominable, detestable), hating one another. 4But when the kindness (benignity, goodness, excellence, uprightness) of God our Savior and His love for mankind appeared, 5He saved us, not on the basis of deeds which we have done in righteousness, but according to His mercy (that of God toward sinners: especially the mercy and clemency of God in providing and offering to men salvation by Christ), by the washing (in the N. T. and in ecclesiastical writings of baptism of regeneration (/paliggenesía [“renewal, rebirth”] is used twice in the NT referring to: a) the re-birth of physical creation at Christ’s return [Advent], which inaugurates His millennial kingdom [Mt 19:28; cf. Ro 8:18-25]; and b) the re-birth all believers experience at conversion [Tit 3:5]; new birth, reproduction, renewal, recreation [hence, “moral renovation, regeneration, the production of a new life consecrated to God, a radical change of mind for the better” (effected in baptism): Commonly, however, the word denotes the restoration of a thing to its pristine state, its renovation, as the renewal or restoration of life after death (Christ will make all thing new, Rev 21:5 And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold, I make all things new. And he said unto me, Write: for these words are true and faithful.)]; NASB: Save us… according to His mercy: Salvation is not achieved by human effort or merit but comes through God’s mercy alone. Washing of regeneration: A reference to new birth, of which baptism [among other things] is a sign. It cannot mean that baptism is necessary for regeneration, since the NT plainly teaches that the new birth is an act of God’s Spirit [see, e.g., John 3:5] and renewing (a renewal, renovation, complete change for the effected by the Holy Spirit) by the Holy Spirit (Note: This is the New Covenant: Ex 36:25-27 “Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols. “Moreover, I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; and I will remove the heart of stone from your flesh and give you a heart of flesh. “I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will be careful to observe My ordinances. Jer 31:31-34 “Behold, days are coming,” declares the LORD, “when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah, not like the covenant which I made with their fathers in the day I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, although I was a husband to them,” declares the LORD. “But this is the covenant which I will make with the house of Israel after those days,” declares the LORD, “I will put My law within them and on their heart I will write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. “They will not teach again, each man his neighbor and each man his brother, saying, ‘Know the LORD,’ for they will all know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them,” declares the LORD, “for I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more.” Cf. John 3:3Jesus answered and said to him, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again he cannot see the kingdom of God.” John 3:5-8 Jesus answered, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. “That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. “Do not be amazed that I said to you, ‘You must be born again.’ “The wind blows where it wishes and you hear the sound of it, but do not know where it comes from and where it is going; so is everyone who is born of the Spirit.”) and is not effected or achieved by ceremony. Renewing of the Holy Spirit: Also a reference to new birth.) (Note Paul tells how the new birth comes about: according to His [God the Father’s] mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewing by the Holy Spirit, whom He poured out upon us richly through Jesus Christ our Savior.), 6whom He poured (to pour out, fig. to bestow; He did this first at Pentecost [Acts 2: 1-4; 17-18], but He has continued to do it, since then, whenever individuals experience conversion [cf. Rom. 5:5 and hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out within our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us.].) out upon us richly (abundantly) through Jesus Christ our Savior, 7so that being justified (with the positive idea predominant, to judge, declare, pronounce, righteous and therefore acceptable: Especially is it so used, in the technical phraseology of Paul, respecting God who judges and declares such men as put faith in Christ to be righteous and acceptable to him, and accordingly fit to receive the pardon of their sins and eternal life.) by His grace (it is styled ‘the grace of Christ,’ in that through pity for sinful men Christ left his state of blessedness with God in heaven, and voluntarily underwent the hardships and miseries of human life, and by his sufferings and death procured salvation for mankind) we would be made heirs (a sharer by lot, i.e. inheritor; by implication, a possessor – heir; in Messianic usage, one who receives his allotted possession by right of sonship: of Christians, as exalted by faith to the dignity of sons of Abraham and so of sons of God, and hence, to receive the blessings of God’s kingdom promised to Abraham) according to the hope of eternal life. 8This is a trustworthy statement; and concerning these things I want you to speak confidently (to affirm strongly), so that those who have believed God will be careful to engage in good deeds. These things are good and profitable for men. 9But avoid foolish controversies and genealogies (a genealogy, a record of descent or lineage; in plural of the orders of aeons, according to the doctrine of the Gnostics: 1 Tim 1:4; Titus 3:9) and strife and disputes about the Law, for they are unprofitable (useless) and worthless (to no purpose). 10Reject a factious (schismatic, a factious person, specializing in half-truths and misimpressions “to win others over” to their personal opinion [misguided zeal] – while creating harmful divisions [used only in Tit 3:10]) man after a first and second warning, 11knowing that such a man is perverted (to turn completely out of place, i.e. “turn inside out” [used only in Tit 3:11]; to turn inside out, invert; tropically, to change for the worse, pervert, corrupt) and is sinning, being self-condemned.

Personal Concerns

12When I send Artemas or Tychicus to you, make every effort to come to me at Nicopolis, for I have decided to spend the winter there. 13Diligently help Zenas the lawyer and Apollos on their way so that nothing is lacking for them. 14Our people must also learn to engage in good deeds to meet pressing needs, so that they will not be unfruitful.
15All who are with me greet you. Greet those who love us in the faith.
Grace be with you all.

 

 

New American Standard Bible
Philemon
Salutation

Phil 1:1Paul, a prisoner of Christ Jesus, and Timothy our brother,
To Philemon (“kindly”) our beloved brother and fellow worker, 2and to Apphia our sister, and to Archippus our fellow soldier (tropically, an associate in labors and conflicts for the cause of Christ), and to the church in your house: 3Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Philemon’s Love and Faith

4I thank my God always, making mention of you in my prayers, 5because I hear of your love and of the faith (“the faith” means the following, truth as opposed to error: in reference to Christ, it denotes “a strong and welcome conviction or belief that Jesus is the Messiah, through whom we obtain eternal salvation in the kingdom of God”) which you have toward the Lord Jesus and toward all the saints; 6and I pray that the fellowship (used of the intimate bond of fellowship which unites Christians) of your faith may become effective (at work, active) through the knowledge (recognition) of every good thing which is in you for Christ’s sake. 7For I have come to have much joy and comfort (solace or cheer which comes from a happy lot or a prosperous state of things) in your love, because the hearts of the saints have been refreshed (to give rest, give intermission from labor) through you, brother.
8Therefore, though I have enough confidence (of the confidence impelling one to do something) in Christ to order (to enjoin upon, command, charge) you to do what is proper, 9yet for love’s sake I rather appeal (to beg, entreat, beseech others) to you—since I am such a person as Paul, the aged (an old man), and now also a prisoner of Christ Jesus—

Plea for Onesimus, a Free Man

10I appeal to you for my child Onesimus, whom I have begotten in my imprisonment, 11who formerly was useless (unprofitable) to you, but now is useful both to you and to me. 12I have sent him back to you in person, that is, sending my very heart (my very heart, i. e. whom I dearly love), 13whom I wished to keep with me, so that on your behalf (in the place of, instead of) he might minister to me in my imprisonment for the gospel; 14but without your consent I did not want to do anything, so that your goodness would not be, in effect, by compulsion but of your own free will (voluntary). 15For perhaps he was for this reason separated from you for a while, that you would have him back forever, 16no longer as a slave, but more than a slave, a beloved brother, especially to me, but how much more to you, both in the flesh and in the Lord.
17If then you regard me a partner (a partner, associate, comrade, companion), accept him as you would me. 18But if he has wronged you in any way or owes you anything, charge that to my account; 19I, Paul, am writing this with my own hand, I will repay it (not to mention to you that you owe to me even your own self [i. e. besides what I have just asked of thee thou owest to me even thine own self, since it was by my agency that thou wast brought to faith in Christ] as well). 20Yes, brother, let me benefit from you in the Lord; refresh (to refresh, the soul) my heart in Christ.
21Having confidence in your obedience, I write to you, since I know that you will do even more than what I say.
22At the same time also prepare me a lodging, for I hope that through your prayers I will be given to you.
23Epaphras, my fellow prisoner in Christ Jesus, greets you, 24as do Mark, Aristarchus, Demas, Luke, my fellow workers.
25The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ be with your spirit.

(Philemon honored Paul’s request and freed Onesimus. He later became the Bishop (Pastor) of the church at Ephesus. Read a letter from Ignatius, amazing! http://www.ccel.org/ccel/richardson/fathers.vi.ii.iii.i.html
Dr. Essex’s Lectures on Hebrews, video 27, time on video 52:58: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f7L04pImJKA&list=PLONbXoi-gaxCghCfwqDjCBs3KRnxOa-vC&index=27)

 

 

New American Standard Bible
Hebrews
God’s Final Word in His Son

Heb 1:1God, after He spoke long ago (of old) to the fathers (Old Testament fathers or believers, Hebrews, Jews; NASB: in contrast to “to us” [v.2].) in the prophets (“one who, moved by the Spirit of God and hence, his organ or spokesman, solemnly declares to men what he has received by inspiration, especially future events, and in particular such as relate to the cause and kingdom of God and to human salvation: appeal is made to their utterances as having foretold the kingdom, deeds, death, of Jesus the Messiah. NASB: All OT writers are here viewed as prophets in that their testimony was preparation for the coming of Christ; cf. “in His Son” [v. 2], a new and unique category of revelation in contrast to that of the prophets.) in many portions (parts) and in many ways (NASB: The OT revelation was fragmentary and occasional, lacking fullness and finality.), 2in these last days (of the time immediately preceding Christ’s return from heaven and the consummation of the divine kingdom) has spoken to us in His Son, whom He appointed (put underneath) heir of all things, through whom also He made the world (to create, to produce: of God, as the author of all things. BKC: … the Son is the designated Heir of all things. This is obvious as it should be since He is also the Maker-the One through whom He made the universe [tous aiōnas, lit, “the ages,” also rendered “the universe” in 11:3. The reference to the Son’s heirship anticipates the thought of His future reign… NASB: The incarnate Son, having performed the work of redemption, was gloriously exalted to the position of the firstborn heir of God, i.e., He received the inheritance of God’s estate [“all things”]. See Rom 8:17. Through whom also He made the world: See John 1:3 All things came into being through Him, and apart from Him nothing came into being that has come into being. Col 1:16 For by Him all things were created, both in the heavens and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or rulers or authorities—all things have been created through Him and for Him. Robert, Bob, Saucy: The Source of Salvation is the complete Godhead. It is from the Father. He is the originator [the origin] of salvation, commonly expressed by “of” or “from”. Salvation is through Christ, the mediator, commonly expressed by “through” or “in”. Salvation is applied by the Holy Spirit, commonly expressed by “by” (dative or instrumental, But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared, Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost; Which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour;” See the following verses: vv. 4-5 “of God . . ., He saved us”; v. 5 – “by (dia) the washing of regeneration and renewing by the Holy Spirit.”- the agency. The dia here denotes efficient cause. v. 6 – “through (dia) Jesus Christ our Savior” – mediator. The dia denotes the personal agent or intermediary). 3And He is the radiance of His glory (someone who literally “shines,” [is radiant]. [apaúgasma] is only used in Heb 1:3 where it refers to Christ’s eternal radiance – supremely reflecting the effulgent glory of the Godhead. His eternal light breaks through all the darkness that keeps someone in spiritual ignorance [bondage], i.e. every resistance exerted by sin; reflected brightness: Christ is called ἀπαύγασμα τῆς δόξης … τοῦ Θεοῦ, inasmuch as he perfectly reflects the majesty of God. NASB: As the brilliance of the sun is inseparable from the sun itself, so the Son’s radiance is inseparable from deity, for He Himself is God, the second person of the Trinity [John 1:14 And the Word became flesh, and dwelt among us, and we saw His glory, glory as of the only begotten from the Father, full of grace and truth. John 1:18 No one has seen God at any time; the only begotten God who is in the bosom of the Father, He has explained Him.].) and the exact representation of His nature (The Greek fathers used /xaraktḗr [“the ultimate radiance”] of the supreme effulgence of Christ, showing forth His glory as the second Person of the eternal Godhead. NASB: Jesus is not merely am image or reflection of God. Because the Son Himself is God, He is the absolutely authentic representation of God’s being (cf. John 14:9 Jesus said to him, “Have I been so long with you, and yet you have not come to know Me, Philip? He who has seen Me has seen the Father; how can you say, ‘Show us the Father’? Col 1:15 He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of all creation.), and upholds (according to a less frequent use to bear up, i. e. uphold [keep from falling]: of God [the Son] the preserver of the universe. NASB: Christ is not like Atlas, the mythical Greek god who held the world on his shoulders. The Son dynamically holds together all that has been created through Him [Col 1:17 He is before all things, and in Him all things hold together.].) all things by the word (the word by which something is commanded, directed, enjoined) of His power (metaphysical [or essential] power, that which belongs to him, the word uttered by his power, equivalent to his most powerful will and energy [(miraculous) power, might, strength]). When He had made purification (cleansing from the guilt of sins: now by the expiatory sacrifice of Christ) of sins (NASB: Through His redeeming death on the cross), He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty (of the majesty of God) on high (heaven; NASB: Being seated at God’s right hand indicates that the work of redemption is complete and that Christ is actively ruling with God as Lord over all [see v. 13; 8:1; 10:12; 12:2; Eph 1:20; Col 3:1; 1 Pet 3:22]), 4having become as much better (more excellent) than the angels (NASB: To most Jews angels were exalted beings, especially revered because they were involved in giving the law at Sinai and to the Jews the law was God’s supreme revelation. The Dead Sea Scrolls reflect the expectation that the archangel Michael would be the supreme figure in the Messianic Kingdom. Whether the recipients of Hebrews were tempted to assign angels a place above Christ [Messiah] is not known. BKC: Those who see in Hebrews ties with sectarian Judaism point to the highly developed angelology of the Dead Sea sect. These verses offer an effective rebuttal against any tendency to give excessive prominence to angels.), as He has inherited a more excellent name than they (title; NASB: To Jews a name stood for the full character of a person in all he was and did… The section that follows indicates that this name was “Son”-a name to which no angle could lay claim. BKC: He [the writer] implied that God’s revelation in the Son has a definitive quality which previous revelation lacked. Moreover the sacrifice for sins which such a One makes must necessarily be greater than other kinds of sacrifices. Finally the Son’s greatness makes preoccupation with angelic dignities entirely unnecessary… it carries with it an implicit admonition: This is God’s supremely great Son; hear Him! (cf. 12:25-27]).).
5For to which of the angels did He ever say,
“YOU ARE MY SON,
TODAY I HAVE BEGOTTEN YOU”? (Begotten: to be the author of the divine nature which he possesses. NASB: TODAY I HAVE BEGOTTEN YOU. This passage [Ps 2:7] is quoted in Acts 13:33 as fulfilled in Christ’s resurrection [cf. Rom 1:4]. BKC: Ps 2 is an enthronement psalm in which God “adopts” the Davidic King as His “Son.” That this is what the writer to the Hebrews 1:5a by the quotation from the Davidic Covenant. No doubt “today” in the expression today I have become Your Father was understood by the author of Hebrews to refer to Messiah’s sitting at the right hand of God [cf. v. 3].)
And again,
“I WILL BE A FATHER TO HIM
AND HE SHALL BE A SON TO ME”? (NASB: Jews acknowledge 2 Sam 7:14 [of which passage is a quotation] and Ps 2 to be Messianic in their ultimate application [see Luke 1:32-33]. This royal passage is neither an angle nor an archangel; he is God’s Son.)
6And when He again brings the firstborn (Just as the firstborn son had certain privileges and rights in the Biblical world, so also Christ has certain rights in relation to all creation-priority, preeminence and sovereignty [cf. Col 1: 16-18] BKC: His Firstborn into the world, it would be preferable to translate, “and when He again brings the Firstborn into the world.” The reference is to the Second Advent when the kingly prerogatives of the Son will be recognized with open angelic worship [cf. Ps 97:7….]) into the world, He says,
“AND LET ALL THE ANGELS OF GOD WORSHIP HIM.” (NASB: Possibly quoted from Ps 97:7. This statement, which in the OT refers to the Lord God (Yahweh), is here applied to Christ, giving clear indication of His full deity. The very beings with whom Christ is being compared are commanded to proclaim His superiority by worshiping Him.)
7And of the angels He says,
“WHO MAKES HIS ANGELS WINDS,
AND HIS MINISTERS A FLAME OF FIRE.” (NASB: Ps 104:4 speaks of the storm wind and the lightning as agents of God’s purposes. The Septuagint [the Greek translation of the OT], which the author of Hebrews quotes as the version familiar to his readers, reflects the developing doctrine of angels during the period between the OT and the NT.)
8But of the Son He says,
“YOUR THRONE, O GOD, IS FOREVER AND EVER (NASB: The author selects a passage that intimates the deity of the Messianic [and Davidic] King, further demonstrating the Son’s superiority over angels.),
AND THE RIGHTEOUS SCEPTER IS THE SCEPTER OF HIS KINGDOM.
9“YOU HAVE LOVED RIGHTEOUSNESS AND HATED LAWLESSNESS;
THEREFORE GOD, YOUR GOD, HAS ANOINTED YOU
WITH THE OIL OF GLADNESS ABOVE YOUR COMPANIONS.” (BKC: In a pair of contrasting quotations, the author juxtaposed the servanthood of the angels [v. 7] and the eternal dominion of the Son [vv. 8-9] The quotation found in verses 8-9 is derived from Ps 45:6-7 which describes the final triumph of God’s messianic King…. The King the psalmist described had loved righteousness and hated wickedness. This points to the holiness and obedience of Christ while He was on earth…. Since the King has attained His joy and dominion through a life of steadfast righteousness, it might be concluded that His companions will share His experience by that same means.])
10And,
“YOU, LORD, IN THE BEGINNING LAID THE FOUNDATION OF THE EARTH, (NASB: As in v. 6, a passage addressed to Yahweh [“You, Lord”] is applied to the Son.)
AND THE HEAVENS ARE THE WORKS OF YOUR HANDS;
11THEY WILL PERISH, BUT YOU REMAIN;
AND THEY ALL WILL BECOME OLD LIKE A GARMENT,
12AND LIKE A MANTLE YOU WILL ROLL THEM UP;
LIKE A GARMENT THEY WILL ALSO BE CHANGED.
BUT YOU ARE THE SAME,
AND YOUR YEARS WILL NOT COME TO AN END.” (BKC: The immutability of the King-Son is further stressed by the statement now quoted from Ps 102:25-27…. the Son’s years will never end. This certainly points to His personal eternality, but it is also likely that the word “years” stands for all that they contain for the Son, including an eternal throne and scepter as well as unending joy with His companions. The writer definitely taught that Messiah’s kingdom would survive the final “shaking” of the creation [cf. Heb 12:26-28].)
13But to which of the angels has He ever said,
“SIT AT MY RIGHT HAND, (NASB: is applied repeatedly to Jesus in Hebrews [vv. 3, 13; 5:6,10; 6:20; 7:3, 11, 17, 21; 8:1; 10:12-13; 12:2].)
UNTIL I MAKE YOUR ENEMIES
A FOOTSTOOL FOR YOUR FEET”?
14Are they not all ministering spirits (NASB: Christ reigns; angels minister as those sent to serve.), sent out to render service for the sake of those who will inherit salvation? (BKC: vv. 13-14: The writer drew this section to a climax with a final Old Testament quotation, one which is crucial to the entire thought of the epistle. It is taken from Psalm 110 which the author later employed in his elaboration of the Melchizedek priesthood of the Lord Jesus. Here he cites verse 1 of the psalm to highlight the final victory of the Son over His enemies. If the Son is to have an eternal throne [Heb 1:8], such a victory obviously awaits Him. But the victory is His and not the angels’. Their role, by contrast, is to serve those who will inherit salvation. It should not be automatically assumed that “salvation” here refers to a believer’s past experience of regeneration. On the contrary it is something future as both the context and the words “will inherit” suggest.

 
New American Standard Bible
(Many agree that the writer’s audience was mostly professing Christian Jews because of the emphasis on the Old Testament scriptures. NASB: The letter was addressed primarily to Jewish converts who were familiar with the OT and who were being tempted to revert to Judaism or to Judaize the gospel [cf. Gal 2:14].)
Give Heed

Heb 2:1For this reason (what was previously stated) we must pay much closer attention to what we have heard (NASB: The message of the gospel, including that of Christ’s person as the God-man and His redemptive work on the cross.), so that we do not drift away (/pararrhyéō [“drift away from”] only occurs in Heb 2:1 where it refers to going spiritually adrift – “sinning by slipping away” [from God’s anchor]. /pararrhyéō [“gradually drift away”] means to “lapse” into spiritual defeat, describing how we slowly move away from our moorings in Christ; lest the salvation which the things heard show us how to obtain slip away from us. NASB: From the greater revelation given through the Son.) from it. 2For if the word spoken through angels (NASB: The law given to Moses at Sinai. That angels were active in giving the law is indicated by Deut 33:2; “ten thousand holy ones”); Ps 68:17; Acts 7:38, 53; Gal 3:19.) proved unalterable (valid and therefore inviolable), and every transgression and disobedience received a just penalty (compensation corresponding to a particular decision [action]. This recompense “swings both ways” – bringing a [just] reward from God for living in faith [Heb 10:35, 11:26], or divine punishment [Heb 2:2] when living in self-government; payment of wages due, recompense of punishment), 3how will we escape if we neglect (to be careless of) so great a salvation? (NASB: The argument here is from the lesser to the greater, and assumes that the gospel is greater than the law. Thus, if disregard for the law brought certain punishment, disregard for the gospel will bring even greater punishment.) After it was at the first spoken through the Lord, it was confirmed (make good the promises by the event, i. e. fulfil them) to us by those who heard (NASB: The eyewitnesses, chiefly the apostles (see 2 Pet 1:16; 1 John 1:1], had vouched for the message first announced by Christ. The author himself apparently was neither an apostle nor an eyewitness), 4God also testifying (to bear witness) with them, both by signs and wonders and by various miracles (NASB: God added His confirmation to the gospel message through supernatural acts such as healing the sick [see Acts 3:7-9; 11-12;16]) and by gifts (NASB: Such as the gift of tongues [see Acts 2:4-12].) of the Holy Spirit according to His own will (a desire or wish [see 1 Cor 12:4-11]; a brand of God’s preference “fleshed out” in a miraculous way in His servants [used only in Heb 2:4].).

Earth Subject to Man
(NASB: 2:5-18: An exposition of Ps 8:4-6, which continues to show Christ’s superiority over the angels-in fulfilling man’s role as sovereign over the earth and in redeeming fallen man, not fallen angels. To accomplish all this, Christ assumed human nature [see vv. 11, 14].)

5For He did not subject (to arrange under, to subordinate; put in subjection) to angels the world to come, concerning which we are speaking (BKC: The statement here by the writer… forcefully refutes this view [that the coming Age would be marked by the dominion of Michael and his angelic subordinates]. Not … angels, but people, will be awarded this dominion in the world to come.)
6But one has testified somewhere (NASB: Such a well-known passage as Ps 8:4-6 did not need precise identification.), saying,
“WHAT IS MAN, THAT YOU REMEMBER HIM?
OR THE SON OF MAN (a man, one of the human race), THAT YOU ARE CONCERNED (to inspect, by ext. to go to see [visit]) ABOUT HIM? (NASB: vv. 6b-8: Awed by the marvelous order and immensity of God’s handiwork in the celestial universe, the psalmist marveled at the high dignity God has bestowed on puny man by entrusting him with dominion over the other creatures [see Gen 1:26-28].)
7“YOU HAVE MADE HIM FOR A LITTLE WHILE LOWER THAN THE ANGELS;
YOU HAVE CROWNED HIM WITH GLORY AND HONOR,
AND HAVE APPOINTED (to set one over a thing (in charge of it)) HIM OVER THE WORKS OF YOUR HANDS; (NASB: Hebrew 2:6-8 quoting from the Septuagint…, applied these verses to Jesus, who as the incarnate Son of God is both the representative man and the one in whom man’s appointed destiny will be fully realized. The author of Hebrews thus makes use of the eschatological implications of these words in his testimony to Christ. Paul does the same with v. 6 in 1 Cor 15:27 [see also Eph 1:22]. BKC: Heb 2:6-8a: … it is clear in the light of Hebrews 2:5 and the application that follows in verses 8b-9 that the author … read it [a portion of Ps 8] primarily as messianic and eschatological. In doing so he stood well within the New Testament perspective on the Old Testament, a perspective directly traceable to Jesus Himself (cf. Luke 24:25-27, 44-45.])
8YOU HAVE PUT ALL THINGS (NASB: God’s purpose from the beginning was that man should be sovereign in the creaturely realm, subject only to God. Due to sin, that purpose of God has not yet been fully realized. Indeed, men are themselves “subject to slavery” [v. 15]. [Alice: But it will be by Yehoshua, and man “in Christ.”]) IN SUBJECTION (to arrange under, to subordinate) UNDER HIS FEET.”
For in subjecting all things to him, He left nothing that is not subject to him. But now we do not yet see all things subjected to him (In the future Yehoshua will bring this to fruition as the God/Man.)

Jesus Briefly Humbled

9But we do see Him who was made for a little while lower than the angels, namely, Jesus, because of the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor (NASB: See 10:13. Ps 8 is here applied to Jesus in particular. As forerunner of man’s restored dominion over the earth, He was made lower than the angels for a while but is now crowned with glory and honor at God’s right hand. By His perfect life, His death on the cross and His exaltation, He has made possible for redeemed man the ultimate fulfillment of Ps 8 in the future kingdom, when man will regain sovereignty over creation.), so that by the grace of God He might taste (to taste, i. e. perceive the flavor of, partake of, enjoy: to feel, make trial of, experience) death for everyone (any, every one [Alice: just as all the Hebrews left Egypt]).
10For it was fitting (which becometh, befitteth, proper, suitable) for Him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many (much; NASB: Those who believe in Christ are made God’s children through His only Son (cf. John 1:12-13But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, even to those who believe in His name, who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God.) sons to glory, to perfect (to bring to the end (goal) proposed: to perfect or consummate, i. e. to raise to the state befitting him: so of God exalting Jesus to the state of heavenly majesty) the author (founder, leader, originator; NASB: The Greek word occurs only four times in the NT: here, 12:2; Acts 3:15; 5:31 [“Prince”]) of their salvation through sufferings (externally, a suffering, misfortune, calamity, evil, affliction; NASB: Christ had not been morally or spiritually imperfect, but His incarnation was completed [perfected] when he experienced suffering. He identified with us on the deepest level of anguish, and so became qualified to pay the price for our sinful imperfection and to become our sympathetic high priest.). 11For both He who sanctifies (to purify by expiation, free from the guilt of sin) and those who are sanctified (to purify by expiation, free from the guilt of sin. NASB: Christ became man to identify Himself with man and, by His substitutionary sacrifice on the cross, to restore the holiness man had lost.) are all from one Father; for which reason He is not ashamed to call them brethren (NASB: Our [believers] brotherhood with Jesus is the brotherhood of the Redeemer with the redeemed, who are truly one with Him.),
12saying,
“I WILL PROCLAIM YOUR NAME TO MY BRETHREN (NASB: A quotation from Ps 22:22, a psalm describing the suffering and triumph of God’s righteous servant. The key phrase is “my brethren,” seen here as coming from the lips of the triumphant Messiah.),
IN THE MIDST OF THE CONGREGATION I WILL SING YOUR PRAISE.”
13And again,
“I WILL PUT MY TRUST IN HIM.” (NASB: An expression of true dependence on God perfectly exemplified in Christ. In Him humanity is seen as it was intended to be.)
And again,
“BEHOLD, I AND THE CHILDREN WHOM GOD HAS GIVEN ME.” (NASB: Also seen ultimately as an utterance of the incarnate Son. The Father’s children are given to the Son to be His brothers [see v. 11].)
14Therefore, since the children share in flesh and blood, He Himself likewise also partook (to be or become partaker; to partake: in hope of partaking [of the harvest]) of the same, that through death He might render powerless (to cause a person or a thing to have no further efficiency; to deprive of force, influence, power [bring to nought], make of none effect. BKC: The author did not mean that Satan ceased to exist or to be active. Rather the word he used for “destroy” [katargēsē] indicates the annulment of his power over those whom Christ redeems. In speaking of the devil as wielding the power of death, the writer meant that Satan uses people’s fear of death to enslave them to his will.) him who had the power of death (properly, the death of the body, i. e. that separation [whether natural or violent] of the soul from the body by which the life on earth is ended: with the implied idea of future misery in the state beyond; NASB: Satan wields the power of death only insofar as he induces people to sin and to come under sin’s penalty, which is death (see Ez 18:4 “Behold, all souls are Mine; the soul of the father as well as the soul of the son is Mine. The soul who sins will die. Rom 5:12 Therefore, just as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin, and so death spread to all men, because all sinned. Rom 6:23 For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.), that is, the devil, 15and might free those who through fear (panic flight, the causing of fear, terror) of death were subject to slavery all their lives. 16For assuredly He does not give help to angels, but He gives help to the descendant of Abraham (NASB: Christ assumed not angelic nature but human nature, characterized by the descendents of Abraham. BKC: Whatever their needs or trials, their Captain is adequate to help them since He ministers to Abraham’s descendents, not angels. The expression “Abraham’s descendents” [lit, “Abraham’s seed”] may point to the Jewishness of the writer’s audience, but even Gentile Christians could claim to be the “seed of Abraham” in a spiritual sense [Gal 3:29].). 17Therefore, He had to be made like His brethren in all things, so that He might become a merciful and faithful high priest (Christ could represent mankind before God only if he became one with them. BKC: Here for the first time the writer introduced the thought of His priesthood…. this identification with “His brothers” had made possible a priesthood characterized both by mercy and fidelity in service to God…. in His role as Priest [Christ], is able to aid his [the author’s] readers who are being tempted [v. 18] out of the experience of temptation which His own sufferings entailed.) in things pertaining to God, to make propitiation (to expiate, make propitiation for; NASB: … turning away God’s wrath. In order for Christ to turn aside the wrath of God against guilty sinners, He had to become one with them and die as a substitute for them.) for the sins of the people. 18For since He Himself was tempted in that which He has suffered, He is able to come to the aid of those who are tempted.

 
New American Standard Bible
Jesus Our High Priest
(NASB: Hebrews 3:1-4:13: An exposition of Ps 95:7-11, stressing Christ’s superiority over Moses and warning against disobedience and unbelief.)

Heb 3:1Therefore, holy (sacred) brethren, partakers (sharing in) of a heavenly (a calling made [by God] in heaven [others would include a reference to its end as well as to its origin]) calling (a call, invitation: to a feast; in the N. T. everywhere in a technical sense, the divine invitation to embrace salvation in the kingdom of God, which is made especially through the preaching of the gospel: which was made in heaven by God on the ground of Christ; NASB: The invitation that comes from heaven and leads to heaven.), consider Jesus, the Apostle (the apostle whom we confess, of Christ, God’s chief messenger, who has brought the gospel of salvation, as compared with Moses, whom the Jews confess. NASB: [Apostle] means “one who is sent.” Jesus repeatedly spoke of Himself as having been sent into the world by the Father [e.g., Matt 10:40; 15:24; Mark 9:37; Like 9:48; John 4:34; 5:24, 30, 36-38; 6:38)]. He is the supreme apostle, the one from whom all other apostleship flows.) and High Priest (In the Epistle to the Hebrews Christ is called ‘high priest,’ because by undergoing a bloody death he offered himself as an expiatory sacrifice to God, and has entered the heavenly sanctuary where he continually intercedes on our behalf.) of our confession (subjectively, i. e. whom we profess [to be ours]); 2He [Yehoshua] was faithful to Him [God the Father] who appointed (to make or do: of God, as the author of all things) Him [Yehoshua], as Moses also was in all His house (of the church [ekklēsia, called out assembly] of the Old and New Testament. NASB: A comparison of Christ and Moses, both of whom were sent by the Father to lead His people-the one to lead them from bondage under Pharaoh to the promised land, the other to lead them from bondage under the devil (2:14-15) to the Sabbath rest promised to those who believe (4:3, 9). The Sabbath-rest may be heaven, though many hold that it refers primarily to the salvation-rest of Christ’s redemption.). 3For He has been counted worthy of more glory than Moses, by just so much as the builder of the house has more honor than the house (Jesus is the actual builder of the house [or household], whereas Moses was simply a part of it.). 4For every house is built by someone, but the builder of all things is God (Jesus is here equated with God, making it beyond question that Christ is greater than Moses.). 5Now Moses was faithful in all His house as a servant, for a testimony (to give testimony concerning those things which were to be spoken [in the Messiah’s time] i. e. concerning the Christian revelation) of those things which were to be spoken later (NASB: The superiority of Christ over Moses is shown in two comparisons: (1) Moses was a servant, whereas Christ is a son, and (2) Moses was in God’s house, i.e., a part of it, whereas Christ is over God’s house.); 6but Christ was faithful as a Son over His house (of the church of the Old and New Testament)—whose house (NASB: The house is made up of God’s people, His household [see Eph 2:19; 1 Pet 2:5].) we are, if we hold fast (keep secure, keep from possession of: with the accusative of the thing) our confidence (of the undoubting confidence of Christians relative to their fellowship with God) and the boast (the matter for glorying which hope gives, i. e. the hope, of which we glory) of our hope (always in the N. T., in a good sense: expectation of good) firm (unshaken, constant) until the end (the end of all things [i. e. of the present order of things]. NASB: Failure to persevere reveals that a person is actually not a child of God, whereas perseverance is a hallmark of His children.).
(NASB: 3:7-11: This quotation from Ps 95:7-11 summarizes the inglorious history of Israel under Moses’ leadership in the wilderness. Three time periods are alluded to: that of the exodus, that of the psalmist and that of the writing of Hebrews. The example of Israel under Moses was used by the psalmist to warn the Israelites of his day against unbelief and disobedience. In a similar way the author of Hebrews applied the psalmist’s warning to the recipients of this letter. The warning also applies today. BKC: Far from being an ideal period in Israel’s history… it was an era marked by tragic loss and defeat. The readers were not to repeat such an experience in their own lives.)
7Therefore, just as the Holy Spirit says,
“TODAY IF YOU HEAR HIS VOICE,
8DO NOT HARDEN (to make hard, to harden; properly, to render obstinate, stubborn) YOUR HEARTS (of the will and character) AS WHEN THEY PROVOKED (provocation: when they provoked [angered] me by rebelliousness) ME,
AS IN THE DAY OF TRIAL (‘temptation’ [i.e. trial] of God by men, i. e. rebellion against God, by which his power and justice are, as It were, put to the proof and challenged to show themselves) IN THE WILDERNESS,
9WHERE YOUR FATHERS TRIED (Men are said πειράζειν τόν Θεόν: try, tempt, test — by exhibitions of distrust, as though they wished to try whether he is not justly distrusted; by impious or wicked conduct to test God’s justice and patience, and to challenge him, as it were, to give proof of his perfections) Me BY TESTING (a proving) Me,
AND SAW (see, look upon, experience, perceive, discern, beware) MY WORKS FOR FORTY YEARS.
10“THEREFORE I WAS ANGRY (to be wroth or displeased with) WITH THIS GENERATION,
AND SAID, ‘THEY ALWAYS GO ASTRAY (especially through ignorance to be led aside from the path of virtue, to go astray, sin) IN THEIR HEART (the heart; mind, character, inner self, will, intention, center; kardía – heart; “the affective center of our being” and the capacity of moral preference [volitional desire, choice]; “desire-producer that makes us tick”, i.e our “desire-decisions” that establish who we really are.),
AND THEY DID NOT KNOW (to come to know, recognize, perceive) MY WAYS’ (a way, road, journey, path; the precepts of the Lord);
11AS I SWORE (to swear; to affirm, promise, threaten, with an oath) IN MY WRATH (i. e. because disobedience is visited with punishment. The ὀργή attributed to God in the N. T. is that in God which stands opposed to man’s disobedience, obduracy [especially in resisting the gospel] and sin, and manifests itself in punishing the same),
‘THEY SHALL NOT ENTER (used absolutely of those who come into [i. e. become members of] the Christian church) MY REST (the heavenly blessedness in which God dwells, and of which he has promised to make persevering believers in Christ partakers after the toils and trials of life on earth are ended).’”

The Peril of Unbelief

12Take care, brethren, that there not be in any one of you an evil, unbelieving heart that falls away from the living God (NASB: To turn away rebelliously [lit. “to become apostate”] from God is to turn away from life and to chose death, just as did some of the Israelites who came out of Egypt). 13But encourage one another day after day, as long as it is still called “Today,” (NASB: See 4:7. This is still the day of divine grace and opportunity to trust God, but it will not last indefinitely. BKC: Today: “while you still have opportunity”) so that none of you will be hardened by the deceitfulness of sin. 14For we have become partakers (NASB: To belong to Him and participate in the blessings [cf. v. 1].) of Christ (Alice: The spiritual kingdom of God began at the Day of Pentecost with the ushering in of God the Holy Spirit. Believers are already in the kingdom of God because they are in Christ, the “Already, Not yet” aspect of the kingdom.), if we hold fast the beginning of our assurance firm until the end (NASB: Salvation is evidenced by continuing in faith to the end. Such perseverance reveals who share in Christ),
15while it is said,
“TODAY IF YOU HEAR HIS VOICE,
DO NOT HARDEN YOUR HEARTS, AS WHEN THEY PROVOKED ME.”
(NASB: The argument is pursued with a series of rhetorical questions: The important truths are that the people who failed the enter Canaan were the ones who had heard God’s promise concerning the land and that they refused to believe what God had promised [v. 19]-an action described as rebellion [v. 16], sin [v. 17] and disobedience [v. 18]. Consequently, God in His anger closed the doors of Canaan in the face of that whole generation of Israelites [Num 14:21-35]. First-century readers of Hebrews faced a similar danger spiritually.)
16For who provoked Him when they had heard? Indeed, did not all those who came out of Egypt led by Moses? 17And with whom was He angry for forty years? Was it not with those who sinned, whose bodies fell in the wilderness? 18And to whom did He swear that they would not enter His rest, but to those who were disobedient? 19So we see that they were not able to enter because of unbelief (Note that disobedience is parallel with unbelief).

 
New American Standard Bible
The Believer’s Rest
(There are a lot of notes; therefore, one may want to read the verses first. Verse 12 has a LOT of notes, but they add to the discussion of “person.” Once can see that soul and spirit are very closely related or overlap. I have underlines and made this verse bold. Please read this verse first in case this does not transfer over to FB. Thanks.)

Heb 4:1Therefore, let us fear (to fear lest anyone may seem) if, while a promise (It is used also of the divine promises of blessing, especially of the benefits of salvation by Christ) remains (there still remains, ἐπαγγελία, a promise [to be made good by the event]) of entering (used absolutely of those who come into [i. e. become members of] the Christian church the heavenly blessedness in which God dwells, and of which he has promised to make persevering believers in Christ partakers after the toils and trials of life on earth are ended) His rest (the heavenly blessedness in which God dwells, and of which he has promised to make persevering believers in Christ partakers after the toils and trials of life on earth are ended. NASB: Salvation is still available. “His rest” cannot refer ultimately to the rest in Canaan offered to the Israelites. That temporary, earthly rest gained under Joshua (see v. 8) pointed to a rest that is spiritual and eternal.), any one of you may seem to have come short (to come late, be behind, come short; to come late or too tardily; to be left behind in the race and so fail to reach the goal, to fall short of the end; with ἀπό and the genitive indicating the end, metaphorically, fail to become a partaker; to be later, i.e. [by implication] to be inferior; generally, to fall short [be deficient] — come behind [short], be destitute, fail, lack, suffer need, [be in] want, be the worse.) of it. 2For indeed we have had good news (glad tidings are brought to one, one has glad tidings proclaimed to him) preached to us, just as they also; but the word they heard (instruction, namely oral; specifically, the preaching of the gospel: preaching on the necessity of faith) did not profit (help) them, because it was not united by faith in those who heard (mix with, unite; to unite one thing to another: ‘the word heard did not profit them, because it had not united itself by faith to them that heard’, ‘because they had not been united by faith with them that heard’; mix together into a superior compound – “a holistic blend” [unified whole] where the parts work together synergistically.).
3For we who have believed enter that rest (present tense: go in, come in, enter; come into, go into; to enter into for an important purpose – for the believer, doing so to experience the result of the Lord’s eternal blessing. NASB: Just as entering physical rest in Canaan demanded faith in God’s promise, so salvation-rest is entered only by faith in the person and work of Jesus Christ.), just as He has said,
“AS I SWORE IN MY WRATH,
THEY SHALL NOT ENTER MY REST,”
although His works were finished (to emerge, become, transitioning from one point [realm, condition] to another. fundamentally means “become” [becoming, became] so it is not an exact equivalent to the ordinary equative verb “to be” [is, was, will be]. means “to become, and signifies a change of condition, state or place” (Vine, Unger, White, NT, 109). M. Vincent, means to come into being/manifestation implying motion, movement, or growth” [at 2 Pet 1:4]. Thus it is used for God’s actions as emerging from eternity and becoming [showing themselves] in time [physical space].) from the foundation (from the foundation of the world; [“foundation-plan”] typically relates to Christ’s incarnation, i.e. coming to earth in the flesh to be our Redeemer. This divine plan was set and sealed [guaranteed] before creation [Heb 9:26; 1 Pet 1:20; Rev 13:8]. NASB: God rested from His work on the seventh day of creation [see v. 4; Gen 2:2], and thus His rest is already a reality. The rest God calls us to enter [vv. 10-11] is not our rest but His rest, which He invites us to share.) of the world.
4For He has said somewhere concerning the seventh day: “AND GOD RESTED ON THE SEVENTH DAY FROM ALL HIS WORKS”; 5and again in this passage, “THEY SHALL NOT ENTER MY REST.” 6Therefore, since it remains (passive: is reserved) for some to enter it, and those who formerly had good news preached to them failed (no, not; objectively negates a statement, “ruling it out as fact.”) to enter because of disobedience (in the N. T. particularly obstinate opposition to the divine will),
7He again fixes (to determine, appoint; [The English term “horizon” (“horizoning”) comes from (horízō), “to set limits.” /proorízō (“pre-horizon, pre-determine”) emphasizes God’s eternality with its correlations, as operating in His perfect wisdom, absolute foreknowledge, etc.]. to mark off by boundaries, to determine) a certain day, “Today,” (a today [meaning, ‘a time for embracing the salvation graciously offered’]) saying through David after so long a time just as has been said before,
“TODAY IF YOU HEAR HIS VOICE,
DO NOT HARDEN YOUR HEARTS.”
8For if Joshua had given them rest (to lead to a quiet abode), He would not have spoken of another day after that (NASB: Israel’s going into Canaan under Joshua was a partial and temporary entering of God’s rest. That, however, was not the end of entering, as shown in continuing invitations of Ps 95:7-8). 9So there remains a Sabbath rest (the blessed rest from toils and troubles looked for in the age to come by the true worshippers of God and true Christians [sabbath rest]. NASB: God’s rest may still be entered by faith in His Son) for the people of God. 10For the one who has entered (eisérxomai [from /eis, “into, unto” and /erxomai, “come”] – properly, come into, go [enter] into; [figuratively] to enter into for an important purpose – for the believer, doing so to experience the result of the Lord’s eternal blessing.) His rest has himself also rested (to cause to cease, to take rest) from his works (toil [as an effort]; an act, deed, thing done. NASB: Whereas God rested from the work of creation, the believer ceases his efforts to gain salvation by his own works and rests in the finished work of Christ on the cross. According to some, however, the believer’s final rest is in view here (see Rev 14:13), as God did from His. 11Therefore let us be diligent (to exert oneself, endeavor, give difference. NASB: Not a call to earn one’s salvation by works, but an exhortation to enter salvation-rest by faith and not follow Israel’s sad example in the wilderness.) to enter that rest, so that no one will fall (to fail of participating in, miss a share in, the Messianic salvation), through following the same example of disobedience. 12For the word of God (NASB: God’s truth was revealed by Jesus [the incarnate Word; see John 1:1, 14], but it has also been given verbally, the word referred to here. This dynamic word of God, active in accomplishing God’s purposes, appears in both the OT and the NT (see Ps 107:20; 147:18; Is 40:8; 55:11; Gal 3:8; Eph 5:26; James 1:18; 1 Pet 1:23.) is living (having vital power in itself and exerting the same upon the soul) and active and sharper than any two-edged sword, and piercing ([to go through, penetrate, pierce] as far as the division [, i. e. to that most hidden spot, the dividing line between soul and spirit, where the one passes into the other]) of soul (the breath of life; the vital force which animates the body and shows itself in breathing: so also in those passages where, in accordance with the trichotomy or threefold division of human nature by the Greeks, ἡ ψυχή: (a) the vital breath, breath of life, (b) the human soul, (c) the soul as the seat of affections and will, (d) the self, (e) a human person, an individual. – soul [psyche]; a person’s distinct identity [unique personhood], i.e. individual personality. [psyxē] corresponds exactly to the OT /phágō [“soul”]. The soul is the direct aftermath of God breathing [blowing] His gift of life into a person, making them an ensouled being [is distinguished from τό πνεῦμα: wind, breath, spirit.]) and spirit (i. e. the vital principle by which the body is animated the spirit is that which animates and gives life, the body is of no profit [for the spirit imparts life to it, not the body in turn to the spirit, John 6:63]. Although for the most part the words πνεῦμα (wind, breath, spirit) and ψυχή ((a) the vital breath, breath of life, (b) the human soul, (c) the soul as the seat of affections and will, (d) the self, (e) a human person, an individual) are used indiscriminately and so σῶμα [body] and ψυχή [see above] put in contrast [but never by Paul], there is also recognized a threefold distinction, τό πνεῦμα (spirit.) καί ἡ ψυχή (soul) καί τό σῶμα (body), 1 Thessalonians 5:23, according to which τό πνεῦμα (spirit) is the rational part of man, the power of perceiving and grasping divine and eternal things, and upon which the Spirit of God exerts its influence; (πνεῦμα, says Luther, “is the highest and noblest part of man, which qualifies him to lay bold of incomprehensible, invisible, eternal things; in short, it is the house where Faith and God’s word are at home.” [Note: In regeneration God the Holy Spirit among other things gives the believer the following: Ez. 36:26 – new heart and new spirit. Believers have a new heart. Heart is what the person really is. So that indicates a new person. Believers have a new spirit. Spirit is the enlivening power. Believers have a new kind of spirit that drives them.]), of both joints and marrow, and able to judge (tracing out and passing judgment on the thoughts of the mind) the thoughts (deliberation, pondering, pl. thoughts) and intentions (thinking, thoughtfulness, i.e. moral understanding) of the heart. 13And there is no creature hidden from His sight, but all things are open and laid bare to the eyes of Him with whom we have to do (NASB: The author associates the activity of the word with the activity of God as though they are one and the same-which in a sense they are.).

(NASB: V. 14: Great high priest: See 2:17; 3:1. The author here begins an extended discussion of the superior priesthood of Christ. As the Aaronic high priest on the day of atonement passed from the sight of the people into the most holy place [see Lev 16:15, 17], so Jesus passed from the sight of His watching disciples, ascending through the havens into the heavenly sanctuary, His work of atonement accomplished [Acts 1:9-11].)
14Therefore, since we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our confession (objectively, profession [confession] i. e. what one professes. NASB: Suggests that the readers were in danger of letting their faith slip [see similar admonishments in 2:1; 3:6, 14). 15For we do not have a high priest who cannot sympathize (to be touched with the feeling of) with our weaknesses (of Soul; want of the strength and capacity requisite: to restrain corrupt desires; proclivity to sin: plural the various kinds of this proclivity), but One who has been tempted (After the O. T. usage of God; to inflict evils upon one in order to prove his character and the steadfastness of his faith) in all things as we are, yet without sin (NASB: See 2:18. The author stresses the parallel between Christ’s temptation and ours. He did not have each temptation we have but experienced every kind of temptation a person can have. The way in which Christ’s temptations were completely different from ours was in the results-His temptation never led to sin [see Matt 4:1-11].). 16Therefore let us draw near (to draw near to God in order to seek his grace and favor. NASB: Because Christ our high priest has experienced human temptation, He stands ready to give immediate and sympathetic help when we are tempted.) with confidence (free and fearless confidence, cheerful courage, boldness, assurance: of the undoubting confidence of Christians relative to their fellowship with God) to the throne (in the N. T. to kings, hence, by metonymy, for kingly power, royalty: metaphorically, to God, the governor of the world) of grace (the N. T. writers use χάρις pre-eminently of that kindness by which God bestow: favors even upon the ill-deserving, and grants to sinners the pardon of their offences, and bids them accept of eternal salvation through Christ), so that we may receive mercy (pity, compassion) and find grace to help in time of need.

 
New American Standard Bible
The Perfect High Priest

(Note: When thinking of the God/Man, please remember God’s attributes. The kenosis never violates YHWH’s attributes. Use these as a “plum line” to guide your thinking and you will not go wrong or astray, i.e., Luke 2:40 The Child continued to grow and become strong, increasing in wisdom; and the grace of God was upon Him. God is immutable and omniscient; therefore He cannot grow nor learn anything, so who grew and learned? John 19:30 Therefore when Jesus had received the sour wine, He said, “It is finished!” And He bowed His head and gave up His spirit. Two more attributes of God are impassibility and aseity; therefore pain cannot be inflicted upon Him nor can He die, so who died? God is omnipresent so he cannot be confined to a human body. God is spirit. A human nature was added to Yehoshua; He was not reduced to a human body, addition and not subtraction. God the Son took on a human nature. Is “all” of YHWH inside you? Does Him being in you confine Him to time and space? Remember that is why one says Christ died and Christ grew and learned because the “person” was Christ.)
(NASB: Heb 5:1-4: The high priestly office had two specific qualifications: (1) A candidate had to be “taken from among men” [v. 1] and thus be able to represent them before God; and (2) he had to be “called by God” [v. 4].)
Heb 5:1For every high priest taken from among men is appointed on behalf of men in things pertaining to God, in order to offer both gifts and sacrifices for sins; 2he can deal gently with the ignorant (to err, sin through mistake, spoken mildly of those who are not high-handed or willful transgressors) and misguided (metaphorically, to lead away from the truth, to lead into error, to deceive: especially through ignorance to be led aside from the path of virtue, to go astray, sin), since he himself also is beset (to be compassed with, have round one: infirmity cleaves to me) with weakness (feebleness of health; sickness. NASB: Contrast the unintentional sin [as in Lev 4; Num 15:27-29] with defiant rebellion against God [see Num15:30-31; cf. Heb 6:4-6; 10:26-31]); 3and because of it he is obligated (to be under obligation, bound by duty or necessity, to do something; it behooves one; one ought; used thus of a necessity imposed either by law and duty, or by reason, or by the times, or by the nature of the matter under consideration, denoting obligation in its special and personal aspects) to offer sacrifices for sins, as for the people, so also for himself. 4And no one takes the honor (the honor which one has by reason of the rank and state of the office which he holds) to himself (to take to oneself, lay hold upon, take possession of, i. e. to appropriate to oneself. NASB: In Christ’s day the high priestly office was in the hands of a family that had bought control of it.), but receives it when he is called by God, even as Aaron was.
5So also Christ did not glorify Himself so as to become a high priest, but He who said to Him,
“YOU ARE MY SON,
TODAY I HAVE BEGOTTEN YOU”; (NASB: The Son was appointed by the Father, as the two prophetic statements cited here show [Ps 2:7; 110:4]. His high priesthood, however, was “according to the order of Melchizedek” [v. 6], not in the order of Aaron.)
6just as He says also in another passage,
“YOU ARE A PRIEST FOREVER
ACCORDING TO THE ORDER OF MELCHIZEDEK.”
7In the days of His flesh (NASB: The principle reference here is to Christ’s agony in the Garden of Gethsemane), He offered up both prayers and supplications with loud crying and tears to the One able to save Him from death (the punishment of Christ, to free from the fear of death, to enable one to undergo death fearlessly. NASB: To the Father. Jesus did not shrink from physical suffering and death but from the indescribable agony of taking mankind’s sin on Himself [see Matt 27:46]. Although he asked that the cup of suffering might be taken from Him, He did not waver in His determination to fulfill the Father’s will [see Matt 26:36-46].), and He was heard (His prayer was granted by the Father, who saved Him from death-through resurrection.) because of His piety (caution, fear, anxiety, dread). 8Although He was a Son, He learned (to learn by use and practice; [in the preterite] to be in the habit of, accustomed to) obedience (the obedience with which Christ followed out the saving purpose of God, especially by his sufferings and death) from the things which He suffered (NASB: He was made “perfect” [v. 9] through suffering namely, His temptation in the wilderness and His ordeal on the cross. Though He was the eternal Son of God, it was necessary for Him as the incarnate Son to learn obedience-not that he was ever disobedient, but that He was called on to obey to an extent He had never before experienced. The temptations He faced were real and the battle for victory was difficult, but where Adam failed and fell, Jesus resisted and prevailed. His humanity was thereby completed, “made perfect” [v.9], and on the basis of this perfection He could become “the source of eternal salvation” [v. 9; see also 9:12]). 9And having been made perfect (to perfect or consummate, i. e. to raise to the state befitting him), He became to all those who obey Him the source (causative of, responsible for) of eternal salvation, 10being designated by God as a high priest according to the order of Melchizedek.
11Concerning him we have much to say, and it is hard to explain (hard of interpretation), since you have become dull (of one who apprehends with difficulty) of hearing (NASB: Instead of progressing in the Christian life, the readers had become spiritually sluggish and mentally lazy [6:12]). 12For though by this time (NASB: They were not recent converts.) you ought to be teachers, you have need again for someone to teach you the elementary (one of a row, hence a letter [of the alphabet], by ext. the elements [of knowledge]; “first principles,” like the basic fundamentals of Christianity) principles of the oracles (In the N. T. spoken of the words or utterances of God. NASB: These are listed in 6:1-2. Having taken the first steps toward becoming [mature] Christians, they had slipped back to where they started.) of God, and you have come to need milk ( the less difficult truths of the Christian religion) and not solid food (nourishment; NASB: Advanced teaching such as that given in ch.7). 13For everyone who partakes only of milk is not accustomed (inexperienced in, without experience of) to the word of righteousness (the doctrine concerning the way in which man may attain to a state approved of God), for he is an infant (childish, untaught, unskilled: the more advanced in understanding and knowledge). 14But solid food is for the mature (brought to its end, finished; lacking nothing necessary to completeness; perfect: of men, full-grown, adult; of full age, mature. NASB: Those who had progressed in spiritual life and had become Christians of sound judgment and discernment.), who because of practice (a habit, whether of body or of mind; a power acquired by custom, practice) have their senses (“the organ of sense” (BAGD), emphasizing the result of sensory experience [sensation] – i.e. moral feeling to know what is right or wrong in God’s eyes [used only in Heb 5:14 and in the plural].) trained (to exercise vigorously, in any way, either the body or the mind: exercised) to discern (a distinguishing, discerning, judging: Example: Heb 5:14: “But solid food relates to mature people [ /téleios), of those having the sense-faculties trained (‘exercised,’ Gk perfect tense) on account of the habit – [namely] for [/pros] discernment [ /diákrisis], of both good [‘in combination with,’ /té] and [what is] miserably-bad.”) good and evil (NASB: Something neither physical nor spiritual infants can do).

 
New American Standard Bible
The Peril of Falling Away

Heb 6:1Therefore leaving the elementary teaching about the Christ, let us press on to maturity (the state of the more intelligent: [full growth].), not laying again a foundation (something put down, i.e. a substruction [of a building, etc.]) of repentance (change of mind) from dead (destitute of force or power, inactive, inoperative; powerless and fruitless) works and of faith toward God, 2of instruction about washings (baptismós – properly, submergings [always in the plural in the NT]; (figuratively) ceremonial washings [Mk 7:4; Heb 9:10] or the profound realities of spiritual and water baptism [Heb 6:2]. [See baptizō: submerge”; hence, baptize, to immerse [literally, “dip under”]. [baptíz]) implies submersion [“immersion”], in contrast to /antéxomai [“sprinkle”]; a washing, purification effected by means of water: (ξεστῶν καί ποτηρίων); of the washings prescribed by the Mosaic law) and laying on of hands (The imposition of hands was a sacred rite transmitted by the Jews to the Christians, and employed in praying for another, or in conferring upon him divine blessings, especially bodily health, or the Holy Spirit (at the administration of baptism and the inauguration to their office of the teachers and ministers of the church). This simple procedure looks to the Lord for guidance and to pass on confirmation of His will. It is the principal means of “ordaining” someone to ministry, but should also be a regular practice in the church when helping someone confirm [discover] God’s will, etc.[1 Tim 4:14 shows how the “laying on of hands” helps spur people to receive God’s grace-gifts. These endowments bring great fruitfulness to the Lord’s Church. [Ro 1:11] Paul exemplified face-to-face meetings with churches because these are spiritually dynamic. They included: “laying on of hands” [done in conjunction with the elders of the church), and moving in spiritual gifts (cf. 1 Cor 12:12, 14:18).]), and the resurrection of the dead and eternal judgment. 3And this we will do (NASB: Common expression of dependence on the will of God (cf. 1 Cor 16:7 For I do not wish to see you now just in passing; for I hope to remain with you for some time, if the Lord permits.). Only the Lord can open minds and hearts and bringpiritual maturity), if (a conditional particle used like NG1487, but usually with the Gr. subjunctive mood) God permits. 4For in the case of those who have once been enlightened (by a use only Biblical and ecclesiastical, to enlighten spiritually, imbue with saving knowledge: τινα [see John 1:9 There was the true Light which, coming into the world, enlightens every man.] with a saving knowledge of the gospel: hence, φωτισθέντες of those who have been made Christians) and have tasted (to feel, make trial of, experience: τίνος) of the heavenly gift (of heavenly origin and nature) and have been made partakers (sharing in) of the Holy Spirit, 5and have tasted the good word of God and the powers of the age to come (things future, things to come, i. e., according to the context, the more perfect state of things which will exist in the αἰών μέλλων: an age [era, “time-span”], characterized by a specific quality [type of existence].), 6and then have fallen away ( /parapíptō [“fallen from a close position”] refers to a close-follower of Christ who becomes a defector. It suggests this person [at least at one time] was a believer [note the para]. [parapíptō, fall away, fall back [into the unbelieving and godless ways of the old time]; fall away, after being close-beside; to defect [abandon]. ).] is only used in Heb 6:6.), it is impossible to renew (to renew, renovate: τινα εἰς μετάνοιαν so to renew that he shall repent) them again to repentance, since they again crucify (to raise up upon a cross, crucify) to themselves the Son of God and put Him to open shame (in a bad sense, to hold up to infamy; to expose to public disgrace). (NASB: The most common interpretations of this difficult passage are: 1. It refers to Christians who actually lose their salvation. 2. It is a hypothetical argument to warn immature Hebrew Christians [5:11-14] that they must progress to maturity [see v. 1] or else experience divine discipline or judgment [see vv. 7-8]. 3. It refers to professing Christians whose apostasy proves that their faith was not genuine [cf. 1 John 2:19 The one who says he is in the Light and yet hates his brother is in the darkness until now.]. This view sees chs 3-4 as a warning based on the rebellion of the Israelites in the wilderness. As Israel could not enter the promised after spying out the region and tasting its fruit, so the professing Hebrew Christians would not be able to repent I they adamantly turned against “the light” they had received. According to this interpretation, such expressions as “enlightened,” “tasted of the heavenly gift” and “partakers of the Holy Spirit” indicate that such persons had come under the influence of God’s covenant blessing and had professed to turn from darkness to light but were in danger of a public and final rejection of Christ, proving they had never been regenerated (see 10:26-31].) 7For ground that drinks the rain which often falls on it and brings forth vegetation useful to those for whose sake it is also tilled, receives a blessing from God; 8but if it yields thorns and thistles, it is worthless and close to being cursed, and it ends up being burned (NASB: A short parable graphically illustrating the warning just given [see John 15:5-6; 2 Pet 2:20; 1 John 5:16]) (Note Alice: 1. These warning are in the Bible for a reason. It is impossible for YHWH to lie. Don’t gloss over them or take them lightly. There is a danger in changing what the Bible says to fit the scenario of salvation in one’s own mind, or what one feels would be a more just scenario. God saves people, people do not save Him. 2. To avoid doing this, ask yourself if you are aware of such occurrences. Do you know people to whom this has happened, or are like the people in this chapter? I know that I do. 3. Find yourself in the Bible; find your life there. Everyone is there, some are believers and some are unbelievers. Are you a believer or an unbeliever? Meditate on how salvation is defined and described in the Bible, at least the verses that you know, and examine yourself. Ask yourself, has this occurred in my life. Example, are you aware of living a changed life? Not do you know what the verses say, but have you ever changed on the inside, in your heart [mind, emotions, and will] and spirit? Examine yourself using the following verses or passages: 2 Cor 5:17 Therefore if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creature; the old things passed away; behold, new things have come. John 3:3-8 Jesus answered and said to him, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born again he cannot see the kingdom of God.” Nicodemus said to Him, “How can a man be born when he is old? He cannot enter a second time into his mother’s womb and be born, can he?” Jesus answered, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless one is born of water and the Spirit he cannot enter into the kingdom of God. “That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. “Do not be amazed that I said to you, ‘You must be born again.’ “The wind blows where it wishes and you hear the sound of it, but do not know where it comes from and where it is going; so is everyone who is born of the Spirit.” Rom 5:1-5 Therefore, having been justified by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom also we have obtained our introduction by faith into this grace in which we stand; and we exult in hope of the glory of God. And not only this, but we also exult in our tribulations, knowing that tribulation brings about perseverance; and perseverance, proven character; and proven character, hope; and hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out within our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us The Bible says that we are to examine ourselves. Have you ever trusted Yehoshua?)

Better Things for You

9But, beloved, we are convinced of better things concerning you, and things that accompany (connected with salvation, or which lead to it) salvation (NASB: Although the author has suggested the possibility that some of his readers may still be unsaved, he is confident that God has been at work among them. Changes lives and works of love [v. 10] suggest that many of these persons were indeed regenerated.), though we are speaking in this way (by virtue of its native demonstrative force it refers to what precedes; “in the manner spoken of; in the way described; in the way it was done; in this manner; in such a manner; thus, so”). 10For God is not unjust so as to forget your work and the love which you have shown toward His name (According to a very frequent usage in the O. T., the name of God in the N. T. is used for all those qualities which to his worshippers are summed up in that name, and by which God makes himself known to men; it is therefore equivalent to his divinity, [not his nature or essence as it is in itself], the divine majesty and perfections, so far forth as these are apprehended, named, magnified.), in having ministered ([“to serve”] means caring for the needs of others as the Lord guides in an active, practical way.) and in still ministering to the saints. 11And we desire that each one of you show the same diligence so as to realize the full assurance (fullness, abundance) of hope (certainty and strength of hope. NASB: A call for perseverance in faith as an evidence of salvation) until the end, 12so that you will not be sluggish (slow, sluggish, indolent, dull, lanuguid), but imitators (the positive imitation that arises by admiring the pattern set by someone worthy of emulation, i.e. a mentor setting a proper example. /mimētḗs [“emulator, imitator”] is always used positively in the NT [seven times] – of followers of Christ emulating a God-approved example. The supreme model is God Himself [see Eph 5:1].) of those who through faith (faithfulness) and patience (long-suffering) inherit (to partake of eternal salvation in the Messiah’s kingdom) the promises (a promised good or blessing). (For examples see ch 11)
13For when God made the promise to Abraham (NASB: The promise of many descendents was made with an oath to emphasize its unchanging character [see Gen 22:16-18]. Ordinarily the swearing of an oath belongs to our fallen human situation, in which a man’s word is not always trustworthy. God’s swearing of an oath was a condescension to human frailty, thus making His word, which in itself is absolutely trustworthy, doubly dependable [see v. 18]), since He could swear by no one greater, He swore by Himself, 14saying, “I WILL SURELY BLESS YOU AND I WILL SURELY MULTIPLY YOU.” 15And so, having patiently waited NASB: For 25 years [see Gen 12:3-4; 21:5]), he obtained the promise (NASB: The birth of his son Isaac [Gen 17:2; 18:10; 21:5]). 16For men swear by one greater than themselves, and with them an oath given as confirmation is an end of every dispute. 17In the same way God, desiring even more to show to the heirs (the idea of inheritance having disappeared, one who has acquired or obtained the portion allotted him) of the promise the unchangeableness (not transposed, not to be transferred; fixed, unalterable: Heb 6:18; as a substantive, immutability, Heb 6:17) of His purpose (especially of the purpose of God respecting the salvation of men through Christ), interposed (to pledge oneself, give surety, mediate) with an oath, 18so that by two unchangeable things in which it is impossible (unable, powerless) for God to lie, we who have taken refuge (have fled from namely, the irreligious mass of mankind) would have strong encouragement (consolation, comfort, solace. NASB: Since we look back on the fulfillment of the promise that Abraham saw only in anticipation [11:13; John 8:56]) to take hold of the hope (the thing hoped for, which is righteousness) set before (equivalent to to be appointed, destined: the hope open to us, offered, given; used of those things which by any appointment are destined to be done, borne, or attained by anyone) us. 19This hope we have as an anchor (any stay or safeguard: as hope) of the soul (the seat of the feelings, desires, affections, aversions [our soul, heart, etc. [almost uniformly soul]. NASB: Like an anchor holding a ship safely in position, our hope in Christ guarantees our safety.) a hope both sure (firm [that can be relied on, confided in]) and steadfast (stable, fast, firm) and one which enters within the veil (‘the space within the veil,’ i. e. the Holy of holies, figuratively used of heaven, as the true abode of God, Hebrews 6:19 [Note: in a similar figurative way the body of Christ is called καταπέτασμα [the name given to the two curtains in the temple at Jerusalem, one of them at the entrance to the temple separated the Holy Place from the outer court, the other veiled the Holy of Holies from the Holy Place, (in Heb.)], because, as the veil had to be removed in order that the high priest might enter the most holy part of the earthly temple, so the body of Christ had to be removed by his death on the cross, that an entrance might be opened into the fellowship of God in heaven.]; lit, that which is spread out downwards, that which hangs down), a curtain, veil, of that which separated the Holy of Holies from the outer parts of the temple at Jerusalem, also of an outer curtain at the entrance to the Holy Place in the same temple. NASB: Whereas the ship’s anchor goes down to the ocean bed, the Christian’s anchor goes up into the true, heavenly sanctuary, where he is moored to God himself.), 20where Jesus has entered as a forerunner (one who comes in advance to a place whither the rest are to follow) for us, having become a high priest forever according to the order of Melchizedek.

 
New American Standard Bible
Melchizedek’s Priesthood Like Christ’s

Heb 7:1For this Melchizedek, king of Salem (cf. Gen 14:18, which some think is the ancient name of the city of Jerusalem, appealing to the words of Psalm 76:3), priest of the Most High God (WHVH, see Mark 5:7; Luke 8:28; Acts 16:17), who met Abraham as he was returning from the slaughter (a cutting in pieces) of the kings and blessed (in congratulations) him (NASB: See Gen 14:18-20. King… Priest: Of particular significance is Melchizedek’s holding both offices, one of the ways in which he prefigures Christ.), 2to whom also Abraham apportioned (to divide) a tenth part of all the spoils, was first (“what comes first” [is “number one”]; chief) of all, by the translation of his name, king of righteousness (the king who himself has the approbation of God, and who renders his subjects acceptable to God. NASB: Messianic titles (see Is 9:6-7; Jer 23:5-6; 33:15-16), and then also king of Salem (Salem, the home of Melchizedek), which is king of peace (after the Hebrew שָׁלום, security, safety, prosperity, felicity, [because peace and harmony make and keep things safe and prosperous]). 3Without father (whose father is not recorded in the genealogies:) without mother (‘whose mother is not recorded in the genealogy’), without genealogy (of whose descent there is no account [in the O. T.]), having neither beginning (in a relative sense, of the beginning of the thing spoken of) of days nor end (termination, the limit at which a thing ceases to be) of life, but made like (rendered similar) the Son of God, he remains a priest perpetually (it denotes entrance into period which is penetrated, as it were, i. e. duration through a time. NASB: See Gen 14:18-20, contrary to the practice elsewhere in the early chapters of Genesis, does not mention Melchizedek’s parentage and children, or his birth and death. That he was real, historical figure is clear, but the author of Hebrews [in accordance with Jewish interpretation] uses the silence of Scripture about Melchizedek’s genealogy to portray him as a prefiguration of Christ. Melchizedek’s priesthood anticipates Christ’s eternal existence and His unending priesthood. Some believe the appearance of Melchizedek to Abraham was a manifestation of Christ before His incarnation, but the comparison “like the Son of God” argues against such an interpretation.).
4Now observe how great this man was to whom Abraham, the patriarch (a patriarch, founder of a tribe, progenitor: used of David, Acts 2:29; of the twelve sons of Jacob, founders of the several tribes of Israel, Acts 7:8f), gave a tenth (a tenth [a tenth part], a tithe) the choicest spoils. 5And those indeed of the sons of Levi who receive the priest’s office have commandment in the Law to collect a tenth from the people, that is, from their brethren, although these are descended from Abraham. 6But the one whose genealogy is not traced from them collected a tenth from Abraham and blessed the one who had the promises. 7But without any dispute the lesser is blessed by the greater. 8In this case mortal men receive tithes, but in that case one receives them, of whom it is witnessed (witness is borne to me, it is witnessed of me) that he lives on. 9And, so to speak, through Abraham even Levi, who received tithes, paid tithes, 10for he was still in the loins (a loin, the Sept. several times for חֲלָצַיִם, the (two) loins, where the Hebrews thought the generative power (semen) resided (?); hence, fruit of the loins, offspring; to come forth out of one’s loins i. e. derive one’s origin or descent from one, Hebrews 7:5); to be yet in the loins of someone [an ancestor], Hebrew 7:10.) of his father when Melchizedek met him.
11Now if perfection (consummation, perfection) was through the Levitical priesthood (for on the basis of it [NASB: The Levitical priesthood] the people received the Law [NASB: The Law of Moses and the priesthood went together. All the people without exception were sinners, subject to the Law’s condemnation, and thus were in need of a priestly system to mediate between them and God.]), what further need was there for another priest to arise according to the order of Melchizedek, and not be designated according to the order of Aaron? (Aaron the brother of Moses, the first high priest of the Israelites and the head of the whole sacerdotal order. NASB: [This] Implies that the Aaronic [or Levitical] priesthood was imperfect but that Melchizedek’s was perfect. The announcement of the coming one who would be a priest forever [Ps 110:4] was written midway in the history of the Levitical priesthood, which could only mean that the existing system was to give way to something better.) 12For when the priesthood is changed, of necessity there takes place a change of law also. 13For the one concerning whom these things are spoken (Yehoshua) belongs to another tribe, from which no one has officiated at the altar. 14For it is evident that our Lord was descended from Judah, a tribe with reference to which Moses spoke nothing concerning priests. 15And this is clearer still, if another priest arises according to the likeness of Melchizedek, 16who has become such not on the basis of a law of physical (pertaining to the body [as earthly and perishable material]) requirement (a precept relating to lineage. NASB: In the Law of Moses the priestly function was restricted to the tribe of Levi [Deut 18:1], but Jesus came from the nonpriestly tribe of Judah [vv. 14-15].), but according to the power (“inherent power, power residing in a thing by virtue of its nature, or which a person or thing exerts and puts forth”) of an indestructible (indissoluble; not subject to destruction) life (life, i. e. the state of one who is possessed of vitality or is animate [Note: zōḗ – life [physical and spiritual]. All life (/zōḗ), throughout the universe, is derived – i.e. it always [only] comes from and is sustained by God’s self-existent life. The Lord intimately shares His gift of life with people, creating each in His image which gives all the capacity to know His eternal life.]. NASB: According to Ps 110:4 the priest in the order of Melchizedek is “a priest forever.”).
17For it is attested of Him,
“YOU ARE A PRIEST FOREVER
ACCORDING TO THE ORDER OF MELCHIZEDEK.”
18For, on the one hand, there is a setting aside of a former commandment because of its weakness and uselessness (NASB: The law is holy and good [Rom 7:12, but it is not able to make right those who sin by breaking it, nor can it give the power necessary to fulfill its demands [v. 19a].) 19(for the Law made nothing perfect [NASB: The law was only preparatory (see Gal 3:23-25) and brought nothing to fulfillment (see Matt 5:17)]), and on the other hand there is a bringing in of a better hope (NASB: The new covenant is better because it assures us of complete redemption and brings us into the very presence of God. See Col 1:5 because of the hope laid up for you in heaven, of which you previously heard in the word of truth, the gospel), through which we draw near to God. 20And inasmuch as it was not without an oath (NASB: No divine oath was associated with the establishment of the Levitical priesthood. The priesthood pledged in Ps 110 is superior because it was divinely affirmed with an oath.).
21(for they indeed became priests without an oath, but He with an oath through the One who said to Him,
“THE LORD HAS SWORN
AND WILL NOT CHANGE HIS MIND,
‘YOU ARE A PRIEST FOREVER’”);
22so much the more also Jesus has become the guarantee (he by whom we get full assurance of the more excellent covenant made by God with us, and of the truth and stability of the promises connected with it) of a better covenant (See chs. 8-10.)
23The former priests, on the one hand, existed in greater numbers because they were prevented by death from continuing (NASB: Impermanence was further evidenced of the imperfection of the Levitical order.), 24but Jesus, on the other hand, because He continues forever, holds His priesthood permanently. 25Therefore He is able also to save forever (NASB: May include the idea of completeness and permanence. Jesus is a perfect high priest forever; so He is able to save completely and for all time.) those who draw near (to draw near to God in order to seek his grace and favor) to God through Him (Yehoshua), since He always lives to make intercession for them (NASB: His people will never be without a priestly representative [see John 17; 1 John 2:1] ).
26For it was fitting for us to have such a high priest (NASB: One who meets our need for salvation from sin and its consequences.), holy, innocent, undefiled, separated from sinners and exalted above the heavens; 27who does not need daily (NASB: A reference to the endless repetition of sacrifices throughout the year [see Ex 29:36-42], evidence that these sacrifices never effectively and finally dealt with sin.), like those high priests, to offer up sacrifices, first for His own sins (NASB: Christ’s priesthood is superior because He has no personal sins for which sacrifice must be made.) and then for the sins of the people, because this He did once for all (our once for all. NASB: A key concept in Hebrews [see 9:12, 26; 10:2, 10]. The Levitical priest had to bring daily offerings to the Lord, whereas Jesus sacrificed Himself once for all.) when He offered up Himself (NASB: Levitical priests offered up only animals; our high priest offered Himself, the perfect substitute-Man for man.). 28For the Law appoints men as high priests who are weak (of Soul; want of the strength and capacity requisite: to restrain corrupt desires; proclivity to sin. NASB: Because (1) they are mortal and therefore impermanent, v. 23; (2) they are sinful, v. 27; and (3) they could only offer animals, which could never provide a genuine substitute for man, who is made in the image of God (see Gen1:26-28.), but the word of the oath, which came after the Law, appoints a Son, made perfect forever (NASB: Christ was made perfect in that He faced temptation without succumbing to sin [see 2:10 For it was fitting for Him, for whom are all things, and through whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory, to perfect the author of their salvation through sufferings. 5:8 Although He was a Son, He learned obedience from the things which He suffered.] Instead He perfectly obeyed the Father, thereby establishing a perfection that is eternal.)

 
New American Standard Bible
A Better Ministry

8:1Now the main point in what has been said is this: we have such a high priest, who has taken His seat at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty (of the majesty of God. NASB: A Jewish expression for God [see 1:13]) in the heavens, 2a minister (one busied with holy things, of a priest) in the sanctuary and in the true tabernacle (heaven. NASB: In contrast to the tabernacle erected by Moses, which was an imperfect and impermanent copy of the heavenly one), which the Lord pitched (to make fast, to fix; to fasten together, to build by fastening together), not man (NASB: The heavenly sanctuary built by God corresponds to the most holy place, the innermost sanctuary in Moses’ tabernacle, into which the high priest briefly entered with the blood of atonement once a year [see Lev 16:13-15, 34]. In the heavenly sanctuary, however, our great high priest dwells eternally as our intercessor [7:25].). 3For every high priest is appointed (to appoint one to administer an office) to offer both gifts and sacrifices (See 8:3; 9:9; Lev 1:2; 2:1); so it is necessary that this high priest also have something to offer. 4Now if He were on earth, He would not be a priest at all (NASB: By His human birth Jesus belonged to the tribe of Judah, which was not the priestly tribe [see 7:12-14].), since there are those who offer the gifts (NASB: Members of the tribe of Levi. The present tense of the verb “offer,” here and elsewhere in the letter, indicates that the temple in Jerusalem was still standing. This letter, therefore, must have been written prior to the temple’s destruction in A.D. 70.) according to the Law; 5who serve a copy and shadow (a sketch, outline, adumbration) of the heavenly things (NASB: The heavenly reality is the sanctuary of God’s presence, into which Christ our high priest entered with His own blood [see 9:11-12].), just as Moses was warned by God when he was about to erect the tabernacle; for, “SEE,” He says, “THAT YOU MAKE all things ACCORDING (NASB: Because both the tabernacle and its ministry were intended to illustrate symbolically the only way sinners may approach a holy God and find forgiveness.) TO THE PATTERN WHICH WAS SHOWN YOU ON THE MOUNTAIN.” 6But now He has obtained a more excellent ministry, by as much as He is also the mediator (one who intervenes between two (NASB: See 9:15; 12:24; 1 Tim 2:5. The new covenant that Jesus mediates is superior to the covenant God made through Moses at Sinai [see Ex 24:7-8 Then he took the book of the covenant and read it in the hearing of the people; and they said, “All that the LORD has spoken we will do, and we will be obedient!” So Moses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people, and said, “Behold the blood of the covenant, which the LORD has made with you in accordance with all these words.” See vv. 8-12; Jer 31:31-34].), either in order to make or restore peace and friendship, or to form g compact, or for ratifying a covenant: a medium of communication, arbitrator [mediator]: Christ is called the μεσίτης Θεοῦ καί ἀνθρώπων [a mediator, intermediary, (b) a go-between, arbiter, agent of something good], since he interposed by his death and restored the harmony between God and man which human sin had broken.) of a better covenant, which has been enacted on better promises (see vv. 10-12).

A New Covenant

7For if that first covenant had been faultless, there would have been no occasion sought for a second.
(NASB: 8:8-12: A quotation from Jer 31:31-34 containing a prophetic announcement and definition of the new covenant, which was to be different from the Mosaic covenant [v. 9]. Its superior benefits are (1) God’s laws will become inner principles (v. 10a] that enable His people to delight in doing His will [cf. Ezek 36:26-27; Rom 8:2-4]; (2) God and His people will have intimate fellowship (v. 10b]; (3) sinful ignorance of God will be removed forever [v. 11]; and (4) forgiveness of sins will be an everlasting reality [v. 12].)
8For finding fault with them, He says,
“BEHOLD, DAYS ARE COMING, SAYS THE LORD,
WHEN I WILL EFFECT A NEW COVENANT
WITH THE HOUSE OF ISRAEL AND WITH THE HOUSE OF JUDAH;
9NOT LIKE THE COVENANT WHICH I MADE WITH THEIR FATHERS
ON THE DAY WHEN I TOOK THEM BY THE HAND
TO LEAD THEM OUT OF THE LAND OF EGYPT;
FOR THEY DID NOT CONTINUE IN MY COVENANT,
AND I DID NOT CARE FOR THEM, SAYS THE LORD.
10“FOR THIS IS THE COVENANT THAT I WILL MAKE WITH THE HOUSE OF ISRAEL
AFTER THOSE DAYS, SAYS THE LORD:
I WILL PUT MY LAWS INTO THEIR MINDS,
AND I WILL WRITE THEM ON THEIR HEARTS.
AND I WILL BE THEIR GOD,
AND THEY SHALL BE MY PEOPLE.
11“AND THEY SHALL NOT TEACH EVERYONE HIS FELLOW CITIZEN,
AND EVERYONE HIS BROTHER, SAYING, ‘KNOW THE LORD,’
FOR ALL WILL KNOW ME,
FROM THE LEAST TO THE GREATEST OF THEM.
12“FOR I WILL BE MERCIFUL TO THEIR INIQUITIES,
AND I WILL REMEMBER THEIR SINS NO MORE.”
13When He said, “A new covenant,” He has made the first obsolete (that which is becoming old, to grow old). But whatever is becoming obsolete and growing old is ready to disappear (destruction, a vanishing. NASB: The announcement of the new covenant clearly proved the impermanence of the one already in existence. To return to the old system would be to return to what is no longer valid and effective.).

 
New American Standard Bible
The Old and the New

Heb 9:1Now even the first covenant had regulations (what has been established and ordained by law, an ordinance: plural used of the divine precepts of the Mosaic law: precepts concerning the public worship of God) of divine worship and the earthly sanctuary. 2For there was a tabernacle prepared (NASB: The tabernacle built under Moses), the outer one, in which were the lampstand (NASB: Made of hammered gold and placed at the south side of the holy place [Ex 40:24], it had seven lamps that were kept burning every night [Ex25:31-40].) and the table and the sacred bread (NASB: Made of acacia wood overlaid with gold, it stood on the north side of the holy place [Ex 40:22]. On it were twelve loaves, arranged in two rows of six [Lev 24:5-6]); this is called the holy place. 3Behind the second veil there was a tabernacle which is called the Holy of Holies (the most hallowed portion of the temple), 4having a golden altar of incense (NASB: Although the altar of incense stood in the holy place, the author describes it as belonging to the most holy place. His purpose was to show its close relationship to the inner sanctuary and the ark of the covenant [cf. Ex 40:5; 1 Kings 6:22]. On the day of atonement the high priest took incense from this altar, along with the blood of the sin offering, into the Holy of Holies [Lev 16:12-14].) and the ark of the covenant (NASB: A chest made of acacia wood, overlaid inside and out with gold [See Ex 25:10-16]) covered on all sides with gold, in which was a golden jar holding the manna (from the Hebrews’ wondering in the wilderness), and Aaron’s rod which budded, and the tables (NASB: Tablets: the 10 Commandments. All three items: These holy symbols were ever before the Lord as memorials of His special deeds in behalf of His people. Moreover, should any one of a latter age dare to question the unique holy place of the Aaronic priests in the Lord’s service, this symbol memorial of God’s choice of Aaron would stand in opposition to his audacity. It is difficult to overestimate the importance of the role of Aaron and his sons in the worship of Israel. [See Ex 16:33-34; Nu 17:8-10].) of the covenant (the ark of the covenant or law, in which those tables were deposited); 5and above it were the cherubim (cherubim, two golden figures of living creatures with two wings; they were fastened to the lid of the ark of the covenant in the Holy of holies [both of the sacred tabernacle and of Solomon’s temple] in such a manner that their faces were turned toward each other and down toward the lid, which they overshadowed with their expanded wings. Between these figures God was regarded as having fixed his dwelling-place.) of glory (the glory of the Lord, a bright cloud by which God made manifest to men his presence and power on earth, hence on whom the divine glory rests. NASB: Two winged figures made of pure gold, of one piece with the atonement cover, or mercy seat, and standing at either end of it. It was between them that the glory of God’s presence appeared [Ex 25:17-22; Lev 16:2; Num 7:89].) overshadowing the mercy seat (the well-known cover of the ark of the covenant in the Holy of holies, which was sprinkled with the blood of the expiatory victim on the annual day of atonement [this rite signifying that the life of the people, the loss of which they had merited by their sins, was offered to God in the blood as the life of the victim, and that God by this ceremony was appeased and their sins were expiated, hence, the lid of expiation, the propitiatory. NASB: Fitting exactly over the top of the ark of the covenant, it was a slab of pure gold on which the blood of the sin offering was sprinkled by the high priest on the day of atonement [Lev 16:14-15].); but of these things we cannot now speak in detail.
6Now when these things have been so prepared, the priests are continually entering the outer tabernacle performing the divine worship, 7but into the second, only the high priest enters once a year (NASB: On the day of atonement [Yom Kippur], the tenth day of the seventh month [Lev16:29, 34]. For a description of its ritual see Lev 16.), not without taking blood, which he offers for himself and for the sins of the people committed in ignorance (that committed through ignorance or thoughtlessness [error]). 8The Holy Spirit is signifying (to give one to understand, to indicate) this, that the way into the holy place has not yet been disclosed (used of something hitherto non-existent but now made actual and visible, realized) while the outer tabernacle is still standing (NASB: As long as the Mosaic system with its imperfect priesthood and sacrifice remained in effect [8:7-8, 13].), 9which is a symbol for the present time (NASB: The Mosaic tabernacle though superseded, still provided instruction through its typical [symbolic] significance and was a reminder that returning to the old order was useless, since it could not deal effectively with sin.). Accordingly both gifts and sacrifices are offered which cannot make the worshiper perfect in conscience, 10since they relate only to food and drink and various washings, regulations for the body imposed until a time of reformation (NASB: The new covenant, with its new priesthood, new sanctuary and new sacrifice, all introduced by Christ).
11But when Christ appeared as a high priest of the good things to come, He entered through the greater and more perfect (brought to its end, finished; lacking nothing necessary to completeness) tabernacle, not made with hands, that is to say, not of this creation (NASB: It was not an earthly tabernacle, but the heavenly sanctuary of God’s presence [v. 24; 8:2]); 12and not through the blood of goats and calves, but through His own blood, He entered the holy place once for all (NASB: Not repeatedly year after year as did the Levitical high priests. Christ’s sacrifice was perfect, because it was completely effective and did not need to be repeated. After He had obtained eternal redemption, Christ ascended into the true heavenly sanctuary.), having obtained eternal redemption. 13For if the blood of goats and bulls (NASB: As on the day of atonement.) and the ashes of a heifer (NASB: As prescribed in Num 19 for those who became ceremonially unclean as a result of contact with a corpse.) sprinkling those who have been defiled (to make [levitically] unclean, render unhallowed, defile, profane) sanctify for the cleansing of the flesh (NASB: Such sprinkling, since it was only external, could not cleanse a person from sin.), 14how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered Himself (NASB: He was the one who offered the sacrifice, and He was the sacrifice itself.) without blemish (NASB: In the entierty of Christ’s being, not just superficially.) to God, cleanse your conscience (NASB: Remove sin’s defilement from the very core of our beings) from dead works to serve the living God?
15For this reason He is the mediator (See 8:6; 12:24; 1 Tim 2:5.) of a new covenant (See 7:22; 8:6, 13.), so that, since a death has taken place for the redemption of the transgressions (NASB: Cf. Mark 10:45. By shedding His blood, He paid the necessary price to set them free from the sins committed under the first covenant, i.e., violations of Mosaic law.) that were committed under the first covenant, those who have been called (οἱ κεκλημένοι,Hebrew 9:15; καλεῖν and καλεῖσθαι are used with a specification of the mediate end [for the highest or final end of the calling is eternal salvation]) may receive the promise of the eternal inheritance (NASB: Defined in the passage from Jeremiah [31:31-34] quoted in 8:8-12. On the basis of Christ’s atoning death, this inheritance has become real for those who are called by God [Rom 8:28].). 16For where a covenant (NASB: Here and in v. 17 “covenant” is used in the sense of a last will and testament. [Verse 18 returns to the concept of covenant]. Beneficiaries have no claim on the benefits assigned to them in a will until the testator dies [v. 17]. Since Christ’s death has been duly attested, “the promise of the eternal inheritance” [v. 15] is available to his beneficiaries.) is, there must of necessity be the death of the one who made it. 17For a covenant is valid only when men are dead, for it is never in force while the one who made it lives. 18Therefore even the first covenant was not inaugurated without blood (NASB: Without death-the death of the calves from which Moses took blood to seal the old covenant). 19For when every commandment had been spoken by Moses to all the people according to the Law, he took the blood of the calves and the goats, with water and scarlet wool and hyssop, and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 20saying, “THIS IS THE BLOOD OF THE COVENANT WHICH GOD COMMANDED YOU.” (NASB: For the ceremony referred to here see Ex 24:4-8.) 21And in the same way he sprinkled both the tabernacle and all the vessels of the ministry with the blood (NASB: See, e.g., Lev 8:10, 19, 30). 22And according to the Law, one may almost say, all things are cleansed with blood, and without shedding of blood there is no forgiveness.
23Therefore it was necessary for the copies of the things in the heavens (NASB: See 8:5. Whereas it was necessary for the earthly sanctuary to be purified with animal sacrifices, it was necessary for the heavenly sanctuary to be purified with the better sacrifice of Christ Himself.) to be cleansed with these, but the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these. 24For Christ did not enter a holy place made with hands, a mere copy of the true one, but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us (NASB: See 7:25; 1 John 2:1); 25nor was it that He would offer Himself often, as the high priest enters the holy place year by year with blood that is not his own. 26Otherwise, He would have needed to suffer often since the foundation of the world; but now once at the consummation of the ages (NASB: His coming has ushered in the great Messianic era, toward which all history has moved [see 1:2; cf. 1 Pet 1:20].) He has been manifested to put away sin by the sacrifice of Himself. 27And inasmuch as it is appointed for men to die once and after this comes judgment (NASB: As in the natural order man dies once [v. 27; as a consequence of sin, Rom 5:12], so Christ died once as the perfect sacrifice for sin (v. 28]. And as, after death, man faces judgment, so Christ, after His death, will appear again, bringing salvation from sin and its judgment.), 28so Christ also, having been offered once to bear the sins of many (absolutely and without the article, many, a large part of mankind) will appear a second time for salvation (NASB: The consummation, in all its glorious fullness, of the salvation purchased for us on the cross [see Rom 8:29-30; Phil 3:20-21; 1 John 3:2-3].) without reference to sin, to those who eagerly await Him (NASB: As the Israelites waited for the high priest while he was in the Holy of Holies on the day of atonement [see 2 Tim 4:8 in the future there is laid up for me the crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will award to me on that day; and not only to me, but also to all who have loved His appearing. Titus 2:13looking for the blessed hope and the appearing of the glory of our great God and Savior, Christ Jesus]).
The Jewish Tabernacle: http://www.kotipetripaavola.com/Tabernacle.html

 
New American Standard Bible
One Sacrifice of Christ Is Sufficient

Heb 10:1For the Law (NASB: Together with the Levitical priesthood to which it was closely linked under the Mosaic system), since it has only a shadow (NASB: The sacrifices prescribed by the law prefigured Christ’s ultimate sacrifice. Thus they were repeated year after year, the very repetition bearing testimony that the perfect, sin removing sacrifice had not yet been offered.) of the good things to come and not the very form (the image of the things [namely, the heavenly things]) of things, can never, by the same sacrifices which they offer continually year by year (animal, bulls and goats), make perfect those who draw near (to draw near to God). 2Otherwise, would they not have ceased to be offered, because the worshipers, having once been cleansed, would no longer have had consciousness of sins? 3But in those sacrifices there is a reminder of sins year by year. 4For it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins (NASB: An animal cannot possibly be a completely adequate substitute for a human being, who is made in the image of God.).
(NASB: The different terms used for Levitical sacrifices represent four of the five types of offerings prescribed by the Mosaic Law [Lev 1-7], namely, peace, grain, burnt and sin.)
5Therefore, when He comes into the world (NASB: The words of this psalm of David [40:6-8] express Christ’s obedient submission to the Father in coming to earth. The Mosaic sacrifices are replaced by submissive obedience to the will of God [v. 7].), He says,
“SACRIFICE AND OFFERING YOU HAVE NOT DESIRED,
BUT A BODY YOU HAVE PREPARED (to fit or frame for oneself, prepare) FOR ME;
6IN WHOLE BURNT OFFERINGS AND sacrifices FOR SIN YOU HAVE TAKEN NO PLEASURE (to be well pleased with, take pleasure in, a person or thing: (i. e. when directing the mind, turning the thoughts, unto), to be favorably inclined toward one)
7“THEN I SAID, ‘BEHOLD, I HAVE COME
(IN THE SCROLL OF THE BOOK IT IS WRITTEN OF ME)
TO DO YOUR WILL (NASB: The will of the Father was the Son’s consuming concern [see Luke 22:42; John 4:34]), O GOD.’”
8After saying above, “SACRIFICES AND OFFERINGS AND WHOLE BURNT OFFERINGS AND sacrifices FOR SIN YOU HAVE NOT DESIRED, NOR HAVE YOU TAKEN PLEASURE in them” (which are offered according to the Law), 9then He said, “BEHOLD, I HAVE COME TO DO YOUR WILL.” He takes away the first (one’s first state) in order to establish the second (NASB: His perfect sacrifice, offered in complete submission, supersedes and therefore replaces all previous sacrifices.). 10By this will we have been sanctified (NASB: Justified, set apart in consecration to God, and now experiencing the process of continuing sanctification [see “are sanctified,” v. 14; 1 Cor 1:12]) through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.
(NASB: vv. 10-14: A contrast between “standing” and “sitting.” The Levitical priest always stood, because his work was never finished.)
11Every priest stands daily ministering and offering time after time the same sacrifices (NASB: Because these sacrifices were unable to accomplish what they signified. They could not remove sin, and thus had to be offered over and over again.), which can never take away sins; 12but He, having offered one sacrifice for sins for all time, SAT DOWN AT THE RIGHT HAND OF GOD (NASB: In contrast to the work of the Levitical priest, which was never done ([v. 11; 1:3, 13], Christ’s work was completed. His one sacrifice atoned for the sins of all time, making any further sacrifice unnecessary [v. 14]. ), 13waiting from that time onward UNTIL HIS ENEMIES BE MADE A FOOTSTOOL FOR HIS FEET. 14For by one offering He has perfected for all time those who are sanctified (to purify by expiation, free from the guilt of sin).
(NASB: vv. 10:15-18: The two quotations included in these verses are from Jer 31:31-34 [already cited in 8:8-12]. The new covenant guarantees that sins will be effectively and completely forgiven [v. 17], with the result that no additional sacrifice for sins is needed [v. 18].)
15And the Holy Spirit also testifies to us; for after saying,
16“THIS IS THE COVENANT THAT I WILL MAKE WITH THEM
AFTER THOSE DAYS, SAYS THE LORD:
I WILL PUT MY LAWS UPON THEIR HEART (the center and seat of spiritual life, “the soul or mind, as it is the fountain and seat of the thoughts, passions, desires, appetites, affections, purposes, endeavors” [so in English heart, inner man, etc.]),
AND ON THEIR MIND (the mind as the faculty of understanding, feeling, desiring) I WILL WRITE THEM,”
He then says,
17“AND THEIR SINS AND THEIR LAWLESS DEEDS
I WILL REMEMBER NO MORE.”
18Now where there is forgiveness of these things, there is no longer any offering for sin.

A New and Living Way

(NASB: Another section of practical application and exhortation begins here.)
19Therefore, brethren, since we have confidence (free and fearless confidence, cheerful courage, boldness, assurance) to enter the holy place (NASB: The way into the sanctuary of God’s presence was closed to the people under the former covenant because the blood of animal sacrifices could never completely atone for their sins. Now, however, believers can come to the throne of grace since the perfect priest has offered the perfect sacrifice, atoning for sin once for all.) by the blood of Jesus, 20by a new ( /prósphatos [“freshly-killed”] is used only in Heb 10:20, describing “the new road” Christ has successfully inaugurated [the NT era] by the sacrifice of Himself) and living (having vital power in itself and exerting the same upon the soul) way which He inaugurated for us through the veil (in a similar figurative way the body of Christ is called καταπέτασμα, in [Heb.] , because, as the veil had to be removed in order that the high priest might enter the most holy part of the earthly temple, so the body of Christ had to be removed by his death on the cross, that an entrance might be opened into the fellowship of God in heaven.), that is, His flesh (NASB: When Jesus died, the curtain separating the holy place from the Holy of Holies was “torn in two from top to bottom” [Mark 15:38]. The curtain symbolized the body of Christ in terms of suffering: Like the curtain, His body was torn to open the way into the divine presence.), 21and since we have a great priest over the house of God,
(NASB: vv. 22-25: Five exhortations spring from Jesus’ provision for our reconciliation to His Father: 1. “Let us draw near.” 2. “Let us hold fast the confession of our hope without wavering.” 3. “Let us consider how to stimulate one another.” 4. “Not forsaking our own assembling together.” 5. “Encourage one another.”)
(NASB: v. 10:22: Four conditions are given for drawing “near” to God: 1. a sincere heart. Undivided allegiance in the inner being. 2. full assurance of faith. Faith that knows no hesitation in trusting in and following Christ. 3. hearts sprinkled… from an evil conscience. Total freedom from a sense of guilt, a freedom based on the once-for-all sacrifice of Christ. 4. bodies washed with pure water. Not an external ceremony such as baptism but a figure for inner cleaning, of which the washing of the priest under the old covenant was a symbol [see Ex 30:19-21“Aaron and his sons shall wash their hands and their feet from it; when they enter the tent of meeting, they shall wash with water, so that they will not die; or when they approach the altar to minister, by offering up in smoke a fire sacrifice to the LORD. “So they shall wash their hands and their feet, so that they will not die; and it shall be a perpetual statute for them, for Aaron and his descendants throughout their generations.” Lev 8:6Then Moses had Aaron and his sons come near and washed them with water. See also Ezek 36:25 “Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you will be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols.”], where a similar expression is used figuratively for the cleansing resulting from the new covenant.)
22let us draw near with a sincere (true, veracious) heart in full (fullness, abundance) assurance (entire confidence) of faith (with the predominant idea of trust [or confidence] whether in God or in Christ, springing from faith in the same), having our hearts sprinkled (to cleanse by sprinkling, hence, tropically, to purify, cleanse) clean from an evil (a soul conscious of wickedness [conscious wickedness]) conscience (a mind conscious of wrong-doing) and our bodies washed (Note: I included all definitions all the definitions because I found them interesting: Wash Heb 10:22 physically: Matthew 23:26; Matthews 27:59; Hebrews 10:22 [23]; Revelations 15:6 Revelations 19:8, 14, and Rec. in Revelations 22:1; χρυσίον, purified by fire, Revelations 21:18, 21; in a similitude, like a vine cleansed by pruning and so fitted to bear fruit, John 15:3; ὁ λελουμένος … καθαρός ὅλος (where the idea winch Christ expresses figuratively is as follows: ‘he whose inmost nature has been renovated does not need radical renewal, but only to be cleansed from every several fault into which he may fall through contact with the unrenewed world’), John 13:10.) with pure (“without admixture” (BAGD); what is separated [purged], hence “clean” [pure] because unmixed [without undesirable elements]; [figuratively] spiritually clean because purged [purified by God], i.e. free from the contaminating [soiling] influences of sin.) water (for washing). 23Let us hold fast the confession of our hope (NASB: See 6:18-20.) without wavering (not inclining, firm, unmoved. NASB: Without doubt or hesitation. Some of the readers were tempted to give up the struggle and turn back to a form of Judaism.), for He who promised is faithful (NASB: Cf. 2 Tim 2:13); 24and let us consider how to stimulate one another to love and good deeds, 25not forsaking our own assembling together (NASB: The Greek word translated “forsaking” speaks of desertion and abandonment (see Mark 27:46; 2 Cor 4:9; 2 Tim 4:10, 16.), as is the habit of some, but encouraging one another; and all the more as you see the day (of the lust day of the present age, the day in which Christ will return from heaven, raise the dead, hold the final judgment, and perfect his kingdom. See 1 Thess 5:2, , 4; 2 Thess 1:10; 2:2; 2 Pet 3:10.) drawing near.
Christ or Judgment

(NASB: vv. 10:26-31: That these verses are a warning to persons [*some,” v. 25] deserting the Christian assembly is apparent from the Greek word gar [“for”] at the beginning of v. 26. [See 6:4-8 where the same spiritual condition is discussed.)
26For if we go on sinning (In the N. T. to wander from the law of God, violate God’s law, sin: of the violation of civil laws, which Christians regard as also the transgression of divine law) willfully (voluntarily, willingly, of one’s own accord. NASB: Committing the sin of apostasy [see v. 29; see also 52]. The OT background is Num 15:27-31 ‘Also if one person sins unintentionally, then he shall offer a one year old female goat for a sin offering. ‘The priest shall make atonement before the LORD for the person who goes astray when he sins unintentionally, making atonement for him that he may be forgiven. ‘You shall have one law for him who does anything unintentionally, for him who is native among the sons of Israel and for the alien who sojourns among them. ‘But the person who does anything defiantly, whether he is native or an alien, that one is blaspheming the LORD; and that person shall be cut off from among his people. ‘Because he has despised the word of the LORD and has broken His commandment, that person shall be completely cut off; his guilt will be on him.’”.) after receiving (lto lay hold by aggressively [actively] accepting what is available [offered]. /lambánō [“accept with initiative”] emphasizes the volition [assertiveness] of the receiver.) the knowledge (precise and correct knowledge; used in the N. T. of the knowledge of things ethical and divine) of the truth (“the truth, as taught in the Christian religion, respecting God and the execution of his purposes through Christ, and respecting the duties of man,” opposed alike to the superstitions of the Gentiles and the inventions of the Jews, and to the corrupt opinions and precepts of false teachers even among Christians: ἡ ἀλήθεια τοῦ εὐαγγελίου the truth which is the gospel or which the gospel presents), there no longer remains (is reserved) a sacrifice for sins (NASB: To reject Christ’s sacrifice for sin is to reject the only sacrifice, there is no other), 27but a terrifying (affected with fear) expectation (awaiting; out from the judge and on to the one judged, i.e. the outcome of solemn [personally-felt] expectation of receiving one’s “just desserts” [used only in Heb 10:27]) of judgment and THE FURY (zeal, jealousy [God is jealous for His own glory.]. NASB: See 2 Thess 1:6-9For after all it is only just for God to repay with affliction those who afflict you, and to give relief to you who are afflicted and to us as well when the Lord Jesus will be revealed from heaven with His mighty angels in flaming fire, dealing out retribution to those who do not know God and to those who do not obey the gospel of our Lord Jesus. These will pay the penalty of eternal destruction, away from the presence of the Lord and from the glory of His power) OF A FIRE (fiery, burning anger) WHICH WILL CONSUME (to devour) THE ADVERSARIES. 28Anyone who has set aside (according to the context, ‘to act toward anything as though it were annulled’; hence, to deprive a law of force by opinions or acts opposed to it, to transgress it) the Law of Moses dies without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses (NASB: See Deut 17:2-7 ). 29How much severer (how much sorer punishment) punishment do you think he will deserve who has trampled under foot (to spurn, treat with insulting neglect) the Son of God, and has regarded as unclean (common) the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified (to make holy, i.e. [ceremonially] purify or consecrate; [mentally]), and has insulted (enybrízō [from /en, “in,” intensifying /hybrízō, “to insult, injure, showing arrogance”] – to insult [outrage], treat despitefully, reproach [used only in Heb 10:29]; to treat with contumely: harsh language or treatment arising from haughtiness and contempt; also : an instance of such language or treatment.) the Spirit of grace (in the N. T. writers use χάρις pre-eminently of that kindness by which God bestow: favors even upon the ill-deserving, and grants to sinners the pardon of their offences, and bids them accept of eternal salvation through Christ)? (NASB: See 9:20; 13:20; Ex 24:8; Matt 26:28; Mark 14:24.) 30For we know Him who said, “VENGEANCE (a revenging; vengeance, punishment) IS MINE, I WILL REPAY (in a bad sense, of penalty and vengeance).” And again, “THE LORD WILL JUDGE HIS PEOPLE (the people).” 31It is a terrifying (affected with fear) thing to fall into the hands of the living (through the power of God to live and be strong toward one [namely, in correcting and judging]) God (NASB: See 12:29).
32But remember the former days (NASB: Presumably following their first enthusiastic response to the gospel, when they had unflinchingly suffered loss and persecution and were deeply concerned for each other.), when, after being enlightened (by a use only Biblical and ecclesiastical, to enlighten spiritually, imbue with saving knowledge: with a saving knowledge of the gospel: hence, φωτισθέντες of those who have been made Christians, Hebrews 6:4; Hebrews 10:32), you endured (to stay behind, to await) a great conflict of sufferings, 33partly by being made a public spectacle through reproaches and tribulations, and partly by becoming sharers with those who were so treated. 34For you showed sympathy to the prisoners and accepted joyfully the seizure of your property, knowing that you have for yourselves a better possession and a lasting one (NASB: Such a salvation in Christ and future reward [11:10, 13-16, 26, 35; 13:14, Matt 5:11-12; 6:19-21; Rom 8:18].). 35Therefore, do not throw away your confidence (of the undoubting confidence of Christians relative to their fellowship with God), which has a great reward (compensation corresponding to a particular decision [action]. This recompense “swings both ways” – bringing a [just] reward from God for living in faith [Heb 10:35, 11:26]), or divine punishment [Heb 2:2] when living in self-government.). 36For you have need of endurance, so that when you have done the will (a desire [wish], often referring to God’s “preferred-will,” i.e. His “best-offer” to people which can be accepted or rejected. [Note the -ma suffix, focusing on the result hoped for with the particular desire [wish]. [thélēma] is nearly always used of God, referring to His preferred-will. Occasionally it is used of man [cf. Lk 23:25 And he released the man they were asking for who had been thrown into prison for insurrection and murder, but he delivered Jesus to their will. Jn 1:13 who were born, not of blood nor of the will of the flesh nor of the will of man, but of God.]) of God, you may receive what was promised.
37FOR YET IN A VERY LITTLE WHILE,
HE WHO IS COMING WILL COME, AND WILL NOT DELAY.
38BUT MY RIGHTEOUS (contextually, approved God, acceptable to God: with the addition ἐκ πίστεως, acceptable to God by faith) ONE SHALL LIVE (emphatically, and in the Messianic sense, to enjoy real life, i. e. to have true life and worthy of the name — active, blessed, endless in the kingdom of God: with the addition of ἐκ πίστεως: of trust in the promises of God) BY FAITH (NASB: See Hab 2:4: In light of God’s revelation about how [and when] He is working, His people are to wait patiently and live by faith-trusting their sovereign God. The clause is quoted frequently in the NT to support the teaching that people are saved by grace through faith [Rom 1:17; Gal 3:11; cf. Eph 2:8] and should live by faith [Heb 10:38-39]…. The same principle that was applicable in the realm of national deliverance is applicable in the area of spiritual deliverance [salvation].);
AND IF HE SHRINKS BACK, MY SOUL HAS NO PLEASURE IN HIM.
39But we are not of those who shrink back to destruction (a withdrawing; the timidity of one stealthily retreating: we have no part in shrinking back etc., we are free from the cowardice of etc. [we are not of them that shrink back etc.]. NASB: The opposite of “believe and are saved.” The author is confident that those to whom he is writing are, for the most part, among the saved [See 6:9.]), but of those who have faith to the preserving (a preserving, preservation: to the preserving of the soul, namely, that it may be made partaker of eternal salvation [unto the saving of the soul]) of the soul. (Alice: By grace through faith all the way)

 

 

New American Standard Bible
The Triumphs of Faith

(Faith OT: Is 7:9 The head of Ephraim is Samaria, and the head of Samaria is only Remaliah’s son. If you do not stand firm in your faith, you will not stand at all.’ ”
Vos notes that in faith one first believes in God. Back of His word we trust Him. We trust His word because He said it. Upon belief of the word, there follows a committal of the whole being upon God – a rest in God for ones whole being.

Interesting use of the root aman in Isaiah 7:9: “If you will not believe, you surely shall not last” (NASB).

“If you do not stand firm in your faith, you will not stand at all.” (NIV) “If you do not stand firm in faith, you shall not stand at all.” (NRSV) “If you are not firm in faith, you will not be firm at all.” (ESV)

Lit: “Unless you hold firm [in faith], you will not be made firm [in life]”

Joseph Ratzinger’s literal translation: “If you do not believe (if you do not hold firm to Yahweh), then you will have no hold.” Commenting on this verse Ratzinger says,” The one root ‘mn (Amen) embraces a variety of meanings whose interplay and differentiation go to make up the subtle grandeur of this sentence. It includes the meaning truth, firmness, firm ground, ground, and furthermore the meaning loyalty, to trust, entrust oneself, take one’s stand on something, believe in something; thus faith in God appears as a holding on to God through which man gains a firm hold for his life. Faith is thereby defined as taking up a position, as taking a stand trustfully on the ground of the word of God” [Joseph Ratzinger, Introduction to Christianity, p. 39. Vos notes that in faith one first believes in God. Back of His word we trust Him. We trust His word because He said it. Upon belief of the word, there follows a committal of the whole being upon God – a rest in God for ones whole being.)

Heb 11:1(NASB: Exhortations based on the preceding expositions of OT passages) Now faith (Dr Saucy: Faith is positive willing; it makes the unseen real. Faith comes from God and goes back to God; it grabs hold of Yehoshua.] is the assurance (hypostasis [from /hypó, “under” and /hístēmi, “to stand”] – properly, [to possess] standing under a guaranteed agreement [“title-deed”]; [figuratively] “title” to a promise or property, i.e. a legitimate claim [because it literally is, “under a legal-standing”] – entitling someone to what is guaranteed under the particular agreement. /hypóstasis [“title of possession”] is the Lord’s guarantee to fulfill the faith He [YHVH] inbirths [cf. Heb 11:1 with Heb 11:6.]. Indeed we are only entitled to what God grants faith for [Ro 14:23]. steadiness of mind, firmness, courage resolution; confidence, firm trust, assurance. Alice: The only source of faith is YHWH and it is a gift from Him: Eph 2:8 “For it is by grace you have been saved, through faith—and this is not from yourselves, it is the gift of God.” All believers have saving faith: Rom 12:3For by the grace given me I say to every one of you: Do not think of yourself more highly than you ought, but rather think of yourself with sober judgment, in accordance with the faith God has distributed to each of you. [Paul’s audience was the assembly at the church in Rome.]) of things hoped (to hope, actively waiting for God’s fulfillment about the faith He has inbirted through the power of His love [cf. Gal 5:6 with Heb 11:1]. to wait for salvation with joy and full of confidence) for, the conviction (proof, that by which a thing is proved or tested, that by which invisible things are proved [and we are convinced of their reality]) of things not seen. 2For by it the men of old (NASB: Heroes of faith in the pre-Christian era, such as those listed in this chapter) gained approval (“to be borne [good] witness to, to be well reported of, accredited, attested, of good report).
3By faith we understand (to perceive with the mind) that the worlds were prepared by the word of God, so that what is seen was not made out of things which are visible. 4By faith Abel offered to God a better sacrifice than Cain, through which he obtained the testimony that he was righteous, God testifying about his gifts (of sacrifices and other gifts offered to God), and through faith, though he is dead, he still speaks (NASB: See Gen 4:2-5. Both brothers brought offerings to the Lord: Cain from the fruits of the soil, and Able from the firstborn of his flock. The chief reason for the acceptance of Abel’s sacrifice was that he offered it “by faith.” It is implied that Cain’s sacrifice was rejected because he offered it without faith, as a mere formality [see 1 John 3:12not as Cain, who was of the evil one and slew his brother. And for what reason did he slay him? Because his deeds were evil, and his brother’s were righteous.].). 5By faith Enoch was taken (to transfer, change. NASB: See Gen 5:18-24) up so that he would not see death; AND HE WAS NOT FOUND BECAUSE GOD TOOK HIM UP (NASB: To God’s presence [cf. Ps 49:15; 73:24]); for he obtained the witness that before his being taken up he was pleasing to God. 6And without faith it is impossible to please (to be well-pleasing) Him (NASB: The Enoch pleased God is proof of his faith.), for he who comes to God must believe (entrust; in the N. T. of “the conviction and trust to which a man is impelled by a certain inner and higher prerogative and law of his soul”; thus it stands absolutely to trust in Jesus or in God as able to aid either in obtaining or in doing something) that He is (NASB: Faith must have an object, and the proper object of genuine faith is God.) and that He is a rewarder (someone “paying what is due; a rewarder”; a paymaster, giving rewards in keeping with his own values, only used in Heb 11:6.) of those who seek (to seek out, demand, inquire) Him (See Jer 29:13You will seek Me and find Me when you search for Me with all your heart.). 7By faith Noah, being warned (passive, to be divinely commanded, admonished) by God about things not yet seen, in reverence (to reverence, stand in awe of God’s declaration) prepared an ark for the salvation of his household, by which he condemned the world, and became an heir of the righteousness which is according (righteousness proceeding from faith) to faith (NASB: See Gen 5:28-9:29. By which he condemned: When the flood came, God’s word was proved to be true. Noah’s faith was vindicated, and the world’s unbelief was judged. Righteousness which is according to faith: Noah expresses complete trust in God and His word, even when it related to “things not seen” [v. 1], namely, the coming flood. Thus Noah also fitted the description of God’s righteous ones who live by faith [10:38]. His faith in God’s word moved him to build the ark in a dry, landlocked region when it was inconceivable that there would ever be enough water to float the vessel.).
8By faith Abraham, when he was called (equivalent to to call out, call forth from), obeyed by going out to a place which he was to receive for an inheritance; and he went out, not knowing where he was going. (NASB: Abraham: Presented in the NT as the outstanding example of those who live “by faith” and as the “father of all who believe” [Rom4:11-12, 16; Gal 3:7, 9, 29]. Called: See Gen 12:1-3. His faith expressed itself in obedience [see Gen 12:4]. A place which he was to receive: Canaan. Not knowing where he was going: He did not go in blind faith, but in complete confidence in God’s trustworthiness.) 9By faith he lived as an alien in the land of promise, as in a foreign land, dwelling in tents with Isaac and Jacob, fellow heirs of the same promise; 10for he was looking (expect, wait for) for the city which has foundations (NASB: Speaks of permanence in contrast to the tents in which the patriarch lived [v. 9]. You will seek Me and find Me when you search for Me with all your heart. This city is “the heavenly Jerusalem” [12:22], “the city which is to come” [13:14] and the “new Jerusalem” [Rev 21:2-4, 9-27].), whose architect and builder (Cf. Ps 147:2The LORD builds up Jerusalem; He gathers the outcasts of Israel.].) is God. 11By faith even Sarah herself received ability to conceive, even beyond the proper time of life, since she considered Him (WHVH) faithful who had promised. 12Therefore there was born even of one man, and him as good as dead at that, as many descendants AS THE STARS OF HEAVEN IN NUMBER, AND INNUMERABLE AS THE SAND WHICH IS BY THE SEASHORE (NASB: A simile [common in the ancient Near East] for the large number of Abraham’s offsprings [see 15:5; 22:17; 26:4; 1 Kings 4:20]).
13All these died in faith (faithfulness), without receiving the promises, but having seen (to see, perceive, attend to) them and having welcomed (to receive joyfully, welcome) them from a distance (NASB: By faith they saw-dimly-these heavenly realities and were sure that what they hoped for would ultimately be theirs (see v. 1]. ), and having confessed (not to deny; declare) that they were strangers (a foreigner) and exiles (in the N. T. metaphorically, in reference to heaven as the native country, one who sojourns on earth: so of Christians) on the earth. 14For those who say such things make it clear that they are seeking a country of their own. 15And indeed if they had been thinking of that country from which they went out, they would have had opportunity to return. 16But as it is, they desire (to stretch forth, to stretch oneself out in order to touch or to grasp something, to reach after or desire something) a better country, that is, a heavenly one. Therefore God is not ashamed to be called their God; for He has prepared a city for them (NASB: City [v. 10] and country are interchangeable in the concluding chapters of this letter [vv. 9-10, 14-16; 13:14]. The ultimate reality is represented by the new Jerusalem in John’s vision of the believer’s eternal state [see Rev 21:2]).
17By faith Abraham, when he was tested (to make proof of), offered up Isaac, and he who had received the promises was offering up his only begotten son; 18it was he to whom it was said, “IN ISAAC YOUR DESCENDANTS SHALL BE CALLED.” 19He considered that God is able to raise people even from the dead, from which he also received him back as a type (a placing beside, a comparison. NASB: So strong was Abraham’s faith that he actually believed that God would raise Isaac from the dead if necessary, an event that did occur figuratively when the substitute ram was provided [Gen 22:13].). 20By faith Isaac blessed Jacob (Gen 27:28, 29, 37 Now may God give you of the dew of heaven, And of the fatness of the earth, And an abundance of grain and new wine; May peoples serve you, And nations bow down to you; Be master of your brothers, And may your mother’s sons bow down to you. Cursed be those who curse you, And blessed be those who bless you.” But Isaac replied to Esau, “Behold, I have made him your master, and all his relatives I have given to him as servants; and with grain and new wine I have sustained him.) and Esau (Gen 27:39-40Then Isaac his father answered and said to him, “Behold, away from the fertility of the earth shall be your dwelling, And away from the dew of heaven from above. “By your sword you shall live, And your brother you shall serve; But it shall come about when you become restless, That you will break his yoke from your neck.”), even regarding things to come. 21By faith Jacob, as he was dying, blessed each of the sons of Joseph, and worshiped, leaning on the top of his staff. 22By faith Joseph, when he was dying, made mention of the exodus of the sons of Israel, and gave orders concerning his bones (Jacob and Joseph are additional examples of those whose faith is no less strong at death than in life [v. 13].
23By faith Moses, when he was born, was hidden for three months by his parents, because they saw he was a beautiful child (NASB: Moses was “lovely in the sigh of God” [Acts 7:20].); and they were not afraid of the king’s edict. 24By faith Moses, when he had grown up, refused to be called the son of Pharaoh’s daughter, 25choosing rather to endure ill-treatment with the people of God than to enjoy the passing pleasures of sin (NASB: The luxury and prestige in Egypt’s royal palace), 26considering the reproach (i. e. such as Christ suffered [for the cause of God from its enemies]) of Christ greater riches than the treasures of Egypt; for he was looking to the reward (compensation corresponding to a particular decision [action]. This recompense “swings both ways” – bringing a [just] reward from God for living in faith [Heb 10:35, 11:26], or divine punishment [Heb 2:2] when living in self-government; payment of wages due, recompense) (NASB: Although Moses’ understanding of the details of the Messianic hope was extremely limited, he chose to be associated with the people through whom that hope was to be realized. Treasure of Egypt: The priceless treasure of King Tutankhamun’s tomb alone included several thousand pounds of pure gold.). 27By faith he left Egypt, not fearing the wrath of the king; for he endured (to be steadfast. NASB: For 40 years in Midian [Acts 7:30]. Moses was sustained by his trust in God that the liberation of Israel would come and that he would have some part in it.), as seeing Him who is unseen. 28By faith he kept the Passover and the sprinkling of the blood, so that he who destroyed the firstborn would not touch them. 29By faith they passed through the Red Sea as though they were passing through dry land; and the Egyptians, when they attempted it, were drowned (NASB: The third and final 40 year period of Moses’ life was spent leading the Israelites through the wilderness. At the age of 120 years he died in Moab [Deut 34:1-7]).
30By faith the walls of Jericho fell down after they had been encircled for seven days (Moses’ place as leader was taken by Joshua, who brought the people of Israel into the land of promise. Jericho: The first great obstacle to their conquest of the land was captured by faith without a battle [Josh 6].) 31By faith Rahab (a Canaanitess and an ancestor of Christ) the harlot did not perish along with those who were disobedient (to refuse belief and obedience), after she had welcomed the spies in peace (NASB: Rahab the harlot: A designation describing her way of life prior to her newly found faith [Josh 2:8-11; 62:22-25; also a testimony to God’s boundless grace that can reach down and redeem and raise any sinner to eternal dignity. [Alice: Moreover the law entered, that the offence might abound. But where sin abounded, grace did much more abound]).
(NASB: There were many more heroes of faith before the coming of Christ, and much more could be written of them. Only a small sampling is given, representing all types of men and women of faith. The great quality they had in common was that of overcoming “by faith” [v. 3].)
32And what more shall I say? For time will fail me if I tell of Gideon, Barak, Samson, Jephthah, of David and Samuel and the prophets, 33who by faith conquered kingdoms, performed acts of righteousness, obtained promises, shut the mouths of lions (Daniel in the lions’ den [Dan 6]), 34quenched the power of fire (NASB: Daniel’s friends, Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego, in the fiery furnace [Dan 3] ), escaped the edge of the sword, from weakness were made stron (NASB: Through God’s help [see Rom 8:26; 2 Cor 12:9]), became mighty in war, put foreign armies to flight. 35Women received back their dead by resurrection (See 1Kings 17:17-24; 2 kings 4:8-36); and others were tortured, not accepting their release, so that they might obtain a better resurrection (resurrection to life); 36and others experienced mockings and scourgings, yes, also chains and imprisonment (NASB: Strongly reminiscent of the heroic Maccabean Jewish patriots of the second century B.C.. But the description applies also to countless believers, known and unknown, who demonstrated their faith in God by persevering in the face of harsh trials and afflictions.). 37They were stoned, they were sawn in two, they were tempted, they were put to death with the sword; they went about in sheepskins, in goatskins, being destitute, afflicted, ill-treated (NASB: Men like Zechariah, the son of Jehoiada the priest, who were put to death for declaring the truth [2 Chr 24:20-22; Luke 11:15]. Sawn in two: Perhaps refers to Isaiah, who, according to tradition, met this kind of death under wicked King Manasseh.) 38 (men of whom the world was not worthy [worthy of one’s fellowship, and of the blessings connected with it]), wandering in deserts and mountains and caves and holes in the ground.
39And all these, having gained approval through their faith (NASB: Not all the heroes of faith experienced immediate triumph over their circumstances, but all were blessed by God.), did not receive what was promised, 40because God had provided something better (more useful, more serviceable. NASB: The fulfillment for them, as for us, is in Christ who is “the resurrection and the life” [John 11:25-26].) for us, so that apart from us they would not be made perfect (to raise to the state of heavenly blessedness those who put their faith in the expiatory death of Christ, passive. NASB: All persons of faith who had gone before focused their faith on God and His promises. The fulfillment of God’s promises to them has now come in Jesus Christ, and their redemption too is now complete in Him. [Alice: Glory to God, right before our eyes!]).

 
New American Standard Bible
Jesus, the Example

Heb 12:1Therefore, since we have so great a cloud of witnesses surrounding us, let us also lay aside (to be put off or away which anyone gives up, renounces) every encumbrance (a burden, weight) and the sin which so easily entangles (besetting, namely, to prevent or retard running) us, and let us run with endurance (in the N. T. the characteristic of a man who is unswerved from his deliberate purpose and his loyalty to faith and piety by even the greatest trials and sufferings: patiently and steadfastly) the race that is set before us (to be appointed, destined: used of those things which by any appointment are destined to be done, borne, or attained by anyone), (NASB: So great a cloud of witnesses surrounding us: The imagery suggests an athletic contest in a great amphitheater. The witnesses are the heroes of the past who have just been mentioned [ch11]. They are not spectators but inspiring examples. The word Greek word translated “witnesses” is the origin of the English word “martyr” and means “testifiers, witnesses.” They bear testimony to the power of faith and to God’s faithfulness. Run with endurance: See Acts 20:24; 1 Cor 9:24-26; Gal 2:2; 5:7; Phil 2:16; 2 Tim 4:7. The Christian life is pictured as a long-distance race rather than a short sprint. Some Hebrew Christians were tempting to drop out of the contest because of persecution.) 2fixing our eyes on Jesus (NASB: Just as a runner concentrates on the finish line, we should concentrate on Jesus, the goal and objective of our faith [Phil 3:13-14]), the author (founder, leader [who in the prominence of his faith far surpassed the examples of faith commemorated in Hebrews 11]) and perfecter (a consummator, bringing a process to its finish [used only in Heb 12:2]. NASB: Our faith, which has its beginning in Him, is also completed in Him; He is both the start and the end of the race. He is also the supreme witness who has already run the race and overcome.) of faith (is “the conviction that God exists and is the creator and ruler of all things, the provider and bestower of eternal salvation through Christ”), who for the joy set before Him (NASB: His accomplishing our eternal redemption and His glorification at the Father’s “right hand” (see 1:3; cf. Is 53:10-12.) endured the cross (See Phil 2:5-8.), despising the shame (NASB: As with Christ, the humiliation of our present suffering for the gospel’s sake is far outweighed by the prospect of future glory (see 11:26; Matt 5:10-12; Rom 8:18; 2 Cor 4:17; 1 Pet 4:13; 5:1,10]), and has sat down at the right hand of the throne of God.
3For consider Him (NASB: He suffered infinitely more than any of His disciples is asked to suffer-a great encouragement for us when we are weary and tempted to become discouraged.) who has endured such hostility by sinners against Himself, so that you will not grow weary (See Is 40:28-31 Do you not know? Have you not heard? The Everlasting God, the LORD, the Creator of the ends of the earth Does not become weary or tired. His understanding is inscrutable. He gives strength to the weary, And to him who lacks might He increases power. Though youths grow weary and tired, And vigorous young men stumble badly, Yet those who wait for the LORD Will gain new strength; They will mount up with wings like eagles, They will run and not get tired, They will walk and not become weary.) and lose heart.

A Father’s Discipline

4You have not yet resisted to the point of shedding blood (NASB: Though they had suffered persecution and loss of possessions [10:32-34], they had not had to die for the faith) in your striving against sin;
5and you have forgotten the exhortation (admonition, encouragement) which is addressed to you as sons,
“MY SON, DO NOT REGARD LIGHTLY THE DISCIPLINE (chastisement, chastening [of the evils with which God visits men for their amendment]) OF THE LORD,
NOR FAINT (to despond, become faint-hearted) WHEN YOU ARE REPROVED (to chasten, punish) BY HIM; (NASB: The discipline of the Lord: Suffering and persecution should be seen as corrective and instructive training for our spiritual development as His children.)
6FOR THOSE WHOM THE LORD LOVES HE DISCIPLINES,
AND HE SCOURGES ([figuratively] God sending severe pain in the best eternal interests of the believer; metaphorically, of God as a father chastising and training men as children by affliction. NASB: The Greek for this verb means “to whip.” God chastens us in order to correct our faults.) EVERY SON WHOM HE RECEIVES.” (as His own) 7It is for discipline that you endure; God deals with you as with sons (NASB: God’s discipline is evidence that we are His children. Far from being a reason for despair, discipline is a basis for encouragement and perseverance [v. 10]); for what son is there whom his father does not discipline? 8But if you are without discipline, of which all have become partakers (share in), then you are illegitimate (bastard, i. e. born, not in lawful wedlock, but of a concubine or female slave) children and not sons. 9Furthermore, we had earthly fathers to discipline us, and we respected them; shall we not much rather be subject to the Father of spirits (where the term comprises both the spirits of men and of angels), and live? 10For they disciplined us for a short time as seemed best to them, but He disciplines us for our good, so that we may share His holiness. 11All discipline for the moment seems not to be joyful, but sorrowful; yet to those who have been trained (exercised) by it, afterwards it yields the peaceful fruit of righteousness (NASB: When received submissively [see v. 9] discipline is wholesome and beneficial).
12Therefore, strengthen the hands that are weak and the knees that are feeble (drooping hands and relaxed knees [to raise them up by restoring their strength]), 13and make straight paths (NASB: A call for upright conduct that will help, rather than hinder, the spiritual and mural welfare of others, especially the “lame” who waver in the Christian faith.) for your feet (i. e. follow the path of rectitude, do right), so that the limb which is lame may not be put out of joint (i. e. lest he who is weak in a state of grace fall therefrom [but others, still adhere to the meaning turn aside, go astray]), but rather be healed (tropically, to make whole i. e. to free from errors and sins, to bring about (one’s) salvation).
14Pursue (to seek after eagerly, earnestly endeavor to acquire) peace with all men, and the sanctification (the effect of consecration: sanctification of heart and life [Christ is he to whom we are indebted for sanctification, 1 Cor 1:30 But by His doing you are in Christ Jesus, who became to us wisdom from God, and righteousness and sanctification, and redemption]) without which no one will see the Lord (Cf. 1 Pet 1:15-16; 1 John 3:2-3). 15See to it that no one comes short (fail to become a partaker; coming behind and therefore left out; left wanting [falling short]) of the grace (the N. T. writers use χάρις pre-eminently of that kindness by which God bestow: favors even upon the ill-deserving, and grants to sinners the pardon of their offences, and bids them accept of eternal salvation through Christ. NASB: “Falls short of” or “fails to lay hold of” God’s grace. Such an experience is described in 2:1-4; 6:4-8.) of God; that no root (of a person disposed to apostatize and induce others to commit the same offence) of bitterness (bitter gall, equivalent to extreme wickedness, a bitter root, and so producing bitter fruit [from Deuteronomy 29:18 so that there will not be among you a man or woman, or family or tribe, whose heart turns away today from the LORD our God, to go and serve the gods of those nations; that there will not be among you a root bearing poisonous fruit and wormwood.]. NASB: Pride, animosity, rivalry or anything else harmful to others.) springing up causes trouble (figuratively representing the man who corrupts the faith, piety, character, of the Christian church), and by it many be defiled (with sin); 16that there be no immoral (a [male] prostitute [as venal], i.e. by analogy] a debauchee [libertine] — fornicator, whoremonger; a man who prostitutes his body to another’s lust for hire, a male prostitute; universally, a man who indulges in unlawful sexual intercourse, a fornicator) or godless (of men, profane) person like Esau, who sold his own birthright for a single meal (NASB: See Gen 25:29-34. He had no appreciation for true values and was profane in his outlook on life [cf. Phil 3:18-19]. He “despised his birthright” [Gen 25:34] by valuing food for his stomach more highly than his birthright.). 17For you know that even afterwards, when he desired to inherit the blessing (NASB: The readers were thinking of compromising their faith in order to gain relief from persecution. But to trade their spiritual birthright for temporary ease in this world would deprive them of Christ’s blessing.), he was rejected (to disapprove, repudiate. NASB: Because he only regretted his loss, and did not repent of his sin [Gen 27, especially v. 41So Esau bore a grudge against Jacob because of the blessing with which his father had blessed him; and Esau said to himself, “The days of mourning for my father are near; then I will kill my brother Jacob.”].), for he found no place for repentance (a change of mind: as it appears in one who repents of a purpose he has formed or of something he has done), though he sought for it with tears.

Contrast of Sinai and Zion

(NASB: vv 18-21: These verses describe the awesome occasion when the law was given at mount Sinai [see Ex 19:10-25; Deut 4:11-12; 5:22-26], a description focusing on the old covenant’s tangible mountain, ordinances, terrifying warnings, and severe penalties. Believers in Jesus Christ do not have such a threatening covenant, and should not consider returning to it.)
18For you have not come to a mountain that can be touched and to a blazing fire, and to darkness and gloom and whirlwind, 19and to the blast of a trumpet and the sound of words which sound was such that those who heard begged that no further word be spoken to them. 20For they could not bear the command, “IF EVEN A BEAST TOUCHES THE MOUNTAIN, IT WILL BE STONED.” 21And so terrible was the sight, that Moses said, “I AM FULL OF FEAR and trembling.” 22But you have come to Mount Zion is transferred to heaven, as the true dwelling-place of God and heavenly beings, the antitype of the earthly Zion (is transferred to heaven, as the true dwelling-place of God and heavenly beings, the antitype of the earthly Zion. NASB: Not the literal Mount Zion [Jerusalem, or its southeast portion], but the heavenly city of God and those who dwell there with Him [see 11:10, 13-16; 13:14; Phil 3:20]. The circumstances under which the old covenant was given [vv. 18-21] and the features of the new covenant [vv. 22-24] point up the utter contrast between the two covenants, and lay the foundation for one more warning and exhortation to those still thinking of going back to Judaism.) and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem (“the dwelling of peace”), and to myriads of angels (In the Scriptures, both of the Old Testament and of the New Testament, one of that host of heavenly spirits that, according alike to Jewish and Christian opinion, wait upon the monarch of the universe, and are sent by him to earth, now to execute his purposes [Heb 1:14]; a messenger, generally a (supernatural) messenger from God, an angel, conveying news or behests from God to men.), 23to the general assembly (a public festal assembly) and church (the whole body of Christians scattered throughout the earth; collectively, all who worship and honor God and Christ in whatever place they may be: the name is transferred to the assembly of faithful Christians already dead and received into heaven) of the firstborn who are enrolled (those whose names are inscribed in the heavenly register) in heaven, and to God, the Judge of all, and to the spirits of the righteous (used of O. T. characters noted for piety and probity) made perfect (to raise to the state of heavenly blessedness those who put their faith in the expiatory death of Christ, passive) (NASB: Church of the firstborn: Believers in general who make up the church: (1) They cannot be angels since these have just been mentioned [v. 22]; (2) “firstborn” cannot refer to Christ [though He is called firstborn, 1:6; Rom 8:29; Col 1:15-18; Rev 1:5], since there the Greek word is plural; (3) that their names are recorded in heaven reminds us of the redeemed (see Rev 3:5; 13:8; 17:8; 20:12; 21:27]. The designation “firstborn” suggests their privileged position as heirs together with Christ, the supreme firstborn and “heir of all things” [Heb 1:2]. God the judge of all: See 4:13; Rom 14:10-12; 1 Cor 3:10-15; 2 Cor 5:10; Rev 20:11-15. Spirits of the righteous made perfect: For the most part, these were pre-Christian believers such as Abel [11:4] and Noah [11:7]. They are referred to as “spirits” because they are waiting for the resurrection and as “righteous” because God credited their faith to them as righteousness, as He did to Abraham [see Rom 4:3]. Actual justification was not accomplished, however, until Christ made it complete by His death on the cross [see 11:40; Rom 3:24-26; 4:23-25]. [Alice: I hope it is apparent to you that the OT and NT believers were saved the exact same way, by grace through faith in Jesus alone. The difference between the OT and NT believer’s salvation is the “Baptism in the Holy Spirit,” placing the believer “in Christ.” OT believers are now In Christ also.), 24and to Jesus, the mediator (Christ is called κρείττονος [stronger, more excellent] or καινῆς [a waiter, servant; then of any one who performs any service, an administrator] or νέας διαθήκης μεσίτης [(a) a covenant between two parties] Hebrews 8:6, Hebrews 9:15. Hebrews 12:24. Also see 7:22; 8:6, 13; 9:15; 1 Tim 2:5.) of a new covenant, and to the sprinkled (blood of sprinkling, i. e. appointed for sprinkling [serving to purify]) blood, which speaks better than the blood of Abel (NASB: Abel’s blood cried out for justice and retribution [see Gen 4:10], whereas the blood of Jesus shed on the cross speaks of forgiveness and reconciliation [9:12; 10:19; Col 1:20; 1 John 1:7].).

The Unshaken Kingdom

25See to it that you do not refuse (quivalent to to shun, avoid: to refuse) Him who is speaking (YHVH). For if those did not escape when they refused him who warned them on earth (at Sinai), much less will we escape who turn away from Him who warns from heaven (NASB: [1:1-3; 4:14; 6:20; 7:26; 9:24]. Since we have greater revelation, we have greater responsibility and therefore greater danger (2:2-4].). 26And His voice shook the earth (See Ex 19:18; Judg 5:5; Ps 68:7-8) then, but now He has promised, saying, “YET ONCE MORE I WILL SHAKE NOT ONLY THE EARTH, BUT ALSO THE HEAVEN.” (In Heb 12:28, /asáleutos [“unshakeable”] underlines how the kingdom of God always triumphs because its King [Jesus Christ is always in charge! [Heb 12:26b-28b prophesies the coming of “the new heavens and the new earth” for the New Jerusalem.]) 27This expression, “Yet once more,” (NASB: During the great end-time upheavals associated with the second advent of Christ.) denotes the removing of those things which can be shaken, as of created things, so that those things which cannot be shaken may remain. 28Therefore, since we receive a kingdom which cannot be shaken (The Kingdom [v. 8]), let us show gratitude (thanks [for benefits, services, favors]), by which we may offer to God an acceptable service (See John 4:19-24 The woman said to Him, “Sir, I perceive that You are a prophet. “Our fathers worshiped in this mountain, and you people say that in Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship.” Jesus said to her, “Woman, believe Me, an hour is coming when neither in this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship the Father. “You worship what you do not know; we worship what we know, for salvation is from the Jews. “But an hour is coming, and now is, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth; for such people the Father seeks to be His worshipers. “God is spirit, and those who worship Him must worship in spirit and truth.” Rom 12:1Therefore I urge you, brethren, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living and holy sacrifice, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service of worship.) with reverence (caution, reverence toward God, godly fear, piety) and awe (fear, reverence; a feeling of reverential respect mixed with fear or wonder); 29for our God is a consuming (consume all the way [“up to down”], i.e. exactly [decisively, conclusively]. (katanalískō) means “to consume utterly, wholly [kata, intensive]” and only occurs in Heb 12:29.) fire (as one who when angry visits the obdurate with penal destruction. Cf. Ex 24:17And to the eyes of the sons of Israel the appearance of the glory of the LORD was like a consuming fire on the mountain top. Deut 9:3“Know therefore today that it is the LORD your God who is crossing over before you as a consuming fire. He will destroy them and He will subdue them before you, so that you may drive them out and destroy them quickly, just as the LORD has spoken to you.).(Just thought I would include these verses: Deut 9:1- 14 “Hear, O Israel! You are crossing over the Jordan today to go in to dispossess nations greater and mightier than you, great cities fortified to heaven, a people great and tall, the sons of the Anakim [Anakims = “long-necked” a tribe of giants, descendants of Anak (Anak = “neck”, progenitor of a family, or tribe of the giant people in Canaan), which dwelled in southern Canaan], whom you know and of whom you have heard it said, ‘Who can stand before the sons of Anak?’ “Know therefore today that it is the LORD your God who is crossing over before you as a consuming fire. He will destroy them and He will subdue them before you, so that you may drive them out and destroy them quickly, just as the LORD has spoken to you. “Do not say in your heart when the LORD your God has driven them out before you, ‘Because of my righteousness the LORD has brought me in to possess this land,’ but it is because of the wickedness of these nations that the LORD is dispossessing them before you. “It is not for your righteousness or for the uprightness of your heart that you are going to possess their land, but it is because of the wickedness of these nations that the LORD your God is driving them out before you, in order to confirm the oath which the LORD swore to your fathers, to Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. “Know, then, it is not because of your righteousness that the LORD your God is giving you this good land to possess, for you are a stubborn people. “Remember, do not forget how you provoked the LORD your God to wrath in the wilderness; from the day that you left the land of Egypt until you arrived at this place, you have been rebellious against the LORD. “Even at Horeb you provoked the LORD to wrath, and the LORD was so angry with you that He would have destroyed you. “When I went up to the mountain to receive the tablets of stone, the tablets of the covenant which the LORD had made with you, then I remained on the mountain forty days and nights; I neither ate bread nor drank water. “The LORD gave me the two tablets of stone written by the finger of God; and on them were all the words which the LORD had spoken with you at the mountain from the midst of the fire on the day of the assembly. “It came about at the end of forty days and nights that the LORD gave me the two tablets of stone, the tablets of the covenant. “Then the LORD said to me, ‘Arise, go down from here quickly, for your people whom you brought out of Egypt have acted corruptly. They have quickly turned aside from the way which I commanded them; they have made a molten image for themselves.’ “The LORD spoke further to me, saying, ‘I have seen this people, and indeed, it is a stubborn people. ‘Let Me alone, that I may destroy them and blot out their name from under heaven; and I will make of you a nation mightier and greater than they.’)

 
New American Standard Bible
The Changeless Christ

Heb 13:1Let love of the brethren continue. 2Do not neglect to show hospitality (warmth [friendliness] shown to strangers; love to strangers) to strangers, for by this some have entertained angels (messengers) without knowing it (NASB: As did Abraham [Gen 18], Gideon [Judg 6] and Manoah [Judg 13].). 3Remember the prisoners, as though in prison with them (to bind just as [i. e. jointly with] another: as fellow-prisoners), and those who are ill-treated (to treat ill, oppress, plague: maltreated, tormented), since you yourselves also are in the body (of earthly life with its troubles). 4Marriage is to be held in honor (esteemed, especially dear) among all, and the marriage bed is to be undefiled (unsoiled; free from that by which the nature of a thing is deformed and debased, or its force and vigor impaired”: καίτη pure, free from adultery); for fornicators (a man who prostitutes his body to another’s lust for hire, a male prostitute; universally, a man who indulges in unlawful sexual intercourse, a fornicator) and adulterers (an adulterer, that is, a man who is guilty with a married woman; figuratively, faithless toward God, ungodly) God will judge (contextually, used specifically of the act of condemning and decreeing (or inflicting) penalty on one). 5Make sure that your character (manner of life) is free from the love of money (not avaricios), being content (to be satisfied) with what you have; for He Himself has said, “I WILL NEVER DESERT (to leave, not to uphold, to let sink) YOU, NOR WILL I EVER FORSAKE (to abandon, desert [in some place or condition], i. e. to leave in straits, leave helpless, [colloquial, leave in the lurch]) YOU,”
6so that we confidently (to be of good courage, to be hopeful) say,
“THE LORD IS MY HELPER, I WILL NOT BE AFRAID (to be struck with fear, to be seized with alarm: of those who fear harm or injury).
WHAT WILL MAN DO TO ME?”
7Remember those who led (a leading authority, providing leadership in a local church) you, who spoke the word of God to you; and considering the result of their conduct (NASB: Probably indicates that these exemplary leaders were now dead.), imitate their faith (when it relates to God, πίστις is “the conviction that God exists and is the creator and ruler of all things, the provider and bestower of eternal salvation through Christ”). 8Jesus Christ is the same yesterday and today and forever. 9Do not be carried away by varied (many colored) and strange (foreign) teachings; for it is good for the heart (of the will and character) to be strengthened (to make firm, establish, confirm, make sure: of men made steadfast and constant in soul) by grace (contains the idea of kindness which bestows upon one what he has not deserved: pre-eminently of that kindness by which God bestow: favors even upon the ill-deserving, and grants to sinners the pardon of their offences, and bids them accept of eternal salvation through Christ), not by foods (NASB: As the legalistic Judaizers were teaching. The old Mosaic order was done away with at the cross and must not be revived), through which those who were so occupied were not benefited (to be helped or profited). 10We have an altar (metaphorically, the cross on which Christ suffered an expiatory death: to eat of this altar i. e. to appropriate to oneself the fruits of Christ’s expiatory death. NASB: Probably refers to the cross, which marked the end of the whole Aaronic priesthood and its replacement by the order of Melchizedek, of which Christ is the unique and only priest.) from which those who serve (specifically, of the priests, to officiate, to discharge the sacred office) the tabernacle (the temple is called σκηνή: tabernacle, in Hebrew 13:10) have no right to eat (NASB: The priest could not eat of the sacrifice on the day of atonement, but we can partake of our sacrifice, so to speak-through spiritual reception of Christ by faith [see John 6:48-58 “I am the bread of life. “Your fathers ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. “This is the bread which comes down out of heaven, so that one may eat of it and not die. “I am the living bread that came down out of heaven; if anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever; and the bread also which I will give for the life of the world is My flesh.” Then the Jews began to argue with one another, saying, “How can this man give us His flesh to eat?” So Jesus said to them, “Truly, truly, I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink His blood, you have no life in yourselves. “He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. “For My flesh is true food, and My blood is true drink. “He who eats My flesh and drinks My blood abides in Me, and I in him. “As the living Father sent Me, and I live because of the Father, so he who eats Me, he also will live because of Me. “This is the bread which came down out of heaven; not as the fathers ate and died; he who eats this bread will live forever.”]. We have a higher privilege than the priests under the old covenant had.). 11For the bodies of those animals whose blood is brought into the holy place by the high priest as an offering for sin, are burned outside the camp. 12Therefore Jesus also, that He might sanctify the people through His own blood, suffered outside the gate (of the temple. NASB: Christ’s death outside Jerusalem represents the removal of sin, as had the removal of the bodies of sacrificial animals outside the camp of Israel.). 13So, let us go out to Him outside the camp (NASB: Calls for separation from Judaism to Christ. As He died in disgrace outside the city, so the readers should be willing to be disgraced by turning unequivocally from Judaism to Christ.), bearing (to bear i. e. endure) His reproach (i. e. such as Christ suffered [for the cause of God from its enemies]). 14For here we do not have a lasting (to stay, abide, remain) city, but we are seeking the city which is to come.

God-pleasing Sacrifices

15Through Him then, let us continually offer up a sacrifice of praise (NASB: “Sacrifice” is used metaphorically here to represent an offering to God [see Rom 12:1; Phil 4:18]. Animal offerings are now obsolete.) to God, that is, the fruit of lips that give thanks to His name. 16And do not neglect doing good and sharing, for with such sacrifices God is pleased.
17Obey your leaders (NASB: Their present leaders, as distinct from their first ones, now dead, mentioned in v. 7.) and submit to them (NASBL Dictatorial leadership is not condoned by this command [see 3 John:9-10], but respect for authority, orderliness and discipline in the church are taught throughout the NT.), for they keep watch over (to exercise constant vigilance over something [an image drawn from shepherds]) your souls (“the [human] soul in so far as it is so constituted that by the right use of the aids offered it by God it can attain its highest end and secure eternal blessedness, the soul regarded as a moral being designed for everlasting life”) as those who will give an account (i. e. answer or explanation in reference to judgment). Let them do this with joy and not with grief (to sigh, to gross), for this would be unprofitable for you.
18Pray for us, for we are sure that we have a good conscience, desiring to conduct ourselves honorably in all things. 19And I urge you all the more to do this, so that I may be restored to you the sooner.
Benediction

20Now the God (YHVH) of peace, who brought up from the dead the great Shepherd of the sheep through the blood of the eternal covenant (NASB: The new covenant]), even Jesus our Lord, 21equip (ethically, to strengthen, perfect, complete, make one what he ought to be) you in every good thing (NASB: Such as faith, faithfulness, obedience and preseverance) to do His will (equivalent to τό θέλειν: thélēma: a desire [wish], often referring to God’s “preferred-will,” i.e. His “best-offer” to people which can be accepted or rejected. [Note the -ma suffix, focusing on the result hoped for with the particular desire [wish]. [thélēma] is nearly always used of God, referring to His preferred-will. Occasionally it is used of man (cf. Lk 23:25; Jn 1:13.] i. e. the abstract act of willing, the subjective, will, choice), working in us that which is pleasing in His sight, through Jesus Christ, to whom be the glory forever and ever. Amen.
22But I urge you, brethren, bear with this word of exhortation (NASB: The main thrust of the letter is to go on in Christian maturity and not fall away from Christ.), for I have written to you briefly (NASB: Compared to the lengthy treatise that would be necessary to explain adequately the superiority of Christ.). 23Take notice that our brother Timothy has been released, with whom, if he comes soon, I will see you. 24Greet all of your leaders and all the saints. Those from Italy greet you.
25Grace be with you all.

Sources
1. Baker, K, Burdick, D. etal. (1999). New American Study Bible. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan.

2. Bible Hub (2004-2006). Retrieved 2015-2016. http://biblehub.com/.

3. Walvoord, J. F., & Zuck, R. B. (1985). The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An exposition of the Scriptures by Dallas Theological Seminary faculty New Testament edition. Wheaton, Illinois: Victor Books.

4. Stanback, A (Original Work by Saucy, R. L. & Thoennes, E) (2013). Classroom Biblical Theology I and III. A Missionary Work.
“Scripture quotations taken from the NASB.”
(This notice must be a click enabled Web link to http://www.lockman.org.)

“Scripture quotations taken from the New American Standard Bible®,
Copyright © 1960, 1962, 1963, 1968, 1971, 1972, 1973,
1975, 1977, 1995 by The Lockman Foundation
Used by permission.” (www.Lockman.org)

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